Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: Paulo S. A. Lopes Filho

276 Economic Valuation of Environmental Services Sustained by Flamboyant Park in Goiania-Go, Brazil

Authors: Brenda R. Berca, Jessica S. Vieira, Lucas G. Candido, Matheus C. Ferreira, Paulo S. A. Lopes Filho, Rafaella O. Baracho


This study aims to estimate the economic value environmental services sustained by Flamboyant Lourival Louza Municipal Park in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The Flamboyant Park is one of the most relevant urban parks, and it is located near a stadium, a shopping center, and two supercenters. In order to define the methods used for the valuation of Flamboyant Park, the first step was carrying out bibliographical research with the view to better understand which method is most feasible to valuate the Park. Thus, the following direct methods were selected: travel cost, hedonic pricing, and contingent valuation. In addition, an indirect method (replacement cost) was applied at Flamboyant Park. The second step was creating and applying two surveys. The first survey aimed at the visitors of the park, addressing socio-economic issues, the use of the Park, as well as its importance and the willingness the visitors, had to pay for its existence. The second survey was destined to the existing trade in the Park, in order to collect data regarding the profits obtained by them. In the end, the characterization of the profile of the visitors and the application of the methods of contingent valuation, travel cost, replacement cost and hedonic pricing were obtained, thus monetarily valuing the various ecosystem services sustained by the park. Some services were not valued due to difficulties encountered during the process.

Keywords: contingent valuation, ecosystem services, economic environmental valuation, hedonic pricing, travel cost

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275 Patchwork City: An Affective Map for a Patchwork Zone

Authors: Maria Lucília Borges


This article presents the creation and design process of the "patchwork map" made for the project “Santo Amaro em Rede” (Santo Amaro on Web). The project was carried out in 2009 by SESC – SP – Brazil (Social Service for the Commerce of São Paulo) in partnership with Instituto Pólis. It is a mapping of socio-cultural dynamics of São Paulo’s South Zone and neighboring municipalities.

Keywords: affective map, cartography, São Paulo city, space, patchwork

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274 The Perspective of Waste Frying Oil in São Paulo and Its Dimensions in the Reverse Logistics of the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Max Filipe Goncalves, Alessandra Concilio, Rodrigo Shimada


The waste frying oil is highly pollutant when disposed incorrectly in the environment. Is necessary search of the Reverse Logistics to identify how can be structure to return the waste like this to productive chain and to be used in the new process. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the perspective of the waste frying oil in São Paulo, and its dimensions in the production of biodiesel. Subjacent factors such as the agents, motivators and legal aspects were analyzed to demonstrate it. Then, the SWOT matrix was built with the aspects observed and the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the reverse logistic chain in São Paulo.

Keywords: biodiesel, perspective, reverse logistic, WFO

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
273 Species Selection for Phytoremediation of Barium Polluted Flooded Soils

Authors: Fabio R. Pires, Paulo R. C. C. Ribeiro, Douglas G. Viana, Robson Bonomo, Fernando B. Egreja Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Luiz F. Martins, Leila B. S. Cruz, Mauro C. P. Nascimento


The use of barite (BaSO₄) as a weighting agent in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in the case of spills onto flooded soils, where barium sulfate solubility is increased due to low redox conditions. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, seven plant species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta; Cyperus cf. papyrus; Eleocharis acutangula; Eleocharis interstincta; Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis; Paspalum conspersum and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots with 13 kg of soil each, and exposed to six barium concentrations (established with BaCl₂): 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0; 30.0; 65.0 mg kg-1. To simulate flooding conditions, every pot was manteined with a thin irrigation water depth over soil surface (~1.0 cm). Treatments were carried out in triplicate, and pots were distributed randomly inside the greenhouse. Biometric and chemical analyses were performed throughout the experiment, including Ba²⁺ accumulation in shoots and roots. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. cf. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to shoot, especially in higher BaCl₂ doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in roots. Thus, barium removal with C. cf. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The amount of barium in C. cf. papyrus was a consequence of high biomass production rather than barium concentration in plant tissues, whereas T. domingensis showed high barium concentration in plant tissues and high biomass production as well. These results make T. domingensis and C. cf. papyrus potential candidates to be applied in phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils.

Keywords: barium sulfate, cyperus, drilling fluids, phytoextraction, Typha

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272 Automatic Landmark Selection Based on Feature Clustering for Visual Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Paulo Fernando Silva Filho, Elcio Hideiti Shiguemori


The selection of specific landmarks for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ Visual Navigation systems based on Automatic Landmark Recognition has significant influence on the precision of the system’s estimated position. At the same time, manual selection of the landmarks does not guarantee a high recognition rate, which would also result on a poor precision. This work aims to develop an automatic landmark selection that will take the image of the flight area and identify the best landmarks to be recognized by the Visual Navigation Landmark Recognition System. The criterion to select a landmark is based on features detected by ORB or AKAZE and edges information on each possible landmark. Results have shown that disposition of possible landmarks is quite different from the human perception.

