Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10375

Search results for: contour integral approach

10375 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia


A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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10374 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li


Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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10373 Numerical Solution of Integral Equations by Using Discrete GHM Multiwavelet

Authors: Archit Yajnik, Rustam Ali


In this paper, numerical method based on discrete GHM multiwavelets is presented for solving the Fredholm integral equations of second kind. There is hardly any article available in the literature in which the integral equations are numerically solved using discrete GHM multiwavelet. A number of examples are demonstrated to justify the applicability of the method. In GHM multiwavelets, the values of scaling and wavelet functions are calculated only at t = 0, 0.5 and 1. The numerical solution obtained by the present approach is compared with the traditional Quadrature method. It is observed that the present approach is more accurate and computationally efficient as compared to quadrature method.

Keywords: GHM multiwavelet, fredholm integral equations, quadrature method, function approximation

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10372 The Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind

Authors: Melusi Khumalo, Anastacia Dlamini


In this paper, we consider a numerical solution for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We work with uniform mesh and use the Lagrange polynomials together with the Galerkin finite element method, where the weight function is chosen in such a way that it takes the form of the approximate solution but with arbitrary coefficients. We implement the finite element method to the nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We consider the error analysis of the method. Furthermore, we look at a specific example to illustrate the implementation of the finite element method.

Keywords: finite element method, Galerkin approach, Fredholm integral equations, nonlinear integral equations

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10371 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: fractional integral, cellular automata, memory, learning

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10370 Third Party Logistics (3PL) Selection Criteria for an Indian Heavy Industry Using SEM

Authors: Nadama Kumar, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan


In the present paper, we propose an incorporated approach for 3PL supplier choice that suits the distinctive strategic needs of the outsourcing organization in southern part of India. Four fundamental criteria have been used in particular Performance, IT, Service and Intangible. These are additionally subdivided into fifteen sub-criteria. The proposed strategy coordinates Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Non-additive Fuzzy Integral strategies. The presentation of fluffiness manages the unclearness of human judgments. The SEM approach has been used to approve the determination criteria for the proposed show though the Non-additive Fuzzy Integral approach uses the SEM display contribution to assess a supplier choice score. The case organization has a exclusive vertically integrated assembly that comprises of several companies focusing on a slight array of the value chain. To confirm manufacturing and logistics proficiency, it significantly relies on 3PL suppliers to attain supply chain superiority. However, 3PL supplier selection is an intricate decision-making procedure relating multiple selection criteria. The goal of this work is to recognize the crucial 3PL selection criteria by using the non-additive fuzzy integral approach. Unlike the outmoded multi criterion decision-making (MCDM) methods which frequently undertake independence among criteria and additive importance weights, the nonadditive fuzzy integral is an effective method to resolve the dependency among criteria, vague information, and vital fuzziness of human judgment. In this work, we validate an empirical case that engages the nonadditive fuzzy integral to assess the importance weight of selection criteria and indicate the most suitable 3PL supplier.

Keywords: 3PL, non-additive fuzzy integral approach, SEM, fuzzy

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10369 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari


In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Boehmian, Fourier integral, Fourier type integral, generalized quotient

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10368 An Analytical Approach to Calculate Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Integral Abutment Bridge Piles

Authors: Jafar Razmi


Integral abutment bridges are bridges that do not have joints. If these bridges are subject to large seasonal and daily temperature variations, the expansion and contraction of the bridge slab is transferred to the piles. Since the piles are deep into the soil, displacement induced by slab can cause bending and stresses in piles. These stresses cause fatigue and failure of piles. A complex mechanical interaction exists between the slab, pile, soil and abutment. This complex interaction needs to be understood in order to calculate the stresses in piles. This paper uses a mechanical approach in developing analytical equations for the complex structure to determine the stresses in piles. The solution to these analytical solutions is developed and compared with finite element analysis results and experimental data. Our comparison shows that using analytical approach can accurately predict the displacement in piles. This approach offers a simplified technique that can be utilized without the need for computationally extensive finite element model.

