Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5324

Search results for: travel cost

5324 Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City

Authors: Sharmin Nasrin

Abstract:

Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.

Keywords: private university student's education trip, mode choice mode, Dhaka, developing country

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
5323 Effectiveness of ATMS (Advanced Transport Management Systems) in Asuncion, Paraguay

Authors: Sung Ho Oh

Abstract:

The advanced traffic lights, the system of traffic information collection and provision, the CCTVs for traffic control, and the traffic information center were installed in Asuncion, capital of Paraguay. After pre-post comparison of the installation, significant changes were found. Even though the traffic volumes were increased, travel speed was higher, so that travel time from origin to destination was decreased. the saving values for travel time, gas cost, and environmental cost are about 47 million US dollars per year. Satisfaction survey results for the installation were presented with statistical significance analysis.

Keywords: advanced transport management systems, effectiveness, Paraguay, traffic lights

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5322 Regression Analysis of Travel Indicators and Public Transport Usage in Urban Areas

Authors: Mehdi Moeinaddini, Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

Abstract:

Currently, planners try to have more green travel options to decrease economic, social and environmental problems. Therefore, this study tries to find significant urban travel factors to be used to increase the usage of alternative urban travel modes. This paper attempts to identify the relationship between prominent urban mobility indicators and daily trips by public transport in 30 cities from various parts of the world. Different travel modes, infrastructures and cost indicators were evaluated in this research as mobility indicators. The results of multi-linear regression analysis indicate that there is a significant relationship between mobility indicators and the daily usage of public transport.

Keywords: green travel modes, urban travel indicators, daily trips by public transport, multi-linear regression analysis

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5321 A Study of Mode Choice Model Improvement Considering Age Grouping

Authors: Young-Hyun Seo, Hyunwoo Park, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is providing an improved mode choice model considering parameters including age grouping of prime-aged and old age. In this study, 2010 Household Travel Survey data were used and improper samples were removed through the analysis. Chosen alternative, date of birth, mode, origin code, destination code, departure time, and arrival time are considered from Household Travel Survey. By preprocessing data, travel time, travel cost, mode, and ratio of people aged 45 to 55 years, 55 to 65 years and over 65 years were calculated. After the manipulation, the mode choice model was constructed using LIMDEP by maximum likelihood estimation. A significance test was conducted for nine parameters, three age groups for three modes. Then the test was conducted again for the mode choice model with significant parameters, travel cost variable and travel time variable. As a result of the model estimation, as the age increases, the preference for the car decreases and the preference for the bus increases. This study is meaningful in that the individual and households characteristics are applied to the aggregate model.

Keywords: age grouping, aging, mode choice model, multinomial logit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5320 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

Abstract:

Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5319 Measures of Reliability and Transportation Quality on an Urban Rail Transit Network in Case of Links’ Capacities Loss

Authors: Jie Liu, Jinqu Cheng, Qiyuan Peng, Yong Yin

Abstract:

Urban rail transit (URT) plays a significant role in dealing with traffic congestion and environmental problems in cities. However, equipment failure and obstruction of links often lead to URT links’ capacities loss in daily operation. It affects the reliability and transport service quality of URT network seriously. In order to measure the influence of links’ capacities loss on reliability and transport service quality of URT network, passengers are divided into three categories in case of links’ capacities loss. Passengers in category 1 are less affected by the loss of links’ capacities. Their travel is reliable since their travel quality is not significantly reduced. Passengers in category 2 are affected by the loss of links’ capacities heavily. Their travel is not reliable since their travel quality is reduced seriously. However, passengers in category 2 still can travel on URT. Passengers in category 3 can not travel on URT because their travel paths’ passenger flow exceeds capacities. Their travel is not reliable. Thus, the proportion of passengers in category 1 whose travel is reliable is defined as reliability indicator of URT network. The transport service quality of URT network is related to passengers’ travel time, passengers’ transfer times and whether seats are available to passengers. The generalized travel cost is a comprehensive reflection of travel time, transfer times and travel comfort. Therefore, passengers’ average generalized travel cost is used as transport service quality indicator of URT network. The impact of links’ capacities loss on transport service quality of URT network is measured with passengers’ relative average generalized travel cost with and without links’ capacities loss. The proportion of the passengers affected by links and betweenness of links are used to determine the important links in URT network. The stochastic user equilibrium distribution model based on the improved logit model is used to determine passengers’ categories and calculate passengers’ generalized travel cost in case of links’ capacities loss, which is solved with method of successive weighted averages algorithm. The reliability and transport service quality indicators of URT network are calculated with the solution result. Taking Wuhan Metro as a case, the reliability and transport service quality of Wuhan metro network is measured with indicators and method proposed in this paper. The result shows that using the proportion of the passengers affected by links can identify important links effectively which have great influence on reliability and transport service quality of URT network; The important links are mostly connected to transfer stations and the passenger flow of important links is high; With the increase of number of failure links and the proportion of capacity loss, the reliability of the network keeps decreasing, the proportion of passengers in category 3 keeps increasing and the proportion of passengers in category 2 increases at first and then decreases; When the number of failure links and the proportion of capacity loss increased to a certain level, the decline of transport service quality is weakened.

