Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 841

Search results for: tourism attractions

841 Eco-Parcel As a Semi-Qualitative Approach to Support Environmental Impacts Assessments in Nature-Based Tourism Destinations

Authors: Halima Kilungu, Pantaleo, K. T. Munishi

Abstract:

Climate and land-cover change affect nature-based tourism (NBT) due to its attractions' close connection to natural environments and climate. Thus, knowledge of how each attraction reacts to the changing environments and devising simple yet science based approaches to respond to these changes from a tourism perspective in space and time is timely. Nevertheless, no specific approaches exist to address the knowledge gap. The eco-parcel approach is devised to address the gap and operationalized in Serengeti and Kilimanjaro National Parks: the most climate-sensitive NBT destinations in Africa. The approach is partly descriptive and has three simple steps: (1) to identify and define tourist attractions (i.e. biotic and abiotic attractions). This creates an important database of the most poorly kept information on attractions' types in NBT destinations. (2) To create a spatial and temporal link of each attraction and describe its characteristic environments (e.g. vegetation, soil, water and rock outcrops). This is the most limited attractions' information yet important as a proxy of changes in attractions. (3) To assess the importance of individual attractions for tourism based on tourists' preferences. This information enables an accurate assessment of the value of individual attractions for tourism. The importance of the eco-parcel approach is that it describes how each attraction emerges from and is connected to specific environments, which define its attractiveness in space and time. This information allows accurate assessment of the likely losses or gains of individual attractions when climate or environment changes in specific destinations and equips tourism stakeholders with informed responses.

Keywords: climate change, environmental change, nature-based tourism, Serengeti National Park, Kilimanjaro National Park

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840 Tourism Development in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro

Authors: Janet Jeanne B. Comia, Camille R. Del Rosario, Ma. Janzen A. Dizon, Jacob Russell A. Gooh, Patricia Ann S. Muli

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The researchers conducted the study in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro.There is a substantial lack of research regarding this place as a destination for tourism as well as its potentials. The researchers aspired to determine how the locals perceive the tourism development in the province in terms of activities, attractions, as well as tourist influx. The main instrument used in the study is the interview method to get more in-depth information regarding the subject. The results showed that attractions and activities greatly increased. There has been a very evident ascent in the number of tourists, foreign and local, visiting the place leading to an increase in tourist influx. Results also presented that tourist congestion is moderate and manageable. It has been observed as well that the town lacked tourism-related merchandise available for tourist consumption and the same can be said for the accommodation and lodging facilities in the destination.

Keywords: tourism development, tourism activities, tourist attractions, tourist influx

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839 Integrating ICT- Based Applications for Sustainable Tourism Development in Algeria

Authors: Boutkhil Guemide, Chellali Benachaiba

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an inevitable impact on different industries and their performances. The tourism industry as the largest and fastest growing industry in the world cannot be excluded from this technology and its huge impacts. ICT provides information about tourist attractions in the different destinations before travelling and may improve tourists’ satisfaction. Although Algeria has great tourism potentials, it still needs to be performed well in promoting its attractions to international tourists via ICT tools yet. This research explores the impact of ICT on foreign tourists’ satisfaction of the tourism industry and uses Algerian tourist agencies as a case study, and proposes a model for the impact of ICT on sustainable tourism. Finally, it is concluded that e-ticketing, e-reservation, online payment, multilingual and updated information websites are essential needs for planning strategies in the field of e-tourism. Also, it is recommended that the tourism authorities should develop e-tourism infrastructures in order to keep up with the competitiveness of this field to enable the country to benefit from the global benefits of the tourism industry.

Keywords: Information and Communications Technology (ICT), tourism, tourists’ satisfaction, sustainable tourism

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838 Tourism Development and Its Role in the Urban Expansion of Al-Khomse City, Libya