Keywords: clustering, edges, feature points, landmark selection, X-means

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271 The Hyperbolic Smoothing Approach for Automatic Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Models

Authors: Adilson Elias Xavier, Otto Corrêa Rotunno Filho, Paulo Canedo De Magalhães


This paper addresses the issue of automatic parameter estimation in conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) models. Due to threshold structures commonly occurring in CRR models, the associated mathematical optimization problems have the significant characteristic of being strongly non-differentiable. In order to face this enormous task, the resolution method proposed adopts a smoothing strategy using a special C∞ differentiable class function. The final estimation solution is obtained by solving a sequence of differentiable subproblems which gradually approach the original conceptual problem. The use of this technique, called Hyperbolic Smoothing Method (HSM), makes possible the application of the most powerful minimization algorithms, and also allows for the main difficulties presented by the original CRR problem to be overcome. A set of computational experiments is presented for the purpose of illustrating both the reliability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: rainfall-runoff models, automatic calibration, hyperbolic smoothing method

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270 Spaces in the City to Practice Physical Activities: Case Study of Conchal, São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Ana Maria Girotti Sperandio, Jussara Conceição Guarnieri, Lauro Luiz Francisco Filho, Ana Claudia Martins Alves, Adriana Aparecida Carneiro Rosa


The urban planning of a city should contemplate the construction of healthy spaces to provide quality of life for people. In a Brazilian municipality located 180 km from the capital of São Paulo with around 27,000 thousand inhabitants, the federal government made possible a program that allows the improvement of the quality of life of the inhabitants through the practice of physical activity. To describe health promotion strategies in the city that collaborate in the reduction of chronic non-communicable diseases (CDNT) and the improvement the quality of its residents. Considering the CDNT as a fundamental public health concern in different countries, the methodology of this work considered the different actions of health promotion that occurred in the city for the implementation of the Polo Health Academy with the objective of increasing the population's access to places that could develop targeted physical activities. As an instrument, it used records of participants of this academy such as: assessment sheets, evolution, photos, filming and daily reports of physical activities. Results: The implantation and implementation process of the Polo Health Academy in the city of Conchal / SP / Brazil was in accordance with the principles and values of the National Health Promotion Policy (PNaPS) in Brazil and with the city statute, that provides improvement in the quality of life of the Brazilian population. An increase was observed in the number of participants in different hours practicing physical activities in the territory linked to one of the five Health Units, showing the program provides that happiness and well-being to the students. The Brazilian health promotion policy, combined with the city’s development policy, provides the population with access to programs that stimulate the reduction of CDNTs, confirming the urban planning of a healthy city.

Keywords: health city, health promotion, physical activity, urban planning

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269 Analyzing Inclusion Attempts: Simultaneous Performance of Two Teachers at the Same Classroom

Authors: Mara A. C. Lopes


Hiring a second teacher to accompany deaf students inserted at Brazilian inclusive school system has raised questions about its role in the educational process of deaf students. Federal policies determine that deaf students inserted in regular education are accompanied by sign language interpreters, which leads to the understanding that the second teacher should assume this function. However, what those professionals do is to assume the function of teaching deaf student, instead of the classroom main teacher. Historical-Cultural Psychology was used as a reference for analysis, which aimed to identify the social function of the second teacher in the classroom. Two studies were accomplished in the public schools of Sao Paulo State: In Study 1, videotaped lectures provided by the Department of Education for collective reflection about the second teacher's role were examined, to identify the social meaning of that professional activity. Study 2 aimed to analyze the process of assigning personal sense to the teacher activity, considering the opinions of 21 professionals from Sao Paulo. Those teachers were interviewed individually with the support of a semi-structured interview. The analysis method utilized was: empirical description of data; development of categories, for reality abstraction; identifying the unit analysis; and return to reality, in order to explain it. Study 1 showed that the social meaning of the second teacher's activity is, also, to teach. However, Study 2 showed that this meaning is not shared among professionals of the school, so they understand that they must act as sign language interpreters. That comprehension causes a disruption between social meaning and the personal sense they attach to their activity. It also shows the need of both teachers at the classroom planning and executing activity together. On the contrary, a relationship of subordination of one teacher to another was identified, excluding the second teacher and the deaf student of the main activity. Results indicate that the second teacher, as a teacher, must take the responsibility for deaf student education, consciously, and to promote the full development of the subjects involved.