Keywords: urban rail transit network, reliability, transport service quality, links’ capacities loss, important links

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5318 Issues in Travel Demand Forecasting

Authors: Huey-Kuo Chen

Abstract:

Travel demand forecasting including four travel choices, i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and traffic assignment constructs the core of transportation planning. In its current application, travel demand forecasting has associated with three important issues, i.e., interface inconsistencies among four travel choices, inefficiency of commonly used solution algorithms, and undesirable multiple path solutions. In this paper, each of the three issues is extensively elaborated. An ideal unified framework for the combined model consisting of the four travel choices and variable demand functions is also suggested. Then, a few remarks are provided in the end of the paper.

Keywords: travel choices, B algorithm, entropy maximization, dynamic traffic assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
5317 Economic Valuation of Environmental Services Sustained by Flamboyant Park in Goiania-Go, Brazil

Authors: Brenda R. Berca, Jessica S. Vieira, Lucas G. Candido, Matheus C. Ferreira, Paulo S. A. Lopes Filho, Rafaella O. Baracho

Abstract:

This study aims to estimate the economic value environmental services sustained by Flamboyant Lourival Louza Municipal Park in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The Flamboyant Park is one of the most relevant urban parks, and it is located near a stadium, a shopping center, and two supercenters. In order to define the methods used for the valuation of Flamboyant Park, the first step was carrying out bibliographical research with the view to better understand which method is most feasible to valuate the Park. Thus, the following direct methods were selected: travel cost, hedonic pricing, and contingent valuation. In addition, an indirect method (replacement cost) was applied at Flamboyant Park. The second step was creating and applying two surveys. The first survey aimed at the visitors of the park, addressing socio-economic issues, the use of the Park, as well as its importance and the willingness the visitors, had to pay for its existence. The second survey was destined to the existing trade in the Park, in order to collect data regarding the profits obtained by them. In the end, the characterization of the profile of the visitors and the application of the methods of contingent valuation, travel cost, replacement cost and hedonic pricing were obtained, thus monetarily valuing the various ecosystem services sustained by the park. Some services were not valued due to difficulties encountered during the process.

Keywords: contingent valuation, ecosystem services, economic environmental valuation, hedonic pricing, travel cost

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5316 Congestion Mitigation on an Urban Arterial through Infrastructure Intervention

Authors: Attiq Ur Rahman Dogar, Sohaib Ishaq

Abstract:

Pakistan had experienced rapid motorization in the last decade. Due to the soft leasing schemes of banks and increase in average household income, even the middle class can now afford cars. The public transit system is inadequate and sparse. Due to these reasons, traffic demand on urban arterials has increased manifold. Poor urban transit planning and aging transportation systems have resulted in traffic congestion. The focus of this study is to improve traffic flow on a section of N-5 passing through the Rawalpindi downtown. Present efforts aim to carry out the analysis of traffic conditions on this section and to investigate the impact of traffic signal co-ordination on travel time. In addition to signal co-ordination, we also examined the effect of different infrastructure improvements on the travel time. After the economic analysis of alternatives and discussions, the improvement plan for Rawalpindi downtown urban arterial section is proposed for implementation.