Authors: Khaled Klib, Yousri Azzam, Ibrahim Maarouf

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Tourism is one of the most important and fastest growing economic activities in the world, which has a prominent role in the growth and development of countries and has become increasingly important as business and trade after the World War II. The tourism development is one of the most important aspects of urban development, which aims to plan and develop tourist attractions and improve the urban environment within cities. Tourism development has become a priority for the urban development policy of cities, particularly those which have many tourist potentials. Complementary services, such as infrastructure, roads’ networks, transportation, and communications are needed for these potentials to function properly. In order to achieve these functionalities, also a new planning for the new areas as an expansion is required, or developing and renovating the existing urban areas according to pre-prepared plans to avoid random expansion of the urban structure of the city. This paper aims to determine the tourist attractions of Al-Khomse city, by reviewing the most important tourist attractions such as the Roman city (Leptis Magna), the geographical location on the Mediterranean coast, the temperate climate and diversity of the natural environment. The paper also examines the reality of the infrastructure and tourist services in the city and its suitability to serve the tourism sector. The paper also includes a proposed for tourism development in the city as one of the city's urban expansion trends, which can guide the development strategy in the future. The paper concludes with a vision for the tourism development areas as one of the trends for urban expansion in the future. The paper also concludes tourism development will have an effective role in the growth and development of urban, economic and social, in addition to preserving the natural environment. The paper recommended the need to emphasize the role of tourism development as one of the pillars and trends for the development policy and expansion of Al-Khomse city, preservation of tourist attractions and natural resources and developing infrastructure and tourist services such as accommodation, entertainment, mobility, and accessibility.

Keywords: tourism, tourist attractions, tourism development, urban expansion

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837 Level of Roles Performed in Tourism Development: The Case Study of Local Municipality, Chiang Khan District, Loei

Authors: Sukanya Sripho

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This paper aims to examine the level of roles performed in tourism development by local people residing in Chiang Khan Sub-District Municipality, Loei Province in Northeast of Thailand. In addition, this study also tested whether personal factors had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development. These personal factors included gender, age, educational level, career, position and duty in the community, average income per month, length of residence and involvement in the tourism industry. The findings revealed a high level in each role performed. These roles were ranked from the highest mean score to the lowest mean score as follows: (1) improving and rejuvenating tourist attractions; (2) improving tourist facilities; (3) promoting people participation; (4) publicizing tourist attractions; (5) protecting for safety and security; and (6) surveying and managing the information of tourist attractions. Furthermore, it was found that position and duty in the community, length of residence and involvement in tourism industry had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development at a significance level of 0.05.

Keywords: Role, local municipality administration, tourism development, Thailand

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836 Antecedents and Loyalty of Foreign Tourists towards Attractions in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand

Authors: Arunroong Wongkungwan

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This study aimed to investigate the influence of selected antecedents, which were tourists’ satisfaction towards attractions in Bangkok, perceived value of the attractions, feelings of engagement with the attractions, acquaintance with the attractions, push factors, pull factors and motivation to seek novelty, on foreign tourist’s loyalty towards tourist attractions in Bangkok. By using multi stage sampling technique, 400 international tourists were sampled. After that, Semi Structural Equation Model was utilized in the analysis stage by LISREL. The Semi Structural Equation Model of the selected antecedents of tourist’s loyalty attractions had a correlation with the empirical data through the following statistical descriptions: Chi- square = 3.43, df = 4, P- value = 0.48893; RMSEA = 0.000; CFI = 1.00; CN = 1539.75; RMR = 0.0022; GFI = 1.00 and AGFI = 0.98. The findings indicated that all antecedents were able together to predict the loyalty of the foreign tourists who visited Bangkok at 73 percent.

Keywords: antecedent, Bangkok, foreign tourists, loyalty, tourist attractions

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835 Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability: A Case Study of North Cyprus

Authors: Marjan Kamyabi

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Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.

Keywords: accessible tourism, environmental barriers, tourism, people with disability, accessibility

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834 A Comparison of Short- and Long-Haul Vacation Tourists on Evaluation of Attractiveness: The Case of Hong Kong

Authors: Zhaoyu Chen

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In this study, an attempt was made to find reasons why tourists go to particular attractions. Tourists may be either motivated by the attractions or simply make the choice to satisfy their needs and desires. Based on the attractions in Hong Kong, this research was conducted to explore the attraction-related concepts to discuss how the attraction system works. Due to the limited studies on exploring the attractiveness of attractions through tourist movement patterns, the study aims to evaluate such indicators to determine whether tourists are motivated by attractiveness or their own needs. The investigation is conducted through the comparison of different source markets - Mainland China, short haul markets (excluding Mainland China) and long haul markets. The latest finding of Departing Visitor Survey (DVS) implemented by the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) is employed for the analysis. Various tourist movement patterns are drawn from the practical data. The managerial implication to destination management organizations (DMOs) is suggested to better allocate attractions according to the needs of tourists.