Keywords: integral abutment bridges, piles, thermo-mechanical stress, stress and strains

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10367 Quantum Mechanism Approach for Non-Ruin Probability and Comparison of Path Integral Method and Stochastic Simulations

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Quantum mechanism is one of the most important approaches to calculating non-ruin probability. We apply standard Dirac notation to model given Hamiltonians. By using the traditional method and eigenvector basis, non-ruin probability is found for several examples. Also, non-ruin probability is calculated for two different Hamiltonian by using the tensor product. Finally, the path integral method is applied to the examples and comparison is made for stochastic simulations and path integral calculation.

Keywords: quantum physics, Hamiltonian system, path integral, tensor product, ruin probability

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10366 Efficient Modeling Technique for Microstrip Discontinuities

Authors: Nassim Ourabia, Malika Ourabia


A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions, and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: CAD analysis, contour integral approach, microwave circuits, s-parameters

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10365 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song


The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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10364 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna


In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

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10363 A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker

Authors: Aysan Esgandanian, Sabalan Daneshvar


The study is done to determine the comparison between proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) and tilt-integral-derivative (TID controller) for cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The controller offers good adaption of heart to the physiological needs of the patient. The parameters of the both controllers are tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which uses the integral of time square error as a fitness function to be minimized. Simulation results are performed on the developed cardiovascular system of humans and results demonstrate that the TID controller produces superior control performance than PID controllers. In this paper, all simulations were performed in Matlab.

Keywords: integral of time square error, pacemaker systems, proportional-integral-derivative controller, PSO algorithm, tilt-integral-derivative controller

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10362 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama


We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion

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10361 Neural Network Supervisory Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of the Pressurized Water Reactor Core Power Load Following Operation

Authors: Derjew Ayele Ejigu, Houde Song, Xiaojing Liu


This work presents the particle swarm optimization trained neural network (PSO-NN) supervisory proportional integral derivative (PID) control method to monitor the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core power for safe operation. The proposed control approach is implemented on the transfer function of the PWR core, which is computed from the state-space model. The PWR core state-space model is designed from the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and reactivity models using perturbation around the equilibrium value. The proposed control approach computes the control rod speed to maneuver the core power to track the reference in a closed-loop scheme. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to train the neural network (NN) and to tune the PID simultaneously. The controller performance is examined using integral absolute error, integral time absolute error, integral square error, and integral time square error functions, and the stability of the system is analyzed by using the Bode diagram. The simulation results indicated that the controller shows satisfactory performance to control and track the load power effectively and smoothly as compared to the PSO-PID control technique. This study will give benefit to design a supervisory controller for nuclear engineering research fields for control application.

Keywords: machine learning, neural network, pressurized water reactor, supervisory controller

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10360 Integral Abutment Bridge: A Study on Types, Importance, Limitations and Design Guidelines

Authors: Babitha Elizabeth Philip


This paper aims to study in general about bridges without expansion joints. Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) fall into this category of bridges. They are having a continuous deck and also the girders are integrated into the abutments. They are most cost effective system in terms of construction, maintenance, and longevity. The main advantage of IAB is that it is corrosion resistant since water is not allowed to pass through the structure. The other attractions of integral bridges are its simple and rapid construction, smooth and uninterrupted deck which provides a safe ride. Also damages to the abutments can be avoided to a great extent due to better load distribution at the bridge ends. Damages due to improper drainage are not seen in IAB because of its properly drained approach slabs thus eliminating the possibility of erosion of the abutment backfill and freeze and thaw damage resulting from saturated backfill.

Keywords: continuous bridge, integral abutment bridge, joint bridge, life cycle cost, soil interaction

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10359 Object-Oriented Multivariate Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of Hydraulic Systems

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, S. Fernandez-Calvo, I. García-Moral


This paper presents and discusses the application of the object-oriented modelling software SIMSCAPE to hydraulic systems, with particular reference to multivariable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. As a result, a particular modelling approach of a double cylinder-piston coupled system is proposed and motivated, and the SIMULINK based PID tuning tool has also been used to select the proper controller parameters. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the object-oriented approach when both physical modelling and control are tackled.