Keywords: signal coordination, infrastructure intervention, infrastructure improvement, cycle length, fuel consumption cost, travel time cost, economic analysis, travel time, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, traffic signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
5315 What Hikers Wants? Evaluation by Travel Agents Perspective

Authors: G. Çetinkaya, M. Yıldız, P. Çetinkaya

Abstract:

Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries and its total contribution to the global economy in 2014 was US$7.6 trillion, which equates to 9.8% of total economy GDP in 2014. Mountains are important regions for tourism industry and its second most popular tourist destinations after coastal regions. Hiking and trekking are most popular activity in mountains region and it is estimated that more than 50 million people visit mountains each year. So that hiking was come out to individual activity and it’s to be a massive event. Nowadays hiking is commercialized and mostly it’s become organized by travel agency and tour operators. Travel agency which is offering hiking activities to know the demands of the individuals involved in these activities and is required to submit to it for services. The aim of this study to determined hiking participant expectation from hiking by travel agency perspective. 34 travel agency officials participated in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results show that according to travel agency officials “visual quality” is the most important expectation factor for hikers. And other expectation factors are “safety”, “accessibility”, “unspoiled local service”, “walking grade”, “expert guidance service”, “popularity of trail”, “uncrowded trail”, “substructure facilities”, “relevant cost”, “guidebook” and “suitable climatic conditions”.

Keywords: expectation, hikers, travel agency, mountain tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
5314 Thai Travel Agencies, English Communication and AEC: A Case Study

Authors: Nalin Simasathiansophon

Abstract:

This research aims to study English communication of Thai travel agencies and the impact of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) on Thai travel industry. A questionnaire was used in this research. The multi-stage sampling method was also utilized with 474 respondents from 79 Thai travel agencies. Descriptive statistics included percentage, average, and standard deviation. The findings revealed that English communication for most travel agencies was between the poor and intermediate level and therefore improvement is needed, especially the listening and speaking skills. In other words, the majority of respondents needed more training in terms of communicating in English. Since the age average of travel agencies was around 30-39 years, the training technique should integrate communicating skills together, such as stimulating technique or cooperating technique that could encourage travel agencies to use English in communicating with foreigners.

Keywords: travel agencies, English communication, AEC, Thai

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
5313 The Traveling Business Websites Quality that Effect to Overall Impression of the Tourist in Thailand

Authors: Preecha Phongpeng

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are to assess the prevalence of travel businesses websites in Thailand, investigate and evaluate the quality of travel business websites in Thailand. The sample size includes 323 websites from the population of 1,458 websites. The study covers 4 types of travel business websites including: 78 general travel agents, 30 online reservation travel agents, 205 hotels, 7 airlines, and 3 car-rental companies with nation-wide operation. The findings indicated that e-tourism in Thailand is at its growth stage, with only 13% of travel businesses having websites, 28% of them providing e-mail and the quality of travel business websites in Thailand was at the average level. Seven common problems were found in websites: lack of travel essential information, insufficient transportation information, lack of navigation tools, lack of link pages to other organizations, lack of safety features, unclear online booking functions, and lack of special features also as well.

Keywords: traveling business, website evaluation, e-commerce, e-tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
5312 Antecedents and Consequences of Social Media Adoption in Travel and Tourism: Evidence from Customers and Industry

Authors: Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk, Mahamoud M. Hewedi

Abstract:

This study extends technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the antecedents and consequences of social media adoption by tourists and travel agents. It compares their perceptions on social media adoption and its consequences. Online survey was addressed to tourists and travel agents for data collection purposes. Structural equation modelling was employed for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that the majority of tourists and travel agents involved in the study believe in the usefulness of social media adoption for travel planning and marketing purposes. They agree that adopting social media could change the attitude of tourists towards specific destination or attraction and influence their purchasing decisions. This study contributes to knowledge by extending TAM and provides some managerial implication to marketers.

Keywords: TAM, social media, travel and tourism, travel agents

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5311 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

Abstract:

In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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5310 Determinants of Travel to Western Countries by Kuwaiti Nationals

Authors: Yvette Reisinger

Abstract:

Relatively little is known about the Arab travel market, especially the outbound travel market from Arab countries in the Middle East. The Kuwaiti travel market is the smallest yet fastest growing in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The Kuwaiti travel market represents a great potential for the international tourism industry. Kuwaiti nationals have a very high spending power due to the Kuwaiti dinar being the highest-valued currency unit in the world. Although Europe, North America, and Asia/Pacific try to attract the Arab tourist market the number of Kuwaiti travellers attracted to these destinations is very low. The success in attracting the Kuwaiti travel market to Western countries must be guided by an analysis of the factors that affect its travel decisions. The objective of the study is to identify major factors that influence Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. A model is developed and empirically tested on a sample of 343 Kuwaiti nationals. A series of regression analyses are run to determine the effects of different factors on Kuwaiti’s travel decisions. A Herman’s single factor test and Durbin-Watson test are used to assess the validity of the regression model. Analysis is controlled for socio-demographics. The results show that the Muslim friendly amenities and destination cognitive image exert significant effects on Kuwaiti nationals’ intentions to travel to Western countries. The study provides a better understanding of the factors that attract Kuwaiti tourists to Western countries. By knowing what encourages Kuwaitis to travel to Western countries marketers can plan and promote these countries accordingly. The study provides a foundation of future empirical research into the Kuwaiti/Arab travel market.