Keywords: attractions, attraction system, Hong Kong, tourist movement patterns

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833 Appraisal of Maintenance Practices in Selected Tourist Attraction in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Amina Bata Zoaka, Aishatu Ibrahim

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This study appraised maintenance practices in selected tourist attractions in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Four tourist attractions were used for the research. Checklists were used to assess operations and repairs maintenance practices in the different attractions. The study carried out personal assessment thrice in six months without prior knowledge of the staff in charge for operational maintenance. Records of repairs maintenance from the attractions maintenance unit for a period of ten years were assessed using the checklists. The findings of the study show that operations maintenance was not adequately carried out in the four tourists attractions. Repairs maintenance was carried out in Yankari game reserve and safari, but repairs maintenance was poor in the other three attractions. The study therefore, recommends that adequate maintenance should be practiced in tourist attractions to expand the lifespan of the facilities and also encourage tourist patronage.

Keywords: appraisal, maintenance, practices, tourist attraction

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832 Developing Points of Attractions and Destinations: The Case Study of Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand

Authors: Panisa Panyalert

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This research presents the tourism industry at Nakhon Sawan province in an aspect of developing points of attractions and destinations. The author attempts to empirically analyze the tourist destination, Nakhon Sawan, by using components of the tourism inventory include: attraction, accessibility, accommodation and amenity. An understanding of existing tourism product is very important in order to find out strength and weakness by comparing with the nearby well-known tourist destination, Phitsanulok province. Moreover, the hypothetical evolution of a tourist area will be utilized as a framework for indicating stages of the destination in relation to number of tourists. The study uses secondary data of number of tourist arrivals in Nakhon Sawan from 2008 to 2013 receiving from National Statistical Office and Nakhon Sawan Provincial Administration Organization (NPAO) in order to find the stage of destination development, and an in-depth interview with several open-ended questions would be preferred in order to get deep details of necessary data by video recording with ten respondents. The findings are concentrated on potential places and sites, existing tourism product, strength and weakness, and positioning to assist the province to be the destination of tourists’ mind.

Keywords: destination development, destination management, tourism inventory, tourism product

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831 Developing a Clustered-Based Model and Strategy for Waterfront Urban Tourism in Manado, Indonesia

Authors: Bet El Silisna Lagarense, Agustinus Walansendow

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Manado Waterfront Development (MWD) occurs along the coastline of the city to meet the communities’ various needs and interests. Manado waterfront, with its various kinds of tourist attractions, is being developed to strengthen opportunities for both tourism and other businesses. There are many buildings that are used for trade and business purposes. The spatial distributions of tourism, commercial and residential land uses overlap. Field research at the study site consisted desktop scan, questionnaire-based survey, observation and in-depth interview with key informants and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) identified how MWD was initially planned and designed in the whole process of decision making in terms of resource and environmental management particularly for the waterfront tourism development in the long run. The study developed a clustered-based model for waterfront urban tourism in Manado through evaluation of spatial distribution of tourism uses along the waterfront.

Keywords: clustered-based model, Manado, urban tourism, waterfront

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830 Tourist Satisfaction: An Experience Study Applied to Tourism Attractions in China

Authors: Min Wei

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Objectives: Experience tourism represents an advanced stage of tourism compared with sightseeing tourism and relaxation tourism. Experience tourism reflects the full respect of experience economy to the human natures. This paper chose one of the most popular ocean tourism products in Zhoushan, as a subject and investigated the constructive elements in tourist experience based on the needs of tourists. Methods: This paper started with the influences of tourism product innovation on tourist experience, then proposed a model of the relationship between tourist experience, tourist satisfaction, and the following behavior of tourists, and concluded that tourist experience improves tourist satisfaction and thereby enhances tourist loyalty based on the developmental pathway of experience tourism. To ensure the accuracy of the collected data of the research results, the sample of this questionnaire survey is chosen by the method of occasional sampling, combined with the judgment of the investigators and the convenience of the questionnaire survey, the survey objects are selected from the scenic spots of Putuo Mountain, Zhujiajian, Taohua Island, waiting room of passenger terminal, etc. Before filling in the questionnaire, the author and the respondents have a short communication. On the premise that the respondents can fully understand the purpose and content of the questionnaire, tourists fill in the questionnaire independently and collect it on the spot. Results: The research results of this paper are mainly embodied in the following aspects: it is concluded that there are many constructive factors of tourists' experience in Zhoushan tourism products. Based on Zhoushan tourism products, this paper explores the constructive factors of tourists' experience in Zhoushan tourism products from three aspects: attracting object experience, facility experience and service experience. At present, there are still big differences between Zhoushan tourism products, tourists’ expectations and tourists' experience, mainly in the aspects of transportation, publicity and tour guide service. Corresponding measures should be taken to improve tourists' experience quality and satisfaction. Conclusions: The influence factors of island tourism products are discriminated, and established a structural model of tourist experience, which includes three basic elements: attractions, facilities, and services. This model was further verified by questionnaires and analyses in Putuo Shan, Zhujia Jian, and Taohua Island. Finally, we combined this model and made some suggestions on boost the satisfaction of Zhoushan islands.

