Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1440

Search results for: regional drought

1440 Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index

Authors: A. Zeynolabedin, M. A. Olyaei, B. Ghiasi

Abstract:

Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.

Keywords: drought, GIS, intensity index, regional assessment, variation maps

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1439 Analysis and Quantification of Historical Drought for Basin Wide Drought Preparedness

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Ho-Won Jang, Hyung-Won Cho, Tae-Woong Kim

Abstract:

Drought is a recurrent climatic feature that occurs in virtually every climatic zone around the world. Korea experiences the drought almost every year at the regional scale mainly during in the winter and spring seasons. Moreover, extremely severe droughts at a national scale also occurred at a frequency of six to seven years. Various drought indices had developed as tools to quantitatively monitor different types of droughts and are utilized in the field of drought analysis. Since drought is closely related with climatological and topographic characteristics of the drought prone areas, the basins where droughts are frequently occurred need separate drought preparedness and contingency plans. In this study, an analysis using statistical methods was carried out for the historical droughts occurred in the five major river basins in Korea so that drought characteristics can be quantitatively investigated. It was also aimed to provide information with which differentiated and customized drought preparedness plans can be established based on the basin level analysis results. Conventional methods which quantifies drought execute an evaluation by applying a various drought indices. However, the evaluation results for same drought event are different according to different analysis technique. Especially, evaluation of drought event differs depend on how we view the severity or duration of drought in the evaluation process. Therefore, it was intended to draw a drought history for the most severely affected five major river basins of Korea by investigating a magnitude of drought that can simultaneously consider severity, duration, and the damaged areas by applying drought run theory with the use of SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) that can efficiently quantifies meteorological drought. Further, quantitative analysis for the historical extreme drought at various viewpoints such as average severity, duration, and magnitude of drought was attempted. At the same time, it was intended to quantitatively analyze the historical drought events by estimating the return period by derived SDF (severity-duration-frequency) curve for the five major river basins through parametric regional drought frequency analysis. Analysis results showed that the extremely severe drought years were in the years of 1962, 1988, 1994, and 2014 in the Han River basin. While, the extreme droughts were occurred in 1982 and 1988 in the Nakdong river basin, 1994 in the Geumg basin, 1988 and 1994 in Youngsan river basin, 1988, 1994, 1995, and 2000 in the Seomjin river basin. While, the extremely severe drought years at national level in the Korean Peninsula were occurred in 1988 and 1994. The most damaged drought were in 1981~1982 and 1994~1995 which lasted for longer than two years. The return period of the most severe drought at each river basin was turned out to be at a frequency of 50~100 years.

Keywords: drought magnitude, regional frequency analysis, SPI, SDF(severity-duration-frequency) curve

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1438 Critical Appraisal of Different Drought Indices of Drought Predection and Their Application in KBK Districts of Odisha

Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Mapping of the extreme events (droughts) is one of the adaptation strategies to consequences of increasing climatic inconsistency and climate alterations. There is no operational practice to forecast the drought. One of the suggestions is to update mapping of drought prone areas for developmental planning. Drought indices play a significant role in drought mitigation. Many scientists have worked on different statistical analysis in drought and other climatological hazards. Many researchers have studied droughts individually for different sub-divisions or for India. Very few workers have studied district wise probabilities over large scale. In the present study, district wise drought probabilities over KBK (Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput) districts of Odisha, India, Which are seriously prone to droughts, has been established using Hydrological drought index and Meteorological drought index along with the remote sensing drought indices to develop a multidirectional approach in the field of drought mitigation. Mapping for moderate and severe drought probabilities for KBK districts has been done and regions belonging different class intervals of probabilities of drought have been demarcated. Such type of information would be a good tool for planning purposes, for input in modelling and better promising results can be achieved.