Keywords: Kuwaiti travel market, travel decisions, Western countries

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5309 Knowledge Management and Tourism: An Exploratory Study Applied to Travel Agents in Egypt

Authors: Mohammad Soliman, Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk

Abstract:

Knowledge management focuses on the development, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information and expertise. It has become an important tool to improve performance in tourism enterprises. This includes improving decision-making, developing customer services, and increasing sales and profits. Knowledge management adoption depends on human, organizational and technological factors. This study aims to explore the concept of knowledge management in travel agents in Egypt. It explores the requirements of adoption and its impact on performance in these agencies. The study targets Category A travel agents in Egypt. The population of the study encompasses Category A travel agents having online presence. An online questionnaire is used to collect data from managers of travel agents. This study is useful for travel agents who are in urgent need to restructure their intermediary role and support their survival in the global travel market. The study sheds light on the requirements of adoption and the expected impact on performance. This could help travel agents identify their situation and the determine the extent to which they are ready to adopt knowledge management. This study is contributing to knowledge by providing insights from the tourism sector in a developing country where the concept of knowledge management is still in its infancy stages.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management adoption, performance, travel agents

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5308 Travel Time Estimation of Public Transport Networks Based on Commercial Incidence Areas in Quito Historic Center

Authors: M. Fernanda Salgado, Alfonso Tierra, David S. Sandoval, Wilbert G. Aguilar

Abstract:

Public transportation buses usually vary the speed depending on the places with the number of passengers. They require having efficient travel planning, a plan that will help them choose the fast route. Initially, an estimation tool is necessary to determine the travel time of each route, clearly establishing the possibilities. In this work, we give a practical solution that makes use of a concept that defines as areas of commercial incidence. These areas are based on the hypothesis that in the commercial places there is a greater flow of people and therefore the buses remain more time in the stops. The areas have one or more segments of routes, which have an incidence factor that allows to estimate the times. In addition, initial results are presented that verify the hypotheses and that promise adequately the travel times. In a future work, we take this approach to make an efficient travel planning system.

Keywords: commercial incidence, planning, public transport, speed travel, travel time

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5307 Quality of Service of Transportation Networks: A Hybrid Measurement of Travel Time and Reliability

Authors: Chin-Chia Jane

Abstract:

In a transportation network, travel time refers to the transmission time from source node to destination node, whereas reliability refers to the probability of a successful connection from source node to destination node. With an increasing emphasis on quality of service (QoS), both performance indexes are significant in the design and analysis of transportation systems. In this work, we extend the well-known flow network model for transportation networks so that travel time and reliability are integrated into the QoS measurement simultaneously. In the extended model, in addition to the general arc capacities, each intermediate node has a time weight which is the travel time for per unit of commodity going through the node. Meanwhile, arcs and nodes are treated as binary random variables that switch between operation and failure with associated probabilities. For pre-specified travel time limitation and demand requirement, the QoS of a transportation network is the probability that source can successfully transport the demand requirement to destination while the total transmission time is under the travel time limitation. This work is pioneering, since existing literatures that evaluate travel time reliability via a single optimization path, the proposed QoS focuses the performance of the whole network system. To compute the QoS of transportation networks, we first transfer the extended network model into an equivalent min-cost max-flow network model. In the transferred network, each arc has a new travel time weight which takes value 0. Each intermediate node is replaced by two nodes u and v, and an arc directed from u to v. The newly generated nodes u and v are perfect nodes. The new direct arc has three weights: travel time, capacity, and operation probability. Then the universal set of state vectors is recursively decomposed into disjoint subsets of reliable, unreliable, and stochastic vectors until no stochastic vector is left. The decomposition is made possible by applying existing efficient min-cost max-flow algorithm. Because the reliable subsets are disjoint, QoS can be obtained directly by summing the probabilities of these reliable subsets. Computational experiments are conducted on a benchmark network which has 11 nodes and 21 arcs. Five travel time limitations and five demand requirements are set to compute the QoS value. To make a comparison, we test the exhaustive complete enumeration method. Computational results reveal the proposed algorithm is much more efficient than the complete enumeration method. In this work, a transportation network is analyzed by an extended flow network model where each arc has a fixed capacity, each intermediate node has a time weight, and both arcs and nodes are independent binary random variables. The quality of service of the transportation network is an integration of customer demands, travel time, and the probability of connection. We present a decomposition algorithm to compute the QoS efficiently. Computational experiments conducted on a prototype network show that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing complete enumeration methods.