Keywords: experience tourism, tourists’ expectations, tourists' experience, tourism products

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829 Tourism Management of the Heritage and Archaeological Sites in Egypt

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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The archaeological heritage sites are one of the most important touristic attractions worldwide. Egypt has various archaeological sites and historical locations that are classified within the list of the archaeological heritage destinations in the world, such as Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, and Sinai. This study focuses on how to manage the archaeological sites and provide them with all services according to the traveler's needs. Tourism management depends on strategic planning for supporting the national economy and sustainable development. Additionally, tourism management has to utilize highly effective standards of security, promotion, advertisement, sales, and marketing while taking into consideration the preservation of monuments. In Egypt, the archaeological heritage sites must be well-managed and protected, which would assist tourism management, especially in times of crisis. Recently, the monumental places and archeological heritage sites were affected by unstable conditions and were threatened. It is essential to focus on preserving our heritage. Moreover, more efforts and cooperation between the tourism organizations and ministry of archaeology have to be done in order to protect the archaeology and promote the tourism industry. Methodology: Qualitative methods have been used as the overall approach to this study. Interviews and observations have provided the researcher with the required in-depth insight to the research subject. The researcher was a lecturer of tourist guidance that allows visiting all historical sites in Egypt. Additionally, the researcher had the privilege to communicate with tourism specialists and attend meetings, conferences, and events that were focused on the research subject. Objectives: The main purpose of the research was gaining information in order to develop theoretical research on how to effectively benefit out of those historical sights both economically and culturally, and pursue further researches and scientific studies to be well-suited for tourism and hospitality sector. The researcher works hard to present further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeological heritage using previous experience. Pursing this course of study enables the researcher to acquire the necessary abilities and competencies to achieve the set goal successfully. Results: The professional tourism management focus on making Egypt one of the most important destinations in the world, and provide the heritage and archaeological sites with all services that will place those locations into the international map of tourism. Tourists interested in visiting Egypt and making tourism flourish supports and strengths Egypt's national economy and the local community, taking into consideration preserving our heritage and archaeology. Conclusions: Egypt has many tourism attractions represented in the heritage, archaeological sites, and touristic places. These places need more attention and efforts to be included in tourism programs and be opened for visitors from all over the world. These efforts will encourage both local and international tourism to see our great civilization and provide different touristic activities.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological sites, heritage, ministry of archaeology, national economy, touristic attractions, tourism management, tourism organizations

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828 Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship as Strategy for Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Salami Ayobami Taofeek, Ajayi Adeola

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Rural tourism entrepreurship is a tourist industry which revolutionizes businesses and prompting economic development across the globe. It encompasses huge range activities, natural or man-made attractions, amenities and facilities, transportation, marketing and information systems. It is also an important export for 83% of the developing countries and the main export for one third of them. In 2000, developing countries recorded 142.6 million international arrivals an increase of 95% compared to the figures of 1990. However, only developing countries with effective natural and man-made tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure have been able to develop their tourism sector and seize the attendance advantages. Rural areas of Nigeria possess some distinctive peculiarities which can be transformed into attractive tourist centers. In spite of all these, rural tourism areas are still faced with myriad problems which include poor finance inadequate awareness and education, lack of progress in developing the rural of progress in developing the rural tourism potentials inadequate legislation, insecurity, entrepreneurial inertness, over-dependent on oil among others. This paper focuses on the impact and challenges of rural tourism entrepreneurship as strategy for economic development in Nigeria. It reviews literature rural tourism, tourism entrepreneurship potentials and classifications of Nigerians tourism potential’s destinations. The paper concludes that Nigeria Government should encourage rural based tourism entrepreneurship development by addressing the challenges facing rural tourism entrepreneurship in the country.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, economic development, rural tourism, tourism destinations tourism potentials

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827 The Tourism Pattern Based on Lifestyle: A Case Study of Suzhou City in China