Keywords: drought indices, KBK districts, proposed drought severity index, SPI

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1437 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan

Abstract:

California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

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1436 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

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1435 Community Adaptation of Drought Disaster in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Chatarina Muryani, Sarwono, Sugiyanto Heribentus

Abstract:

Major part of Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, always suffers from drought every year. The drought has implications toward almost all of the community activities, both domestic, agriculture, livestock, and industrial. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the drought distribution area in Grobogan District in 2015; (2) the impact of drought; and (3) the community adaptation toward the drought. The subject of the research was people who were impacted by the drought, purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The data collection method was using field observation and in-depth interview while the data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that (1) in 2015, there were 14 districts which were affected by the drought and only 5 districts which do not suffer from drought, (2) the drought impacted to the reduction of water for domestic compliance, reduction of agricultural production, reduction of public revenue, (3) community adaptation to meet domestic water need was by making collective deep-wells and building water storages, adaptation in agriculture was done by setting the cropping pattern, while adaptation on economics was by allocating certain amount of funds for the family in anticipation of drought, which was mostly to purchase water.

Keywords: adaptation, distribution, drought, impacts

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1434 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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1433 Regional Hydrological Extremes Frequency Analysis Based on Statistical and Hydrological Models

Authors: Hadush Kidane Meresa

Abstract:

The hydrological extremes frequency analysis is the foundation for the hydraulic engineering design, flood protection, drought management and water resources management and planning to utilize the available water resource to meet the desired objectives of different organizations and sectors in a country. This spatial variation of the statistical characteristics of the extreme flood and drought events are key practice for regional flood and drought analysis and mitigation management. For different hydro-climate of the regions, where the data set is short, scarcity, poor quality and insufficient, the regionalization methods are applied to transfer at-site data to a region. This study aims in regional high and low flow frequency analysis for Poland River Basins. Due to high frequent occurring of hydrological extremes in the region and rapid water resources development in this basin have caused serious concerns over the flood and drought magnitude and frequencies of the river in Poland. The magnitude and frequency result of high and low flows in the basin is needed for flood and drought planning, management and protection at present and future. Hydrological homogeneous high and low flow regions are formed by the cluster analysis of site characteristics, using the hierarchical and C- mean clustering and PCA method. Statistical tests for regional homogeneity are utilized, by Discordancy and Heterogeneity measure tests. In compliance with results of the tests, the region river basin has been divided into ten homogeneous regions. In this study, frequency analysis of high and low flows using AM for high flow and 7-day minimum low flow series is conducted using six statistical distributions. The use of L-moment and LL-moment method showed a homogeneous region over entire province with Generalized logistic (GLOG), Generalized extreme value (GEV), Pearson type III (P-III), Generalized Pareto (GPAR), Weibull (WEI) and Power (PR) distributions as the regional drought and flood frequency distributions. The 95% percentile and Flow duration curves of 1, 7, 10, 30 days have been plotted for 10 stations. However, the cluster analysis performed two regions in west and east of the province where L-moment and LL-moment method demonstrated the homogeneity of the regions and GLOG and Pearson Type III (PIII) distributions as regional frequency distributions for each region, respectively. The spatial variation and regional frequency distribution of flood and drought characteristics for 10 best catchment from the whole region was selected and beside the main variable (streamflow: high and low) we used variables which are more related to physiographic and drainage characteristics for identify and delineate homogeneous pools and to derive best regression models for ungauged sites. Those are mean annual rainfall, seasonal flow, average slope, NDVI, aspect, flow length, flow direction, maximum soil moisture, elevation, and drainage order. The regional high-flow or low-flow relationship among one streamflow characteristics with (AM or 7-day mean annual low flows) some basin characteristics is developed using Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) and Generalized Least Square (GLS) regression model, providing a simple and effective method for estimation of flood and drought of desired return periods for ungauged catchments.

Keywords: flood , drought, frequency, magnitude, regionalization, stochastic, ungauged, Poland

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1432 The Expression of a Novel Gene Encoding an Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, DRA1, Is Regulated by Drought-Responsive Alternative Splicing

Authors: H. Sakamoto, Y. Nakagawara, S. Oguri

Abstract:

Drought stress is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity and quality. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to drought stress. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated DRA1 (drought responsive ankyrin 1), whose disruption leads to increased drought stress tolerance. DRA1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. RT-PCR analysis revealed that there were at least two splicing variants of DRA1 transcripts in wild type plants. In response to drought stress, the levels of DRA1 transcripts retaining second and third introns were increased, whereas these introns were removed under unstressed conditions. These results suggest that DRA1 protein may negatively regulate plant drought tolerance and that the expression of DRA1 is regulated in response to drought stress by alternative splicing.