Keywords: quality of service, reliability, transportation network, travel time

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5306 Travel Behaviour and Perceptions in Trips with a Ferry Connection

Authors: Trude Tørset, María Díez Gutiérrez

Abstract:

The west coast of Norway features numerous islands and fjords. Ferry services connect the roads when these features make the construction challenging. Currently, scientific effort is designated to assess potential ferry replacement projects along the European road E-39. The inconvenience of ferry dependency is imprecisely represented in the transport models, thus transport analyses of ferry replacement projects appear as guesstimates rather than reliable input to decision-making processes of such costly projects. Trips including ferry connections imply more inconvenient elements than just travel time and cost. The goal of this paper is to understand and explain the extra inconveniences associated to the dependency of the ferry. The first scientific approach is to identify the characteristics of the ferry travelers and their trips’ features, as well as whether the ferry represents an obstacle for some specific trip types. In doing so, a survey was conducted in 2011 in eight E-39 ferries and in 2013 in 18 ferries connecting different road categories. More than 20,000 passengers answered with their trip and socioeconomic characteristics. The travel patterns in the different ferry connections were compared. The analysis showed that the trip features differed based on the location of the ferry connections, yet independently of the road category. Additionally, the patterns were compared to the national travel survey to detect differences in the travel patterns due to the use of the ferry connections. The results showed that the share of commuting trips within the same travel time was lower if the ferry was part of the trip. The second scientific approach is to know how the different travelers perceive potential benefits for a ferry replacement project. In the 2011 survey, some of the questions were about the relevance of nine different benefits this project might bring. Travelers identified the better access to public services and job market as the most valuable benefits, followed by the reduced planning of the trip. In 2016, a follow-up survey in some of the ferry connections was carried out in order to investigate variations in travelers’ perceptions. The growing interest in ferry replacement projects might make travelers more aware of the potential benefits these would bring to their daily lives. This paper describes the travel behaviour of travelers using a ferry connection as part of their trips, as well as the potential inconveniences associated to these trips. The findings might provide valuable input to further development of transport models, concept evaluations and cost benefit analysis methods.

Keywords: ferry connections, ferry trip, inconvenience costs, travel behaviour

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5305 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

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5304 Dissecting Big Trajectory Data to Analyse Road Network Travel Efficiency

Authors: Rania Alshikhe, Vinita Jindal

Abstract:

Digital innovation has played a crucial role in managing smart transportation. For this, big trajectory data collected from traveling vehicles, such as taxis through installed global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices can be utilized. It offers an unprecedented opportunity to trace the movements of vehicles in fine spatiotemporal granularity. This paper aims to explore big trajectory data to measure the travel efficiency of road networks using the proposed statistical travel efficiency measure (STEM) across an entire city. Further, it identifies the cause of low travel efficiency by proposed least square approximation network-based causality exploration (LANCE). Finally, the resulting data analysis reveals the causes of low travel efficiency, along with the road segments that need to be optimized to improve the traffic conditions and thus minimize the average travel time from given point A to point B in the road network. Obtained results show that our proposed approach outperforms the baseline algorithms for measuring the travel efficiency of the road network.