Keywords: deaf education, historical-cultural psychology, inclusion, teacher function

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268 Satellite Interferometric Investigations of Subsidence Events Associated with Groundwater Extraction in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: B. Mendonça, D. Sandwell


The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) has suffered from serious water scarcity. Consequently, the most convenient solution has been building wells to extract groundwater from local aquifers. However, it requires constant vigilance to prevent over extraction and future events that can pose serious threat to the population, such as subsidence. Radar imaging techniques (InSAR) have allowed continuous investigation of such phenomena. The analysis of data in the present study consists of 23 SAR images dated from October 2007 to March 2011, obtained by the ALOS-1 spacecraft. Data processing was made with the software GMTSAR, by using the InSAR technique to create pairs of interferograms with ground displacement during different time spans. First results show a correlation between the location of 102 wells registered in 2009 and signals of ground displacement equal or lower than -90 millimeters (mm) in the region. The longest time span interferogram obtained dates from October 2007 to March 2010. As a result, from that interferogram, it was possible to detect the average velocity of displacement in millimeters per year (mm/y), and which areas strong signals have persisted in the MRSP. Four specific areas with signals of subsidence of 28 mm/y to 40 mm/y were chosen to investigate the phenomenon: Guarulhos (Sao Paulo International Airport), the Greater Sao Paulo, Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul. The coverage area of the signals was between 0.6 km and 1.65 km of length. All areas are located above a sedimentary type of aquifer. Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul showed signals varying from 28 mm/y to 32 mm/y. On the other hand, the places most likely to be suffering from stronger subsidence are the ones in the Greater Sao Paulo and Guarulhos, right beside the International Airport of Sao Paulo. The rate of displacement observed in both regions goes from 35 mm/y to 40 mm/y. Previous investigations of the water use at the International Airport highlight the risks of excessive water extraction that was being done through 9 deep wells. Therefore, it is affirmed that subsidence events are likely to occur and to cause serious damage in the area. This study could show a situation that has not been explored with proper importance in the city, given its social and economic consequences. Since the data were only available until 2011, the question that remains is if the situation still persists. It could be reaffirmed, however, a scenario of risk at the International Airport of Sao Paulo that needs further investigation.

Keywords: ground subsidence, Interferometric Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR), metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, water extraction

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267 Organizational Climate being Knowledge Sharing Oriented: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis

Authors: Paulo Lopes Henriques, Carla Curado


According to literature, knowledge sharing behaviors are influenced by organizational values and structures, namely organizational climate. The manuscript examines the antecedents of the knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate. According to theoretical expectations the study adopts the following explanatory conditions: knowledge sharing costs, knowledge sharing incentives, perceptions of knowledge sharing contributing to performance and tenure. The study confronts results considering two groups of firms: nondigital (firms without intranet) vs digital (firms with intranet). The paper applies fsQCA technique to analyze data by using fsQCA 2.5 software ( testing several conditional arguments to explain the outcome variable. Main results strengthen claims on the relevancy of the contribution of knowledge sharing to performance. Secondly, evidence brings tenure - an explanatory condition that is associated to organizational memory – to the spotlight. The study provides an original contribution not previously addressed in literature, since it identifies the sufficient conditions sets to knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate using fsQCA, which is, to our knowledge, a novel application of the technique.

Keywords: fsQCA, knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate, knowledge sharing costs, knowledge sharing incentives

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266 Generation of Medical Waste in Hospitals in Interior of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Silvia Carla Da Silva André, Angela Maria Magosso Takayanagui


Introduction: The Medical Waste (MW) are responsible per 2% of total waste generated for a city and has merited attention due the risks that offers to the public health and environment, representing an important aspect in waste management. In Brazil, the Resolution 306/04 of the National Health Surveillance Agency classifies the MW into 5 groups as follows: Group A (GA) biological, Group B (GB) chemical, Group C (GC) radioactive waste, Group D (GD) common, and Group E (GE) sharps. Objective: This study aimed to determine the amount of waste generated in hospitals of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Material and Methods: This is a field research, exploratory, using quantitative variables. The survey was conducted in 11 hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is noted that the study sample included general hospitals, skilled, university, maternity, and psychiatric; public, private, and philanthropic; and large, medium, and small. To quantify the MW, the weighing of the waste was held for six days, following methodology adapted from PAHO. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, determining the average global generation of MW and for each group. This research was carried out after approval by the Ethics in Research of the University of São Paulo. Thus, in order to comply with the ethical principles of research, to present the results hospitals were numbered from 1 to 11. Results: The data revealed a greater generation of biological waste among teaching hospitals, which can be justified by the use of materials for the realization of techniques.

Keywords: environmental health, management of medical waste, medical waste, public health

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265 Economic Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use into Tropical Pastures for Beef Cattle in Brazil

Authors: Elieder P. Romanzini, Lutti M. Delevatti, Rhaony G. Leite, Ricardo A. Reis, Euclides B. Malheiros