Keywords: alternative splicing, ankyrin repeat, Arabidopsis, drought tolerance

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1431 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Gana Abdullahi, Michael A. Fullen, David Oloke

Abstract:

Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: drought, climate change, mitigation, management, Yobe State

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1430 Climatic Roots of Piracy in Red Sea

Authors: Nasser Karami

Abstract:

Piracy in the North West of Indian Ocean and the Red Sea has become a global crisis in recent years. Pirates of this area are often very poor people from the Horn of Africa and the western coast of the Red Sea. Climatic and geographical evidence suggests that poverty and destruction of social structures in the region have directly relation to prolonged-drought. Indeed, after the seventies (more than 40 years ago) due to the long-term drought in the region, all political, economic and social structures had declined. Spread of terrorism, violent extremism and of course piracy, are main effects of climate change and drought of this regression. It is disturbing to say the climatic documents say that because of global climate change, severe drought will continue in this region. This mean that the dangers worse than piracy threatens the future of this area. Forty-year data that has assessed in this study indicate that there is direct relationship between spread of drought and piracy in the Red Sea.

Keywords: climate, poverty, climate change, drought, piracy in red sea

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1429 Impacts of Climate Elements on the Annual Periodic Behavior of the Shallow Groundwater Level: Case Study from Central-Eastern Europe

Authors: Tamas Garamhegyi, Jozsef Kovacs, Rita Pongracz, Peter Tanos, Balazs Trasy, Norbert Magyar, Istvan G. Hatvani

Abstract:

Like most environmental processes, shallow groundwater fluctuation under natural circumstances also behaves periodically. With the statistical tools at hand, it can easily be determined if a period exists in the data or not. Thus, the question may be raised: Does the estimated average period time characterize the whole time period, or not? This is especially important in the case of such complex phenomena as shallow groundwater fluctuation, driven by numerous factors. Because of the continuous changes in the oscillating components of shallow groundwater time series, the most appropriate method should be used to investigate its periodicity, this is wavelet spectrum analysis. The aims of the research were to investigate the periodic behavior of the shallow groundwater time series of an agriculturally important and drought sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe and its relationship to the European pressure action centers. During the research ~216 shallow groundwater observation wells located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain with a temporal coverage of 50 years were scanned for periodicity. By taking the full-time interval as 100%, the presence of any period could be determined in percentages. With the complex hydrogeological/meteorological model developed in this study, non-periodic time intervals were found in the shallow groundwater levels. On the local scale, this phenomenon linked to drought conditions, and on a regional scale linked to the maxima of the regional air pressures in the Gulf of Genoa. The study documented an important link between shallow groundwater levels and climate variables/indices facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, which have to take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

Keywords: climate change, drought, groundwater periodicity, wavelet spectrum and coherence analyses

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1428 Generalized Extreme Value Regression with Binary Dependent Variable: An Application for Predicting Meteorological Drought Probabilities

Authors: Retius Chifurira

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Logistic regression model is the most used regression model to predict meteorological drought probabilities. When the dependent variable is extreme, the logistic model fails to adequately capture drought probabilities. In order to adequately predict drought probabilities, we use the generalized linear model (GLM) with the quantile function of the generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) as the link function. The method maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) regression model. We compare the performance of the logistic and the GEV regression models in predicting drought probabilities for Zimbabwe. The performance of the regression models are assessed using the goodness-of-fit tests, namely; relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative mean absolute error (RMAE). Results show that the GEV regression model performs better than the logistic model, thereby providing a good alternative candidate for predicting drought probabilities. This paper provides the first application of GLM derived from extreme value theory to predict drought probabilities for a drought-prone country such as Zimbabwe.