Keywords: object-oriented modeling, multivariable hydraulic system, multivariable PID control, computer simulation

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10358 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily


The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

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10357 Optimal Injected Current Control for Shunt Active Power Filter Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Brahim Berbaoui


In this paper, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) based method is proposed for the implantation of optimal harmonic power flow in power systems. In this algorithm approach, proportional integral controller for reference compensating currents of active power filter is performed in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD). The simulation results show that the new control method using PSO approach is not only easy to be implanted, but also very effective in reducing the unwanted harmonics and compensating reactive power. The studies carried out have been accomplished using the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, current control, proportional integral controller, particle swarm optimization

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10356 Multidimensional Integral and Discrete Opial–Type Inequalities

Authors: Maja Andrić, Josip Pečarić


Over the last five decades, an enormous amount of work has been done on Opial’s integral inequality, dealing with new proofs, various generalizations, extensions and discrete analogs. The Opial inequality is recognized as a fundamental result in the analysis of qualitative properties of solution of differential equations. We use submultiplicative convex functions, appropriate representations of functions and inequalities involving means to obtain generalizations and extensions of certain known multidimensional integral and discrete Opial-type inequalities.

Keywords: Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality, integral inequality, discrete inequality

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10355 Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments

Authors: Dawei Shen, Ming Xu, Pengfei Liu


The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.

Keywords: geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge, nonlinear hysteretic model, numerical analysis, seismic response

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10354 Thermal Fracture Analysis of Fibrous Composites with Variable Fiber Spacing Using Jk-Integral

Authors: Farid Saeidi, Serkan Dag


In this study, fracture analysis of a fibrous composite laminate with variable fiber spacing is carried out using Jk-integral method. The laminate is assumed to be under thermal loading. Jk-integral is formulated by using the constitutive relations of plane orthotropic thermoelasticity. Developed domain independent form of the Jk-integral is then integrated into the general purpose finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical results are generated so as to assess the influence of variable fiber spacing on mode I and II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and T-stress. For verification, some of the results are compared to those obtained using displacement correlation technique (DCT).

Keywords: Jk-integral, Variable Fiber Spacing, Thermoelasticity, T-stress, Finite Element Method, Fibrous Composite.

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10353 Concentric Circle Detection based on Edge Pre-Classification and Extended RANSAC

Authors: Zhongjie Yu, Hancheng Yu


In this paper, we propose an effective method to detect concentric circles with imperfect edges. First, the gradient of edge pixel is coded and a 2-D lookup table is built to speed up normal generation. Then we take an accumulator to estimate the rough center and collect plausible edges of concentric circles through gradient and distance. Later, we take the contour-based method, which takes the contour and edge intersection, to pre-classify the edges. Finally, we use the extended RANSAC method to find all the candidate circles. The center of concentric circles is determined by the two circles with the highest concentricity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has both good performance and accuracy for the detection of concentric circles.

Keywords: concentric circle detection, gradient, contour, edge pre-classification, RANSAC

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10352 Comparison of Proportional-Integral (P-I) and Integral-Propotional (I-P) Controllers for Speed Control in Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive

Authors: V. Srikanth, K. Balasubramanian, Rajath R. Bhat, A. S. Arjun, Nandhu Venugopal, Ananthu Unnikrishnan


Indirect vector control is known to produce high performance in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives by decoupling flux and torque producing current components of stator current. The most commonly used controller or the vector control of AC motor is Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller. However, the P-I controller has some disadvantages such as high starting overshoot, sensitivity to controller gains and slower response to sudden disturbance. Therefore, the Integral-Proportional controller for PMSM drives to overcome the disadvantages of the P-I controller. Simulations results are presented and analyzed for both controllers and it is observed that Integral-Proportional (I-P) controllers give better responses than the traditional P-I controllers.

Keywords: PMSM, FOC, PI controller, IP controller

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10351 A Phenomenological Expression for Self-Attractive Energy of Singlelayer Graphene Sheets

Authors: Bingjie Wu, C. Q. Ru


The present work studies several reasonably expected candidate integral forms for self-attractive potential energy of a free monolayer graphene sheet. The admissibility of a specific integral form for ripple formation is verified, while all others most of the candidate integral forms are rejected based on the non-existence of stable periodic ripples. Based on the selected integral form of self-attractive potential energy, some mechanical behavior, including ripple formation and buckling, of a free monolayer grapheme sheet are discussed in details

Keywords: graphene, monolayer, ripples, van der Waals energy

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10350 Optimal Linear Quadratic Digital Tracker for the Discrete-Time Proper System with an Unknown Disturbance