Brazilian beef cattle production systems are an important profitability source for the national gross domestic product. The main characteristic of these systems is forage utilization as the exclusive feed source. Forage utilization had been causing on owners the false feeling of low production costs. However, this low cost is followed to low profit causing a lot times worst animal index what can result in activities changes or until land sold. Aiming to evaluate economic impacts into Brazilian beef cattle systems were evaluated four nitrogen fertilizer (N) application levels (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg per hectare [kg.ha-1]). Research was developed during 2015 into Forage Crops and Grasslands section of São Paulo State University, “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp) (Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil). Pastures were seeded with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. ‘Marandu’ (Palisade grass) handled using continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate, sward height maintained at 25 cm. The economic evaluation was developed in rearing e finishing phases. We evaluated the cash flows inside each phase on different N levels. Economic valuations were considering: cost-effective operating (CEO), cost-total operating (CTO), gross revenue (GR), operating profit (OP) and net income (NI), every measured in US$. Complementary analyses were developed, profitability was calculated by [OP/GR]. Pay back (measured in years) was calculated considering average capital stocktaking pondered by area in use (ACS) divided by [GR-CEO]. And the internal rate of return (IRR) was calculated by 100/(pay back). Input prices were prices during 2015 and were obtained from Anuário Brasileiro da Pecuária, Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada and quotation in the same region of animal production (northeast São Paulo State) during the period above mentioned. Values were calculated in US$ according exchange rate US$1.00 equal R$3.34. The CEO, CTO, GR, OP and NI per hectare for each N level were respectively US$1,919.66; US$2,048.47; US$2,905.72; US$857.25 and US$986.06 to 0 kg.ha-1; US$2,403.20; US$2,551.80; US$3,530.19; US$978.39 and US$1,126.99 to 90 kg.ha-1; US$3,180.42; US$3,364.81; US$4,985.03; US$1,620.23 and US$1,804.62 to 180 kg.ha-1andUS$3,709.14; US$3,915.15; US$5,554.95; US$1,639.80 and US$1,845.81 to 270 kg.ha-1. Relationship to another economic indexes, profitability, pay back and IRR, the results were respectively 29.50%, 6.44 and 15.54% to 0 kg.ha-1; 27.72%, 6.88 and 14.54% to 90 kg.ha-1; 32.50%, 4.08 and 24.50% to 180 kg.ha-1 and 29.52%, 3.42 and 29.27% to 270 kg.ha-1. Values previously presented in this evaluation allowing to affirm that the best result was obtained to N level 270 kg.ha-1. These results among all N levels evaluated could be explained by improve occurred on stocking rate caused by increase on N level. However, a crucial information about high N level application into pastures is the efficiency of N utilization (associated to environmental impacts) that normally decrease with the increase on N level. Hence, considering all situations (efficiency of N utilization and economic results) into tropical pastures used to beef cattle production could be recommended N level equal to 180kg.ha-1, which had better profitability and cause lesser environmental impacts, proved by other studies developed in the same area.

Keywords: Brachiaria brizantha, cost-total operating, gross revenue, profitability

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264 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

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263 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine Cristina Barboza, Antonio Jaschke Machado


This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis, and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate

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262 The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use

Authors: Giselly Barros Rodrigues, Carlos Leite de Souza


In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.

Keywords: urbanity, space for public use, appropriation of space, segregation

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261 Skull Extraction for Quantification of Brain Volume in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Authors: Marcela De Oliveira, Marina P. Da Silva, Fernando C. G. Da Rocha, Jorge M. Santos, Jaime S. Cardoso, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by neurodegeneration, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to the richness in the information details provided, is the gold standard exam for diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Brain atrophy, the gradual loss of brain volume, is quite extensive in multiple sclerosis, nearly 0.5-1.35% per year, far off the limits of normal aging. Thus, the brain volume quantification becomes an essential task for future analysis of the occurrence atrophy. The analysis of MRI has become a tedious and complex task for clinicians, who have to manually extract important information. This manual analysis is prone to errors and is time consuming due to various intra- and inter-operator variability. Nowadays, computerized methods for MRI segmentation have been extensively used to assist doctors in quantitative analyzes for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the brain volume in MRI of MS patients. We used MRI scans with 30 slices of the five patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria. The computational methods for the analysis of images were carried out in two steps: segmentation of the brain and brain volume quantification. The first image processing step was to perform brain extraction by skull stripping from the original image. In the skull stripper for MRI images of the brain, the algorithm registers a grayscale atlas image to the grayscale patient image. The associated brain mask is propagated using the registration transformation. Then this mask is eroded and used for a refined brain extraction based on level-sets (edge of the brain-skull border with dedicated expansion, curvature, and advection terms). In the second step, the brain volume quantification was performed by counting the voxels belonging to the segmentation mask and converted in cc. We observed an average brain volume of 1469.5 cc. We concluded that the automatic method applied in this work can be used for the brain extraction process and brain volume quantification in MRI. The development and use of computer programs can contribute to assist health professionals in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In future works, we expect to implement more automated methods for the assessment of cerebral atrophy and brain lesions quantification, including machine-learning approaches. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from Brazilian agency Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (number 2019/16362-5).