Keywords: generalized extreme value distribution, general linear model, mean annual rainfall, meteorological drought probabilities

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1427 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance

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1426 Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Response of Rice Leaves to Chitosan under Drought Stress

Authors: Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Wasinee Pongprayoon

Abstract:

Chitosan has been proposed as a natural polymer, and it is derived from chitin. The objective of this research was to determine the growth promoting responses induced by chitosan at the molecular physiology level in Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under drought stress by adding of 2% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) to the nutrient solution and after removal of the drought stress (re-water). Oligomeric chitosan at 40 ppm could enhance shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight during drought stress and re-water. After 7 days of drought stress and re-water, significant increases in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in KDML 105 cultivar were observed. The 749 phosphoproteins in rice leaf treated with chitosan could be resolved by phosphoprotein enrichment, tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. They can be classified into 10 groups. Proteins involved in the metabolic process and biological regulation were upregulated in response to chitosan during drought stress. This work will help us to understand protein phosphorylation relating to chitosan response during drought stress in aromatic rice seedlings.

Keywords: Chitosan, drought, phosphoproteome, rice

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1425 Satellite-Based Drought Monitoring in Korea: Methodologies and Merits

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Seo-Yeon Park, Chanyang Sur, Ho-Won Jang

Abstract:

Satellite-based remote sensing technique has been widely used in the area of drought and environmental monitoring to overcome the weakness of in-situ based monitoring. There are many advantages of remote sensing for drought watch in terms of data accessibility, monitoring resolution and types of available hydro-meteorological data including environmental areas. This study was focused on the applicability of drought monitoring based on satellite imageries by applying to the historical drought events, which had a huge impact on meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought. Satellite-based drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM); Vegetation Health Index (VHI) using MODIS based Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) were evaluated to assess its capability to analyze the complex topography of the Korean peninsula. While the VHI was accurate when capturing moderate drought conditions in agricultural drought-damaged areas, the SDCI was relatively well monitored in hydrological drought-damaged areas. In addition, this study found correlations among various drought indices and applicability using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) method, which will expand our understanding of the relationships between hydro-meteorological variables and drought events at global scale. The results of this research are expected to assist decision makers in taking timely and appropriate action in order to save millions of lives in drought-damaged areas.

Keywords: drought monitoring, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), remote sensing, receiver operating characteristic (ROC)

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1424 Identification of a Novel Maize Dehydration-Responsive Gene with a Potential Role in Improving Maize Drought Tolerance

Authors: Kyle Phillips, Ndiko Ludidi

Abstract:

Global climate change has resulted in altered rainfall patterns, which has resulted in annual losses in maize crop yields due to drought. Therefore it is important to produce maize cultivars that are more drought-tolerant, which is not an easily accomplished task as plants have a plethora of physical and biochemical adaptation methods. One such mechanism is the drought-induced expression of enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins which assist plants to resist the effects of drought on their growth and development. One of these proteins is AtRD22 which has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using an in silico approach, a maize protein with 48% sequence homology to AtRD22 has been identified. This protein appears to be localized in the extracellular matrix, similarly to AtRD22. Promoter analysis of the encoding gene reveals cis-acting elements suggestive of induction of the gene’s expression by abscisic acid (ABA). Semi-quantitative transcriptomic analysis of the putative maize RD22 has revealed an increase in transcript levels after the exposure to drought. Current work elucidates the effect of up-regulation and silencing of the maize RD22 gene on the tolerance of maize to drought. The potential role of the maize RD22 gene in maize drought tolerance can be used as a tool to improve food security.