Authors: Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai, Faezeh Ebrahimzadeh, Min-Ching Chung, Shu-Mei Guo, Leang-San Shieh, Tzong-Jiy Tsai, Li Wang


In this paper, we first construct a new state and disturbance estimator using discrete-time proportional plus integral observer to estimate the system state and the unknown external disturbance for the discrete-time system with an input-to-output direct-feedthrough term. Then, the generalized optimal linear quadratic digital tracker design is applied to construct a proportional plus integral observer-based tracker for the system with an unknown external disturbance to have a desired tracking performance. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: non-minimum phase system, optimal linear quadratic tracker, proportional plus integral observer, state and disturbance estimator

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10349 Multi-Criteria Evaluation for the Selection Process of a Wind Power Plant's Location Using Choquet Integral

Authors: Serhat Tüzün, Tufan Demirel


The objective of the present study is to select the most suitable location for a wind power plant station through Choquet integral method. The problem of selecting the location for a wind power station was considered as a multi-criteria decision-making problem. The essential and sub-criteria were specified and location selection was expressed in a hierarchic structure. Among the main criteria taken into account in this paper are wind potential, technical factors, social factors, transportation, and costs. The problem was solved by using different approaches of Choquet integral and the best location for a wind power station was determined. Then, the priority weights obtained from different Choquet integral approaches are compared and commented on.

Keywords: multi-criteria decision making, choquet integral, fuzzy sets, location of a wind power plant

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10348 Design of a Cooperative Neural Network, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Fuzzy Based Tracking Control for a Tilt Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mostafa Mjahed


Tilt Rotor UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are naturally unstable and difficult to maneuver. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers for the stabilization and trajectory tracking of this type of UAV. To this end, artificial intelligence methods have been exploited. First, the dynamics of this UAV was modeled using the Lagrange-Euler method. The conventional method based on Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) control was applied by decoupling the different flight modes. To improve stability and trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor, the fuzzy approach and the technique of multilayer neural networks (NN) has been used. Thus, Fuzzy Proportional Integral and Derivative (FPID) and Neural Network-based Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers (NNPID) have been developed. The meta-heuristic approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method allowed adjusting the setting parameters of NNPID controller, giving us an improved NNPID-PSO controller. Simulation results under the Matlab environment show the efficiency of the approaches adopted. Besides, the Tilt Rotor UAV has become stable and follows different types of trajectories with acceptable precision. The Fuzzy, NN and NN-PSO-based approaches demonstrated their robustness because the presence of the disturbances did not alter the stability or the trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor UAV.

Keywords: neural network, fuzzy logic, PSO, PID, trajectory tracking, tilt-rotor UAV

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10347 Segmentation of the Liver and Spleen From Abdominal CT Images Using Watershed Approach

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


The phase of segmentation is an important step in the processing and interpretation of medical images. In this paper, we focus on the segmentation of liver and spleen from the abdomen computed tomography (CT) images. The importance of our study comes from the fact that the segmentation of ROI from CT images is usually a difficult task. This difficulty is the gray’s level of which is similar to the other organ also the ROI are connected to the ribs, heart, kidneys, etc. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to remove the surrounding and connected organs and tissues by applying morphological filters. This first step makes the extraction of interest regions easier. The second step consists of improving the quality of the image gradient. In this step, we propose a method for improving the image gradient to reduce these deficiencies by applying the spatial filters followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the segmentation of the liver, spleen. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.The system has been evaluated by computing the sensitivity and specificity between the semi-automatically segmented (liver and spleen) contour and the manually contour traced by radiological experts.

Keywords: CT images, liver and spleen segmentation, anisotropic diffusion filter, morphological filters, watershed algorithm

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10346 Hermite–Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities Involving k–Riemann–Liouville Fractional Integrals and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko


In this paper, some generalization integral inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard type for functions whose derivatives are s–convex in modulus are given by using k–fractional integrals. Some applications to special means are obtained as well. Some known versions are recovered as special cases from our results. We note that our inequalities can be viewed as new refinements of the previous results. Finally, our results have a deep connection with various fractional integral operators and interested readers can find new interesting results using our idea and technique as well.

Keywords: Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities, Hölder's inequality, k-Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, special means

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