Authors: Ling Chen, Lanyan Peng

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In the new round of institutional reform of the State Council, Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Tourism were formed into a new department, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which embodied the idea of the fusion development of cultural and tourism industries. At the same time, domestic tourists pay more attention to the tourism experience and tourism quality. The tourism patterns have been changed from the sightseeing mode of the individual scenic spot to the lifestyle mode of feeling the cultural atmosphere of the tourist destination. Therefore, this paper focuses on the tourism pattern based on lifestyle, studies the development status, content, and implementation measures of the tourism pattern. As the tourism pattern based on lifestyle integrating cultural and tourism industries in-depth, tourists can experience the living atmosphere, living conditions and living quality of the tourist destination, and deeply understand the urban cultural connotation during the trip. Suzhou has taken a series of measures to build up a tourism pattern based on lifestyle-'Suzhou life' tourism, including regional planning of tourism, integration of cultural resources, construction of urban atmosphere, and upgrading infrastructure. 'Suzhou life' tourism is based on the Suzhou food (cooked wheaten food, dim sum, specialty snacks), tourist attractions (Suzhou gardens, the ancient city) and characteristic recreational ways (appreciating Kun opera, enjoying Suzhou Pingtan, tea drinking). And the continuous integration of the three components above meet the spiritual, cultural needs of tourists and upgrade the tourism pattern based on lifestyle. Finally, the paper puts forward the tourism pattern planning suggestions.

Keywords: tourism pattern, lifestyle, integration of cultural and tourism industries, Suzhou life

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826 High Speed Rail vs. Other Factors Affecting the Tourism Market in Italy

Authors: F. Pagliara, F. Mauriello

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The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the increase of accessibility brought by high speed rail (HSR) systems and the tourism market in Italy. The impacts of HSR projects on tourism can be quantified in different ways. In this manuscript, an empirical analysis has been carried out with the aid of a dataset containing information both on tourism and transport for 99 Italian provinces during the 2006-2016 period. Panel data regression models have been considered, since they allow modelling a wide variety of correlation patterns. Results show that HSR has an impact on the choice of a given destination for Italian tourists while the presence of a second level hub mainly affects foreign tourists. Attraction variables are also significant for both categories and the variables concerning security, such as number of crimes registered in a given destination, have a negative impact on the choice of a destination.

Keywords: tourists, overnights, high speed rail, attractions, security

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825 The Impact of Political Events on National Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Industry: Study Case of Egypt after January 25th, 2011

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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Tourism plays an essential role in supporting the National Economy. Egypt was ranked as one of the most attractive touristic destinations worldwide. Tourism as a service sector affects political events and unstable conditions. Within the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism became below standards, and the archeological heritage sites were subject to threat. Because of the political tension and social instability, Egypt's tourism sector has drastically dropped. Currently, Egypt is working on overcoming the crisis caused by political unrest. However, it is expected to take a long time to get back to where it was, especially in terms of regaining the confidence of travelers in the country's ability to guarantee and maintain security and stability. Recently, many great projects have been done, such as; New Administrative Cairo Capital, New Suez Canal logistic project, New City of Al Alamin, New Grand Egyptian Museum, as well as other great projects that reflect positively on the tourism industry and archaeological heritage development in Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological heritage, attractions, national economy, political events, touristic destinations, tourism industry

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824 Analyzing Growth Trends of the Built Area in the Precincts of Various Types of Tourist Attractions in India: 2D and 3D Analysis

Authors: Yarra Sulina, Nunna Tagore Sai Priya, Ankhi Banerjee

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With the rapid growth in tourist arrivals, there has been a huge demand for the growth of infrastructure in the destinations. With the increasing preference of tourists to stay near attractions, there has been a considerable change in the land use around tourist sites. However, with the inclusion of certain regulations and guidelines provided by the authorities based on the nature of tourism activity and geographical constraints, the pattern of growth of built form is different for various tourist sites. Therefore, this study explores the patterns of growth of built-up for a decade from 2009 to 2019 through two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis. Land use maps are created through supervised classification of satellite images obtained from LANDSAT 4-5 and LANDSAT 8 for 2009 and 2019, respectively. The overall expansion of the built-up area in the region is analyzed in relation to the distance from the city's geographical center and the tourism-related growth regions are identified which are influenced by the proximity of tourist attractions. The primary tourist sites of various destinations with different geographical characteristics and tourism activities, that have undergone a significant increase in built-up area and are occupied with tourism-related infrastructure are selected for further study. Proximity analysis of the tourism-related growth sites is carried out to delineate the influence zone of the tourist site in a destination. Further, a temporal analysis of volumetric growth of built form is carried out to understand the morphology of the tourist precincts over time. The Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are used to extract the building footprints along with building height. Factors such as building height, and building density are evaluated to understand the patterns of three-dimensional growth of the built area in the region. The study also explores the underlying reasons for such changes in built form around various tourist sites and predicts the impact of such growth patterns in the region. The building height and building density around tourist site creates a huge impact on the appeal of the destination. The surroundings that are incompatible with the theme of the tourist site have a negative impact on the attractiveness of the destination that leads to negative feedback by the tourists, which is not a sustainable form of development. Therefore, proper spatial measures are necessary in terms of area and volume of the built environment for a healthy and sustainable environment around the tourist sites in the destination.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, growth patterns, land-use changes, 3-dimensional analysis of built-up area