Keywords: abscisic acid, drought-responsive cis-acting elements, maize drought tolerance, RD22

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1423 Economic Impact of Drought on Agricultural Society: Evidence Based on a Village Study in Maharashtra, India

Authors: Harshan Tee Pee

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Climate elements include surface temperatures, rainfall patterns, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, air pressure and wind speed and direction. Change in one element can have an impact on the regional climate. The scientific predictions indicate that global climate change will increase the number of extreme events, leading to more frequent natural hazards. Global warming is likely to intensify the risk of drought in certain parts and also leading to increased rainfall in some other parts. Drought is a slow advancing disaster and creeping phenomenon– which accumulate slowly over a long period of time. Droughts are naturally linked with aridity. But droughts occur over most parts of the world (both wet and humid regions) and create severe impacts on agriculture, basic household welfare and ecosystems. Drought condition occurs at least every three years in India. India is one among the most vulnerable drought prone countries in the world. The economic impacts resulting from extreme environmental events and disasters are huge as a result of disruption in many economic activities. The focus of this paper is to develop a comprehensive understanding about the distributional impacts of disaster, especially impact of drought on agricultural production and income through a panel study (drought year and one year after the drought) in Raikhel village, Maharashtra, India. The major findings of the study indicate that cultivating area as well as the number of cultivating households reduced after the drought, indicating a shift in the livelihood- households moved from agriculture to non-agriculture. Decline in the gross cropped area and production of various crops depended on the negative income from these crops in the previous agriculture season. All the landholding categories of households except landlords had negative income in the drought year and also the income disparities between the households were higher in that year. In the drought year, the cost of cultivation was higher for all the landholding categories due to the increased cost for irrigation and input cost. In the drought year, agriculture products (50 per cent of the total products) were used for household consumption rather than selling in the market. It is evident from the study that livelihood which was based on natural resources became less attractive to the people to due to the risk involved in it and people were moving to less risk livelihood for their sustenance.

Keywords: climate change, drought, agriculture economics, disaster impact

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1422 Minerals of Canola (Brassica napus) as Affected by Water Stress and Applied Calcium

Authors: Rizwan Alam, Ikhtiar Khan, Aqib Iqbal

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Plants are naturally exposed to a wide variety of environmental stresses. The stresses may be biotic or/and abiotic. These environmental stresses have adverse effects on photosynthesis, water relation and nutrients uptake of plants. Fertilization of plants with exogenous minerals can enhance the drought tolerance in plants. In this experiment, canola (Brassica napus) was treated with solutions of calcium nitrate in different concentrations before the imposition of drought stress for 10 days. It was observed that drought stress decreased the tissue-K, Ca and K/Ca ratio of canola seedlings. The tissue-carbon and nitrogen contents were also depressed by the drought stress. Application of calcium nitrate, however, could alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress by showing a positive effect on all the aforementioned parameters.

Keywords: Brassica napus, calcium, carbon, potassium

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1421 Impact of Drought on Agriculture in the Upper Middle Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Reshmita Nath

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In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in India and its impact on agriculture during the summer season (April to September). For our analysis, we have used Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets between 1982 and 2012 at six-month timescale. Based on the criteria SPEI<-1 we obtain the vulnerability map and have found that the Humid subtropical Upper Middle Gangetic Plain (UMGP) region is highly drought prone with an occurrence frequency of 40-45%. This UMGP region contributes at least 18-20% of India’s annual cereal production. Not only the probability, but the region becomes more and more drought-prone in the recent decades. Moreover, the cereal production in the UMGP has experienced a gradual declining trend from 2000 onwards and this feature is consistent with the increase in drought affected areas from 20-25% to 50-60%, before and after 2000, respectively. The higher correlation coefficient (-0.69) between the changes in cereal production and drought affected areas confirms that at least 50% of the agricultural (cereal) losses is associated with drought. While analyzing the individual impact of precipitation and surface temperature anomalies on SPEI (6), we have found that in the UMGP region surface temperature plays the primary role in lowering of SPEI. The linkage is further confirmed by the correlation analysis between the SPEI (6) and surface temperature rise, which exhibits strong negative values in the UMGP region. Higher temperature might have caused more evaporation and drying, which therefore increases the area affected by drought in the recent decade.