Keywords: GPS trajectory, road network, taxi trips, digital map, big data, STEM, LANCE

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5303 Filipino And Malaysian Travel Bloggers: Adverbial Intensifiers Used in Blog Description

Authors: Arvin Ludovice

Abstract:

The modern way of communicating and connecting people has been in its easiest forms nowadays, one of it is blog. Blogs, nowadays, are truly relevant in informing people of different as aspects, interests, and fields through these blogs. The evidentiality and testimony of collective people are easily been accessed. However, the description of blog in the making is persuading people, choice of language is one—adverbial intensifiers. Measuring the language on a scale of its intensity subdue the intensity per se. The present study determines, scrutinizes and analyses the adverbial intensifiers used in Filipino and Malaysian. The corpus consists of 30 top travel blogs written by Filipinos and 30 top travel blogs written by Malaysian for a total of 60 travel blogs. The application AntConc was utilized to tag the necessary intensifiers. A frequency distribution of the scores is used to identify the most common intensifiers used by travel bloggers from the Philippines and Malaysia. The scale or degree of intensifier is taken from Quirk Degree of Intensifiers as the basis for the functions of intensifiers. The result found that Malaysian travel blogs are more expressive with the use of the adverbial intensifiers vis-à-vis Filipino travel bloggers, consequently, ranking of the intensifiers, boosters are most used one in expressing and utilizing the language choice a more. The conclusion states that Malaysian travel bloggers are of using the functionality of the adverbial intensifiers. The distinction on the pedagogical implications are hereunto stated as well to deepen and give its significant and importance in language teaching.

Keywords: adverbial intensifiers, blogs, Filipino and Malaysian blogs, AntConc

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5302 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

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5301 Japanese English in Travel Brochures

Authors: Premvadee Na Nakornpanom

Abstract:

This study investigates the role and impact of English loan words on Japanese language in travel brochures. The issues arising from a potential switch to English as a tool to absorb the West’s advanced knowledge and technology in the modernization of Japan to a means of linking Japan with the rest of the world and enhancing the country’s international presence. Sociolinguistic contexts were used to analyze data collected from the Nippon Travel agency "HIS"’s brochures in Thailand, revealing that English plays the most important role as lexical gap fillers and special effect givers. An increasing mixer of English to Japanese affects how English is misused, the way the Japanese see the world and the present generation’s communication gap.

Keywords: English, Japanese, loan words, travel brochure

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5300 Accessibility of the Labor Market in Indonesian Cities

Authors: Hananto Prakoso, Jean-Pierre Orfeuil

Abstract:

The relationship between city size, urban transport efficiency (speed), employment proximity (distance) and accessibility of labour market is rarely examined especially in developing countries. This paper reveals the relationship using 2 points of views (active population and company). Then the analysis is divided according to 3 transport modes (car, public transport and motorcycle) and takes into account the vehicle ownership rate. We employ data across 111 districts in 4 big cities of Indonesia. In our result, speed indicator contributed positively to accessibility of labour market while distance elasticity is negative. In absolute value, elasticity of speed indicator is higher than that of distance.

Keywords: labour market, travel time, travel cost threshold, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
5299 A Documentary Review of Theoretical and Practical Elements for a Genre Analysis of Thailand Travel Listicles

Authors: Pinyada Santisarun, Yaowaret Tharawoot, Songyut Akkakoson

Abstract:

This paper reports on a literature review sub-study of a larger research project which has been designed to identify the rhetorical organization of a travel writing genre, together with the use of lexical choices, syntactical structures, and graphological features, based on a randomly-selected corpus of Thailand travel listicles. Conducted as a library-based overview, this study aims to specify theoretical and practical elements for the said larger study. The materials for the review have been retrieved from various Internet sources, covering both public search engines and library databases. Generally, the article focuses on answering questions about the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of such background elements widely discussed in the literature as the meaning of listicles, how the travel listicles’ patterns and regularities can be categorized to form a new genre, the effect of computer-mediated communication on the travel world, the travel language, and the current situation concerning the importance of travel listicles. The theoretical and practical data derived from this study provide valuable insights into the way in which the genre analysis and lexico-syntactical examination of Thailand travel listicles in the present authors’ larger research project can be properly conducted. The data gained can be added to the expanding body of knowledge in the field of the ESP genre.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, digital writing, genre-based analysis, online travel writing, tourism language

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5298 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

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5297 Patients' Out-Of-Pocket Expenses-Effectiveness Analysis of Presurgical Teledermatology

Authors: Felipa De Mello-Sampayo

Abstract:

Background: The aim of this study is to undertake, from a patient perspective, an economic analysis of presurgical teledermatology, comparing it with a conventional referral system. Store-and-forward teledermatology allows surgical planning, saving both time and number of visits involving travel, thereby reducing patients’ out-of-pocket expenses, i.e., costs that patients incur when traveling to and from health providers for treatment, visits’ fees, and the opportunity cost of time spent in visits. Method: Patients’ out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness of presurgical teledermatology were analyzed in the setting of a public hospital during two years. The mean delay in surgery was used to measure effectiveness. The teledermatology network covering the area served by the Hospital Garcia da Horta (HGO), Portugal, linked the primary care centers of 24 health districts with the hospital’s dermatology department. The patients’ opportunity cost of visits, travel costs, and visits’ fee of each presurgical modality (teledermatology and conventional referral), the cost ratio between the most and least expensive alternative, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were calculated from initial primary care visit until surgical intervention. Two groups of patients: those with squamous cell carcinoma and those with basal cell carcinoma were distinguished in order to compare the effectiveness according to the dermatoses. Results: From a patient perspective, the conventional system was 2.15 times more expensive than presurgical teledermatology. Teledermatology had an incremental out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness ratio of €1.22 per patient and per day of delay avoided. This saving was greater in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in patients with basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: From a patient economic perspective, teledermatology used for presurgical planning and preparation is the dominant strategy in terms of out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness than the conventional referral system, especially for patients with severe dermatoses.

Keywords: economic analysis, out-of-pocket expenses, opportunity cost, teledermatology, waiting time

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5296 Financial Burden of Family for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. R. Bhuiyan, S. M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Islam

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing serious developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communicative difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. ASD is an emerging public health issue globally which is associated with huge financial burden to the family, community and the nation. The aim of this study was to assess the financial burden of family for the children with Autism spectrum Disorder. This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2015 to June 2016 among 154 children with ASD to assess the financial burden of family. Data were collected by face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire following systematic random sampling technique. Majority (73.4%) children were male and mean (±SD) age was 6.66 ± 2.97 years. Most (88.8%) of the children were from urban areas with average monthly family income Tk. 41785.71±23936.45. Average monthly direct cost of the children was Tk.17656.49 ± 9984.35, while indirect cost was Tk. 13462.90 ± 9713.54 and total treatment cost was Tk. 23076.62 ± 15341.09. Special education cost (Tk. 4871.00), cost of therapy (Tk. 4124.07) and travel cost (Tk. 3988.31) were the major types of direct cost, while loss of income (Tk.14570.18) was the chief indirect cost incurred by the families. The study found that majority (59.8%) of the children attended special schools were incurred Tk.20001-78700 as total treatment cost, which were statistically significant (p<0.001). Again, families with higher monthly family income incurred higher treatment cost (r=0.526, p<0.05). Difference between mean direct and indirect cost was found significant (t=4.190, df=61, p<0.001). According to the analysis of variance, mean difference of father’s educational status among direct cost (F=10.337, p<0.001) and total treatment cost (F=7.841, p<0.001), which were statistically significant. The study revealed that maximum children with ASD were under five years, three-fourth were male. According to monthly family income, maximum family were in middle class. The study recommends cost effective interventions and financial safety-net measures to reduce the financial burden of families for the children with ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, financial burden, direct cost, indirect cost, special education

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5295 Customer Behavior and Satisfaction of Domestic Low Cost Carrier in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Thiraporn Chumphuming, Nuttida Boonmathi, Supattra Thanomsiang, Tawatchai Noree, Suthee Boonchaloem, Rinyaphat Kecharananta

Abstract:

This research aims to study about the formats of low-cost airlines’ services in domestic route by surveying customers’ requirements and satisfactions in choosing low-cost airlines to travel domestically. Chiang Mai International Airport and other regions in Chiang Mai are the bases where the information is quantitatively collected. Passengers and questionnaires of 400 are the data base in which the researchers collected information from. Statistic units used are Percentage, Weighted Average, and Standard Deviation. The result of the study reveals that the group of 400 representative samples chooses Air Asia the most from overall six low-cost airlines that provide domestic services. Most of the representative samples book plane tickets for their traveling and they book tickets during the promotion time that provides cheap-priced tickets. Averagely, the price for a seat in one flight is around 501-1,000 Thai baht. The result of the satisfaction’s survey analyzed by the Marketing Mix Factors (7Ps) of low-cost airlines, which is divided into 4 parts including services before ticket reservations, services before boarding/purchasing tickets (ground), In-flight services, and Services after boarding they are satisfied with the baggage claim point informing, also gives the information that the passengers are highly satisfied with every process or the services.

Keywords: low-cost airline, service, satisfaction, customers' behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 155