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823 Factors Relating to Travel Behavior at the Floating Market of Thai Tourists

Authors: Siri-orn Champatong

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The purpose of this research was to study factors that were related with travel behaviors of Thai tourists at the Ayothaya Floating Market, Phra Nakhon Sri Ayutthaya. The quantitative research was conducted with 400 samples of Thai tourists traveling to the Ayothaya Floating Market. The Questionnaire was a tool used to collect data, and the statistics used for data analysis were mean and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. The results found that Thai tourists focused on attraction, easy access and facilities of the tourist spot at a high level. In addition, they gave priority to the marketing mix in the dimension of products, price, and distribution channels at a high level as well. For marketing promotion, it was at the moderate level. The results of hypothesis testing revealed that factors related to the attractions of the tourist destination, easy access to the tourist destination, the facilities of the tourist spot, and product and price of the marketing mix were associated with travel behaviors in the aspect of the number of visits used and the budget on tourism.

Keywords: floating market, marketing mix, tourism attractions, travelling behavior

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822 Examining the Perceptions of Religious Stakeholders towards Religious Tourism Development

Authors: Katerina Pericleous, Zanet Garanti

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Traveling for religious and pilgrimage purposes consist of an early-stage motivation for the historical development of tourism. Sacred places become important attractions for local and foreign visitors, and many countries invest on the development of religious and pilgrimage tourism. Cyprus has a rich tradition as an important place for the establishment and diffusion of the Christian Orthodox Religion (Greek). Being considered the ‘island of Saints’, Cyprus sets strong foundations to be recognised as a spiritual destination of devotion for visitors interested in discovering the roots and the spiritual essence of the Christian Orthodox Religion. The paper elucidates on bringing together the fact whether tourism in sacred places affect the spirituality and religiosity. Thus, the aim is to consider the perceptions of main religious stakeholders, including monastery abbots, in relation to the development of religious tourism. The aim of the study is fulfilled by incorporating questionnaires targeting the responses of the involved religious key players and stakeholders. The results of the study are indicative and provide an understanding in terms of religious tourism as an important product by interpreting the stance of religious stakeholders. In general, religious leaders support tourism in religious sites and argue that spirituality and holiness can be maintained as long there is a policy that is followed both by religious and tourism policy makers. Undoubtedly, establishing Cyprus as a religious tourism destination would bring many economic and social benefits.

Keywords: religious tourism, cyprus, Christian orthodox religion, monasteries

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821 Urban Heritage and Its Role in the Tourism Development in Yemen: Case Study of Historic Town of Zabid

Authors: Yasser Alhiagi, Moshalleh Almoraekhi, Sameh Refaat

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Urban heritage has an important status in the process of developing the Yemeni tourism sector. Urban heritage in Yemen differs depending on the regions and historical cities such as City of Old Sana'a, Historic Town of Zabid, Shibam Hadhramout, Taiz, and others. Zabid is an old town with a long history, founded in the 9th century. It has been the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century and played, because of its Islamic university, an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries. The aim of this research is to promote the built heritage of Historic Town of Zabid and explore the possibilities of visiting the rehabilitated buildings and other heritage attractions through tourism. It examines the nature of the relationship exists between tourism and built heritage. The research is intended to contribute to the strategy development of national tourism for the purpose of protecting, developing, and utilizing cultural heritage. Also, the research depended chiefly on the results of a field work proposed to be carried out at Historic Town of Zabid.