Keywords: brain volume, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, skull stripper

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260 Gas Network Noncooperative Game

Authors: Teresa Azevedo PerdicoúLis, Paulo Lopes Dos Santos


The conceptualisation of the problem of network optimisation as a noncooperative game sets up a holistic interactive approach that brings together different network features (e.g., com-pressor stations, sources, and pipelines, in the gas context) where the optimisation objectives are different, and a single optimisation procedure becomes possible without having to feed results from diverse software packages into each other. A mathematical model of this type, where independent entities take action, offers the ideal modularity and subsequent problem decomposition in view to design a decentralised algorithm to optimise the operation and management of the network. In a game framework, compressor stations and sources are under-stood as players which communicate through network connectivity constraints–the pipeline model. That is, in a scheme similar to tatonnementˆ, the players appoint their best settings and then interact to check for network feasibility. The devolved degree of network unfeasibility informs the players about the ’quality’ of their settings, and this two-phase iterative scheme is repeated until a global optimum is obtained. Due to network transients, its optimisation needs to be assessed at different points of the control interval. For this reason, the proposed approach to optimisation has two stages: (i) the first stage computes along the period of optimisation in order to fulfil the requirement just mentioned; (ii) the second stage is initialised with the solution found by the problem computed at the first stage, and computes in the end of the period of optimisation to rectify the solution found at the first stage. The liability of the proposed scheme is proven correct on an abstract prototype and three example networks.

Keywords: connectivity matrix, gas network optimisation, large-scale, noncooperative game, system decomposition

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259 Spatio-Temporal Changes of Rainfall in São Paulo, Brazil (1973-2012): A Gamma Distribution and Cluster Analysis

Authors: Guilherme Henrique Gabriel, Lucí Hidalgo Nunes


An important feature of rainfall regimes is the variability, which is subject to the atmosphere’s general and regional dynamics, geographical position and relief. Despite being inherent to the climate system, it can harshly impact virtually all human activities. In turn, global climate change has the ability to significantly affect smaller-scale rainfall regimes by altering their current variability patterns. In this regard, it is useful to know if regional climates are changing over time and whether it is possible to link these variations to climate change trends observed globally. This study is part of an international project (Metropole-FAPESP, Proc. 2012/51876-0 and Proc. 2015/11035-5) and the objective was to identify and evaluate possible changes in rainfall behavior in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, using rainfall data from 79 rain gauges for the last forty years. Cluster analysis and gamma distribution parameters were used for evaluating spatial and temporal trends, and the outcomes are presented by means of geographic information systems tools. Results show remarkable changes in rainfall distribution patterns in São Paulo over the years: changes in shape and scale parameters of gamma distribution indicate both an increase in the irregularity of rainfall distribution and the probability of occurrence of extreme events. Additionally, the spatial outcome of cluster analysis along with the gamma distribution parameters suggest that changes occurred simultaneously over the whole area, indicating that they could be related to remote causes beyond the local and regional ones, especially in a current global climate change scenario.

Keywords: climate change, cluster analysis, gamma distribution, rainfall

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258 Biological Institute Actions for Bovine Mastitis Monitoring in Low Income Dairy Farms, Brazil: Preliminary Data

Authors: Vanessa Castro, Liria H. Okuda, Daniela P. Chiebao, Adriana H. C. N. Romaldini, Harumi Hojo, Marina Grandi, Joao Paulo A. Silva, Alessandra F. C. Nassar


The Biological Institute of Sao Paulo, in partnership with a private company, develops an Animal Health Family Farming Program (Prosaf) to enable communication among smallholder farmers and scientists, on-farm consulting and lectures, solving health questions that will benefit agricultural productivity. In Vale do Paraiba region, a dairy region of Sao Paulo State, southern Brazil, many of these types of farms are found with several milk quality problems. Most of these farms are profit-based business; however, with non-technified cattle rearing systems and uncertain veterinary assistance. Feedback from Prosaf showed that the biggest complaints from farmers were low milk production, sick animals and, mainly, loss of selling price due to a high somatic cell count (SCC) and a total bacterial count (TBC). The aims of this study were to improve milk quality, animal hygiene and herd health status by adjustments into general management practices and introducing techniques of sanitary control and milk monitoring in five dairy farms from Sao Jose do Barreiro municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, to increase their profits. A total of 119 milk samples from 56 animals positive for California Mastitis Test (CMT) were collected. The positive CMT indicates subclinical mastitis, therefore laboratorial exams were performed in the milk (microbiological, biochemical and antibiogram test) detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (41.8%), Bacillus sp. (11.8%), Streptococcus sp. (2.1%), nonfermenting, motile and oxidase-negative Gram-negative Bacilli (2.1%) and Enterobacter (2.1%). Antibiograms revealed high resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, probably due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics without veterinarian prescription. We suggested the improvement of hygiene management in the complete milking and cooling tanks system. Using the results of the laboratory tests, animals were properly treated, and the effects observed were better CMT outcomes, lower SCCs, and TBCs leading to an increase in milk pricing. This study will have a positive impact on the family farmers from Sao Paulo State dairy region by improving their market milk competitiveness.