Keywords: drought, agriculture, SPEI, Indo-Gangetic plain

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1420 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz

Abstract:

Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

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1419 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

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The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal

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1418 Yield Loss Estimation Using Multiple Drought Severity Indices

Authors: Sara Tokhi Arab, Rozo Noguchi, Tofeal Ahamed

Abstract:

Drought is a natural disaster that occurs in a region due to a lack of precipitation and high temperatures over a continuous period or in a single season as a consequence of climate change. Precipitation deficits and prolonged high temperatures mostly affect the agricultural sector, water resources, socioeconomics, and the environment. Consequently, it causes agricultural product loss, food shortage, famines, migration, and natural resources degradation in a region. Agriculture is the first sector affected by drought. Therefore, it is important to develop an agricultural drought risk and loss assessment to mitigate the drought impact in the agriculture sector. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to assess yield loss using composite drought indices in the drought-affected vineyards. In this study, the CDI was developed for the years 2016 to 2020 by comprising five indices: the vegetation condition index (VCI), temperature condition index (TCI), deviation of NDVI from the long-term mean (NDVI DEV), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) and precipitation condition index (PCI). Moreover, the quantitative principal component analysis (PCA) approach was used to assign a weight for each input parameter, and then the weights of all the indices were combined into one composite drought index. Finally, Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks (BRANNs) were used to evaluate the yield variation in each affected vineyard. The composite drought index result indicated the moderate to severe droughts were observed across the Kabul Province during 2016 and 2018. Moreover, the results showed that there was no vineyard in extreme drought conditions. Therefore, we only considered the severe and moderated condition. According to the BRANNs results R=0.87 and R=0.94 in severe drought conditions for the years of 2016 and 2018 and the R= 0.85 and R=0.91 in moderate drought conditions for the years of 2016 and 2018, respectively. In the Kabul Province within the two years drought periods, there was a significate deficit in the vineyards. According to the findings, 2018 had the highest rate of loss almost -7 ton/ha. However, in 2016 the loss rates were about – 1.2 ton/ha. This research will support stakeholders to identify drought affect vineyards and support farmers during severe drought.

Keywords: grapes, composite drought index, yield loss, satellite remote sensing

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1417 Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.

Keywords: turgor, drought stress, plant growth, Armenian Zea Maize Semidentata

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1416 Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using Indian Meteorological Department Rainfall Data

Authors: Sudip Kumar Kundu, Charu Singh

Abstract:

The climatic condition over Indian region is highly dependent on monsoon. India receives maximum amount of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. The presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems is still highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for the north-west Himalayan region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall data. For this investigation the Normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data have been extracted for the north-west Himalayan (NWH) region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results- some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years and rest are neutral. The flood and drought years can also relate with the large-scale phenomena El-Nino and La-Lina.

Keywords: IMD, rainfall, normalized index, flood, drought, NWH

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1415 Yield, Biochemical Responses and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Two Barley Accessions 'Ardhaoui' under Deficit Drip Irrigation Using Saline Water in Southern Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Bagues, Ikbel Souli, Feiza Boussora, Kamel Nagaz

Abstract:

In southern Tunisia, two local barley accessions CV. Ardhaoui; 'Bengardeni' and 'Karkeni' were cultivated in the field under deficit drip irrigation with saline water. Three treatments were used: control or full irrigation T0 (100%ETc) and stressed T1 (75%ETc), T2 (50%ETc). Proline and soluble sugars contents increase significantly under drought between accessions compared to control and varies between growth stages. Moreover, the increasing of Ca2+ concentration enhances the absorption of Na+ ion, consequently K+/Na+ decrease significantly between accessions, these results suggest that a high tolerance of Bengardeni accession to drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerance indices (STI, SSI, MP, GMP, YSI and TOL) were used to identify high yielding and drought tolerant between accessions. MP explained the variation of GYi. GMP and STI explained the variation of GYs. The high values of MP, STI and GMP were associated with higher yielding accession. Higher TOL value is associated with significant grain yield reduction in stressed environment suggesting higher stress responses of accessions. Significant positive correlations between MP, STI and GMP and negative between YSI and SSI. MP, STI, GMP and YSI, TOL, SSI are not correlated with each other.