Keywords: historic town of Zabid, strategy, tourism development, urban heritage

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820 Coastal Environment: Statistical Analysis and Geomorphic Impact on Urban Tourism in Lagos, Portugal

Authors: Magdalena Kuleta

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Ponta de Piedade (37º05 ' N, 08º40 ' W) is an area located in the southern part of the Lagos municipality, which include an abrasive and accumulative type of coastline. It is the one of the main touristic destinations of the city. The dynamic development of the attractiveness of the coast, is related with the expansion of the new tourism infrastructure and urban tourism products. These products are: transportation, sightseeing and entertainment in the form of the boat trips. Each type of excursion refers to the different product. This progress brings also many risks associated primarily with landslides cliffs. Natural conditions affecting the coast, create a huge impact on the evolution of urban tourism management. Based on observation, statistical analysis and survey method, author compare the period of six years from 2012 to 2016 in terms of the number of tourists, number and diversity of attractions, most frequently dialled products and infrastructure changes in the city. Carried methodology is based on data belonging to Turismo Portugal and the tourist company Days of Adventure. Main result, is to indicate the essence of the income from coastal tourism into the city development and how does it influence on the marketing and promoting of urban tourism in Lagos.

Keywords: geomorphology of the coast in Lagos, market and promotion, quality of tourism service, urban tourism products

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819 A Critical Evaluation of the Factors that Influence Visitor Engagement with U.K. Slavery Heritage Museums: A Passive Symbolic Netnographic Study

Authors: Shemroy Roberts

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Despite minor theoretical contributions in slavery heritage tourism research that have commented on the demand-side perspective, visitor behavior and engagement with slavery heritage attractions remain unexplored. Thus, there is a need for empirical studies and theoretical knowledge to understand visitor engagement with slavery heritage attractions, particularly U.K. slavery heritage museums. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. This qualitative research utilizes a passive symbolic ethnographic methodology. Seven U.K. slavery heritage museums will be used to collect data through unobtrusive internet-mediated observations of TripAdvisor reviews and online semi-structured interviews with managers and curators. Preliminary findings indicate that social media, prior knowledge, multiple motivations, cultural capital, and the design and layout of exhibits influence visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums. This research contributes to an understanding of visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums. The findings of this paper will provide insights into the factors that influence visitor engagement with U.K. slavery heritage museums to managers, curators, and decision-makers responsible for designing and managing those attractions. Therefore, the results of this paper will enable museum professionals to better manage visitor engagement with slavery heritage museums.

Keywords: museums, netnography, slavery, visitor engagement

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818 Sustainability of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Comparison of Homestays and Independent Businesses from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

Authors: Baikuntha Prasad Acharya, Elizabeth Halpenny

Abstract:

Small tourism enterprises (STEs) are primary providers of services and attractions in many destinations of less developed countries; they are considered the lifeblood of tourism sector. Furthermore, in rural community destinations of such countries including Nepal, STEs are regarded as alternative tools for advancing economic and sociocultural transformations. Many families in rural Nepali destinations are venturing into small tourism entrepreneurship so that their poverty can be reduced and they can live a sustained life. Most these communities are utilizing their lifestyles and natural and cultural heritages as tourism attractions. This study aimed to understand the sustainability of the STEs in rural destinations by synthesizing observations from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area in western Nepal. Ghalegaon has community-based homestays and Ghandruk has independently owned and operated small tourism businesses such as cafes, tea houses, lodges, guest houses, and hotels, etc. The community-based homestays of Ghalegaon are compared with the independently owned and operated STEs of Ghandruk. The data were collected through multiple sources: 1) survey of tourists (n=112) and households (n=191); 2) interviews (n=14) with the locals, 3) group discussions (n=10) with different local groups including that of regional tourism players, experts and policy makers, 4) observations, and 5) document analysis. The STEs of both communities were first analyzed by understanding their level of sustainability as businesses, and then were explored how they were impacting on respective communities’ sustainability. The survey indicators and guidelines for interviews and group discussions were adapted to the Nepalese context based on four pillars of sustainability: economic, social, cultural and environmental; an additional dimension of management was also included, particularly for the STEs. The findings have shown a weaker economic and management dimensions of Ghalegaon’s Homestay than that of Ghandruk’s STEs. Some interesting social complexities of rural tourism and entrepreneurship were also revealed. This study’s findings do not much resonate to what Nepal government’s current rural tourism strategies that have been envisioned and prioritized for, particularly that the rural homestay tourism opportunities enhance inclusiveness of women and other deprived communities by spreading the benefits to the grassroots level. The study has highlighted several important applied implications to the local tourism management committees, tourism operators and associations, and regional and national tourism authorities. Further studies are advisable in other similar contexts in Nepal and in other countries to see whether there are variances in the findings.