Keywords: milk, family farming, food quality, antibiogram, profitability

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257 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin


Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

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256 Profile of Serological Response of Equids Naturally Infected with Burkholderia mallei

Authors: Iahtasham Khan, Vania Lucia De Assis Santana, Marcilia Maria Alves De Souza, Mabel Hanna Vance Harrop, Fernando Leandro Dos Santos, Cecília Maria Souza Leão E. Silva, Pedro Paulo Silveira, Marcelo Brasil, Marcus Vinícius, Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho, Muhammad Younus, Aman Ullah Khan


Glanders ranks high on clinical lists in some regions of Brazil as a cause of respiratory and lymphatic disease in equids. Glanders is caused by Burkolderia mallei (B. mallei) Gram-negative bacterium. B. mallei was first biological agent used in World War I in 20th century. The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serodiagnostic tool prescribed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)for the diagnosis of glanders in the international trade of equids. The aim of the present study was to monitor the serological responses in equines naturally infected with B. mallei using the CFT. A total of 574 equids were tested with CFT, 30 days apart in a total of 12 samplings. One hundred thirty-four sera tested negative in all samplings; 192 sera tested positive in one sampling and 125 sera tested positive in two or more samplings. Remaining 123 samples showed uncertain results. Thus, CFT results can vary over a period of time. These variations could be the consequence of the effects of the natural immune response in each animal. The findings of the present study demonstrate difficulties regarding the simultaneous implementation of CFT and test and slaughter policies to eradicate glanders. Another constraint to control this disease is the presence of carrier/transitory CFT-negative animals, which are a potential source of disease in glanders-free areas. Serodiagnostic tests of higher sensitivity and specificity like immunobloat should be implemented to achieve success in the eradication of glanders.

Keywords: glanders, equids, horses, immunological, mules

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255 Absenteeism of Nursing Staff in Emergency Care Units of a City in the Interior of SãO Paulo

Authors: B. P. G. Figueira, I. C. Pinto, D. Ferro, F. C. M. Zacharias


The absenteeism at work constitutes in a temporary absence of labor functions resulting from various reasons, bringing damage to production, increasing costs of care and overburdening other workers, has its principal cause due to illness, often due exposure to several risks in the workplace. This study aims to know, identify and analyze the types and causes of absenteeism, such as the frequency at which it occurs by professional category, for employment contract and days not worked in Emergency Care Public in a city in the interior of São Paulo. We conducted exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, with nursing professionals, after selection of inclusion criteria was reached a universe of 208 subjects, the data collected are for the years from 2010-2013. Research has shown that the professional category of nursing assistant had 88,11% of total absenteeism, absenteeism lasting 1 day was the with the highest frequency, the women were responsible for 74,80% of absenteeism disease. It was concluded that absenteeism shall be monitored to plan control actions, establishing better political for the management of human resources, because it can be an aggravating factor in the quality of care.

Keywords: absenteeism; nursing; emergency medical services, human resource

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254 Depollution of the Pinheiros River in the City of São Paulo: Mapping the Dynamics of Conflicts and Coalitions between Actors in Two Recent Depollution Projects

Authors: Adalberto Gregorio Back


Historically, the Pinheiros River, which crosses the urban area of the largest South American metropolis, the city of São Paulo, has been the subject of several interventions involving different interests and multiple demands, including the implementation of road axes and industrial occupation in the city, following its floodplains. the dilution of sewers; generation of electricity, with the reversal of its waters to the Billings Dam; and urban drainage. These processes, together with the exclusionary and peripheral urban sprawl with high population density in the peripheries, result in difficulties for the collection and treatment of household sewage, which flow into the tributaries and the Pinheiros River itself. In the last 20 years, two separate projects have been undertaken to clean up its waters. The first one between 2001-2011 was the flotation system, aimed at cleaning the river in its own gutter with equipment installed near the Bilings Dam; and, more recently, from 2019 to 2022, the proposal to connect about 74 thousand dwellings to the sewage collection and treatment system, as well as to install treatment plants in the tributaries of Pinheiros where the connection to the system is impracticable, given the irregular occupations. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis on the dynamics of conflicts, interests and opportunities of coalitions between the actors involved in the two referred projects of pollution of the Pinheiros River. For this, we use the analysis of documents produced by the state government; as well as documents related to the legal disputes that occurred in the first attempt of decontamination involving the sanitation company; the Billings Dam management company interested in power generation; the city hall and regular and irregular dwellings not linked to the sanitation system.

Keywords: depollution of the Pinheiros River, interests groups, São Paulo, water energy nexus

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253 Congenital Malformations in Neonate Dogs in the Sao Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