Keywords: drought, proline, soluble sugars, minerals, yield, drought tolerance indices, barley

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1414 Amino Acid Responses of Wheat Cultivars under Glasshouse Drought Accurately Predict Yield-Based Drought Tolerance in the Field

Authors: Arun K. Yadav, Adam J. Carroll, Gonzalo M. Estavillo, Greg J. Rebetzke, Barry J. Pogson

Abstract:

Water limits crop productivity, so selecting for minimal yield-gap in drier environments is critical to mitigate against climate change and land-use pressures. To date, no markers measured in glasshouses have been reported to predict field-based drought tolerance. In the field, the best measure of drought tolerance is yield-gap; but this requires multisite trials that are an order of magnitude more resource intensive and can be impacted by weather variation. We investigated the responses of relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content and metabolites in flag leaves of commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to three drought treatments in the glasshouse and field environments. We observed strong genetic associations between glasshouse-based RWC, metabolites and Yield gap-based Drought Tolerance (YDT): the ratio of yield in water-limited versus well-watered conditions across 24 field environments spanning sites and seasons. Critically, RWC response to glasshouse drought was strongly associated with both YDT (r2 = 0.85, p < 8E-6) and RWC under field drought (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses revealed that 98% of genetic YDT variance was explained by drought responses of four metabolites: serine, asparagine, methionine and lysine (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.01). Fitted coefficients suggested that, for given levels of serine and asparagine, stronger methionine and lysine accumulation was associated with higher YDT. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-throughput, targeted metabolic phenotyping of glasshouse-grown plants may be an effective tool for the selection of wheat cultivars with high YDT in the field.

Keywords: drought stress, grain yield, metabolomics, stomatal conductance, wheat

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1413 Drought Risk Analysis Using Neural Networks for Agri-Businesses and Projects in Lejweleputswa District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Bernard Moeketsi Hlalele

Abstract:

Drought is a complicated natural phenomenon that creates significant economic, social, and environmental problems. An analysis of paleoclimatic data indicates that severe and extended droughts are inevitable part of natural climatic circle. This study characterised drought in Lejweleputswa using both Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and neural networks (NN) to quantify and predict respectively. Monthly 37-year long time series precipitation data were obtained from online NASA database. Prior to the final analysis, this dataset was checked for outliers using SPSS. Outliers were removed and replaced by Expectation Maximum algorithm from SPSS. This was followed by both homogeneity and stationarity tests to ensure non-spurious results. A non-parametric Mann Kendall's test was used to detect monotonic trends present in the dataset. Two temporal scales SPI-3 and SPI-12 corresponding to agricultural and hydrological drought events showed statistically decreasing trends with p-value = 0.0006 and 4.9 x 10⁻⁷, respectively. The study area has been plagued with severe drought events on SPI-3, while on SPI-12, it showed approximately a 20-year circle. The concluded the analyses with a seasonal analysis that showed no significant trend patterns, and as such NN was used to predict possible SPI-3 for the last season of 2018/2019 and four seasons for 2020. The predicted drought intensities ranged from mild to extreme drought events to come. It is therefore recommended that farmers, agri-business owners, and other relevant stakeholders' resort to drought resistant crops as means of adaption.

Keywords: drought, risk, neural networks, agri-businesses, project, Lejweleputswa

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1412 The Benefits of Regional Brand for Companies

Authors: H. Starzyczna, M. Stoklasa, K. Matusinska

Abstract:

This article deals with the benefits of regional brands for companies in the Czech Republic. Research was focused on finding out the expected and actual benefits of regional brands for companies. The data were obtained by questionnaire survey and analysed by IBM SPSS. Representative sample of 204 companies was created. The research analysis disclosed the expected benefits that the regional brand should bring to companies. But the actual benefits are much worse. The statistical testing of hypotheses revealed that the benefits depend on the region of origin, which surprised both us and the regional coordinators.

Keywords: Brand, regional brands, product protective branding programs, brand benefits

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1411 The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari Gharibdosti, Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Samira Alijani

Abstract:

To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.

Keywords: correlation, drought stress, factor analysis, rapeseed

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