Congenital malformations are organ defects due to genetic or teratogenic causes, which can lead to high mortality in dog litters. This study assessed and described the congenital malformations in newborn dogs. The study included litters attend in the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. One hundred seventy-eight litters and 803 newborns were evaluated. The occurrence of litters with malformations was 24.7%, and of newborns was 6.7%. Twenty-seven different malformations were registered: anasarca, anal atresia, cleft lip, cleft palate, duplicated right ribcage, equinovarus, exencephaly, gastroschisis, hydrocephaly, lissencephaly, macroglossia, microphthalmia, mitral valve dysplasia, omphalocele, eyelid agenesis, persistent urachus, polydactyly, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary valve stenosis, rectovaginal fistula, agenesis of abdominal muscles, rib hypoplasia, scoliosis, segmental aplasia of the intestines, tricuspid valve dysplasia, unilateral kidney agenesis, and vaginal atresia. 68.7% of newborns died as a result of malformations. The pure breeds with the highest chances of manifesting malformations in contrast with mixed breeds were French Bulldog, Pug, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, German Spitz, Pinscher, Pitbull, Yorkshire Terrier, and Shih-Tzu. Significant values (P<0.05) occurred in races French Bulldogs and Pugs. The causes of congenital disabilities are possibly related to hereditary genetic factors considering that the highest incidence of malformations was observed among purebreds. There as one case of exposure to a teratogenic agent, but no other mothers were exposed to such agents during pregnancy. Two cases of consanguineal breeding between siblings were reported. The mortality rate was high. Genetic breeding programs for reproduction, avoiding consanguineous mating, care in choosing parents, and avoiding maternal exposure to teratogenic agents are of utmost importance in reducing dog malformations and consequent mortality.

Keywords: congenital defects, teratogenesis, canine neonatology, newborn puppy

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252 Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosols over South America: A Case Study in the 2019 Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Season

Authors: Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Dirceu Luis Herdies, Debora Souza Alvim, Eder Paulo Vendrasco, Silvio Nilo Figueroa, Jayant Pendharkar, Julio Pablo Reyes Fernandez


Biomass-burning episodes are quite common in the central Amazon rainforest and represent a dominant source of aerosols during the dry season, between August and October. The increase in the occurrence of fires in 2019 in the world’s largest biomes has captured the attention of the international community. In particular, a rare and extreme smoke-related event occurred in the afternoon of Monday, August 19, 2019, in the most populous city in the Western Hemisphere, the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in southeastern Brazil. The sky over the SPMA suddenly blackened, with the day turning into night, as reported by several news media around the world. In order to clarify whether or not the smoke that plunged the SPMA into sudden darkness was related to wildfires in the Amazon rainforest region, a set of 48-hour simulations over South America were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at 20 km horizontal resolution, on a daily basis, during the period from August 16 to August 19, 2019. The model results were satisfactorily compared against satellite-based data products and in situ measurements collected from air quality monitoring sites. Although a very strong smoke transport coming from the Amazon rainforest was observed in the middle of the afternoon on August 19, its impact on air quality over the SPMA took place in upper levels far above the surface, where, conversely, low air pollutant concentrations were observed.

Keywords: Amazon rainforest, biomass burning aerosols, São Paulo metropolitan area, WRF-Chem model

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251 Restoring, Revitalizing and Recovering Brazilian Rivers: Application of the Concept to Small Basins in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Juliana C. Alencar, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto


Watercourses in Brazilian urban areas are constantly being degraded due to the unplanned use of the urban space; however, due to the different contexts of land use and occupation in the river watersheds, different intervention strategies are required to requalify them. When it comes to requalifying watercourses, we can list three main techniques to fulfill this purpose: restoration, revitalization and recovery; each one being indicated for specific contexts of land use and occupation in the basin. In this study, it was demonstrated that the application of these three techniques to three small basins in São Paulo city, listing the aspects involved in each of the contexts and techniques of requalification. For a protected watercourse within a forest park, renaturalization was proposed, where the watercourse is preserved in a state closer to the natural one. For a watercourse in an urban context that still preserves open spaces for its maintenance as a landscape element, an intervention was proposed following the principles of revitalization, integrating the watercourse with the landscape and the population. In the case of a watercourse in a harder context, only recovery was proposed, since the watercourse is found under the road system, which makes it difficult to integrate it into the landscape.

Keywords: sustainable drainage, river restoration, river revitalization, river recovery

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250 Hydro-Sedimentological Evaluation in Itajurú Channel–Araruama Lagoon-Rj, Due Superelevation of the Sea Level by Climate Change

Authors: Paulo José Sigaúque, Paulo Rosman


The Itajurú channel, located in the Eastern side of the Araruama lagoon, Rio de Janeiro state, is the one who makes the connection between Araruama lagoon and the sea. It is important to understand the hydrodynamic circulation of the location and effects of the sedimentological processes, and also estimate of the hydrodynamic and sedimentological processes in the future after the sea level change due to effects of climate change. This work presents results of a study about sediments dynamics in the Araruama lagoon focusing on the Itajurú channel region considering the present mean sea level and a foreseen sea level rise of 0.5 meters due to climate changes. The study was conducted with the aid of computer modeling for hydrodynamic and morphodynamic in SisBaHiA®. The results indicate that Araruama lagoon is composed by two hydrodynamics compartments; one is dominated by the action of the tide between the entrance of the channel and the strait of Perynas, and another one by the action of wind in narrow region between strait of Perynas and western extreme of the lagoon. With sea level rise, the magnitude of current velocities and flow rates is increased and consequently flow of sediment transport from upstream to downstream of Itajurú channel is increased and has more effect in the bridge Feliciano Sodré.

Keywords: hydrodinamic, superelevation, sea level, climate change

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249 Development of a Nursing Care Program Based on Anthroposophic External Therapy for the Pediatric Hospital in Brazil and Germany

Authors: Karina Peron, Ricardo Ghelman, Monica Taminato, Katia R. Oliveira, Debora C. A. Rodrigues, Juliana R. C. Mumme, Olga K. M. Sunakozaua, Georg Seifert, Vicente O. Filho


The nurse is the most available health professional for the interventions of support in the integrative approach in hospital environment, therefore a professional group key to changes in the model of care. The central components in the performance of anthroposophic nursing procedures are direct physical contact, promotion of proper rhythm, thermal regulation and the construction of a calm and empathic atmosphere, safe for patients and their caregivers. The procedures of anthroposophic external therapies (AET), basically composed of the application of compresses and the use of natural products, provide an opportunity to intensify the therapeutic results through an innovative, complementary and integrative model in the university hospital. The objective of this work is to report the implementation of a program of nursing techniques (AET) through a partnership between the Pediatric Oncology Sector of the Department of Pediatrics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo and Charite University of Berlin, with lecturers from Berlin's Integrative Hospital Havelhöhe and Witten-Herdecke Integrative Hospital, both in Germany. Intensive training activities of the Hospital's nursing staff and a survey on AET needs were developed based on the most prevalent complaints in pediatric oncology patients in the three environments of the Hospital of Pediatric Oncology: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Intensive Care Unit and Division of Internal Patients. We obtained the approval of the clinical protocol of external anthroposophic therapies for nursing care by the Ethics Committee and the Academic Council of the Hospital. With this project, we highlight the key AET needs that will be part of the standard program of pediatric oncology care with appropriate scientific support. The results of the prevalent symptoms were: vomiting, nausea, pain, difficulty in starting sleep, constipation, cold extremities, mood disorder and psychomotor agitation. This project was the pioneer within the Integrative Pediatrics Program, as an innovative concept of Medicine and Integrative Health presented at scientific meetings.

Keywords: integrative health care, integrative nursing, pediatric nursing, pediatric oncology

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248 Anthropocentric and Ecocentric Representation of Human-Environment Relationship in Paulo Coelho's the Alchemist

Authors: Tooba Sabir, Namra Sabir, Mohammad Amjad Sabir


The human-environment relationship has been projected since the beginning of literary tradition i.e. pastoral tradition, however, the interest of critics, writers and poets, in this view, has been developed, since the last couple of decades because of the increasing scope of environmental studies and growing environmental issues. One such novel, that projects human-environment relationship, is ‘The Alchemist.’ It is Paulo Coelho’s one of the most read novels. It holds a central theme that the universe conspires to help a person achieve his destiny, projecting anthropocentrism and human domination by centralizing human and devaluing the intrinsic worth of ecosystem. However, ecocritical analysis of the text reveals that the novel contains, at several instances, ecocentrism as well e.g. ‘everything on earth is being continuously transformed because earth is alive.’ This portrays ecosphere as living and dynamic entity rather than a mere instrument for human to achieve his destiny. The idea that the universe shares the same language projects unity of nature showing the relationship between human and non-human aspects of the environment as one being and not separate or superior to one another. It depicts human as a part of the environment and not the lord of the world. Therefore, it can be concluded that the novel oscillates between both the ecocentric and the anthropocentric phenomena. It is not suggested, however, that one phenomenon should be valued over the other but that the complexities of both the phenomena should be recognized, acknowledged and valued in order to encourage the interactions between literature and environment.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, ecocritical analysis, human-environment relationship

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247 3D Dentofacial Surgery Full Planning Procedures

Authors: Oliveira M., Gonçalves L., Vale F., Caramelo F., Francisco I., Vale, F., Sanz D., Domingues M., Lopes M., Moreia D., Lopes T., Santos T., Cardoso H.


The ARTHUR project consists of a platform that allows the virtual performance of maxillofacial surgeries, offering, in a photorealistic concept, the possibility for the patient to have an idea of the surgical changes before they are performed on their face. For this, the system brings together several image formats, dicoms and objs that, after loading, will generate the bone volume, soft tissues and hard tissues. The system also incorporates the patient's stereophotogrammetry, in addition to their data and clinical history. After loading and inserting data, the clinician can virtually perform the surgical operation and present the final result to the patient, generating a new facial surface that contemplates the changes made in the bone and tissues of the maxillary area. This tool acts in different situations that require facial reconstruction, however this project focuses specifically on two types of use cases: bone congenital disfigurement and acquired disfiguration such as oral cancer with bone attainment. Being developed a cloud based solution, with mobile support, the tool aims to reduce the decision time window of patient. Because the current simulations are not realistic or, if realistic, need time due to the need of building plaster models, patient rates on decision, rely on a long time window (1,2 months), because they don’t identify themselves with the presented surgical outcome. On the other hand, this planning was performed time based on average estimated values of the position of the maxilla and mandible. The team was based on averages of the facial measurements of the population, without specifying racial variability, so the proposed solution was not adjusted to the real individual physiognomic needs.

Keywords: 3D computing, image processing, image registry, image reconstruction

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