Keywords: Nepal, rural tourism communities, small tourism enterprises, sustainability

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817 Impact of Management and Development of Destination Attributes on Coastal Tourists' Visitor Experience, Negombo, Sri Lanka

Authors: M. S. R. Waas, S. G. U. S. Chandrarathne, U. A. Kumara

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study is to identify the impact of the destination attributes of Negombo on the coastal tourists’ visitor experience. As an island nation, Sri Lanka is identified and well renowned for its gold sandy beaches and natural scenic beauty. Among many tourist attractions, Negombo is identified as a developed beach centric tourist destination in the country. Yet, it is identified that there are low positive reviews on the internet for Negombo compared to other beach centric tourist attractions in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study would help the policymakers and tourism service providers to identify the impact of destination attributes on international visitor satisfaction and to understand the visitors comprehensively so as to develop Negombo as a stable tourist destination while offering a memorable and satisfying experience for its visitors. In support, a self-administered questionnaire survey study was performed with 150 respondents (international tourists) in Negombo. The questions were designed based on the selected dimensions of destination attributes such as tourism service quality, infrastructure and superstructure developments, tourist information facilities and destination aesthetics and developments. The results showed that the overall satisfaction level of the international tourists who visit Sri Lanka is significantly affected by the destination attributes of Negombo. Yet, the dimensions of destination aesthetics and developments and tourist information facilities indicated a low level of mean satisfaction, paving the critique that Negombo as a beach centric tourist attraction is not serving well with its natural beauty and its destination management. Further, it is advocated that the policymakers and tourism service providers have a significant role in leading the way to attract more potential visitors to enhance their destination satisfaction and to encourage them to revisit Sri Lanka while recommending it to others. The survey was done during the off-peak season of the industry and it is suggested that the survey would have been conducted throughout a complete year.

Keywords: destination attributes, coastal tourism, tourism development, tourist satisfaction

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816 Innovative Communication for Promoting Tourism in Southern Thailand

Authors: Pitimanus Bunlue

Abstract:

This research aim (1) to determine the content of communication, social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism in the province to create awareness, motivation and desire to tourists visiting Thailand (2) to evaluate the performance of innovation communication social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism southern of Thailand. This research is a qualitative research. A research synthesis projects on social capital and cultural capital by use focus group discussions with media professionals and academics to communicate using a random sample specific. The result show that (1) Innovative communication, social capital and cultural capital and effective communication innovations after everyone wants to travel to Ranong province is the very highest level. (2) Information and experience about Ranong at a high level. (3) The data shows the strengths of each of the attractions at a high level. (4) The data shows a lifestyle that is unique to the province is moderate.

Keywords: innovative communication, promoting tourism, southern of Thailand, social capital

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815 The Strategy of Traditional Religious Culture Tourism: Taking Taiwan Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival for Example

Authors: Ching-Yi Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for integrate Minhsiung environments and cultural resources for Infernal Lord Festival. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival is one of the famous religious event in Chia-Yi County, Taiwan. This religious event and the life of local residents are inseparable. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival has a rich cultural ceremonies meaning and sentiment of local concern. This study apply field study, document analysis and interviews to analyze Minhsiung Township’s featured attractions and folklore events. The research results reveal the difficulties and strategies while incorporating culture elements into culture tourism. This study hopes to provide innovative techniques for the purpose of prolonging the feasibility of future development of the tradition folk culture.

Keywords: Taiwan folk culture, Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival, religious tourism, folklore, cultural tourism

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814 Analysis of Turkish Government Cultural Portal for Supporting Gastronomy Tourism

Authors: Hilmi Rafet Yüncü

Abstract:

Today Internet has very important role to promote products and services all over the world. Companies and destinations in tourism industry use Internet to sell and to promote their core products to directly potential tourists. Internet technologies have redefined the relationships between tourists, tourism companies, and travel agents. The new relationship allows for accessing and tapping tourism information and services. Internet technologies ensure new opportunities to available for the tourism industry, including travel accommodation, and tourist destination organizations. Websites are important devices to the marketing of a destination. Most people make a research about the destination before arriving via internet. Governments have a considerable role in the process of marketing tourism destinations. Governments make policies and regulations; furthermore, they help to market destinations to potential tourists. Governments have a comprehensive overview of the sector to see changes in tourism market and design better policies, programs and marketing plans. At the same time, governments support developing of alternative tourism in the country with regulations and marketing tools. The aim of this study is to analyse of an Internet website of governmental tourism portal in Turkey to determine effectiveness about gastronomy tourism. The Turkish government has established a culture portal for foreign and local tourists. The Portal provides local and general information about tourism attractions of cities and Turkey. There are 81 official cities in Turkey and all these cities are conducted to analyse to determine how effective marketing is done by Turkish Government in the manner of gastronomy tourism. A content analysis will be conducted to Internet website of the portal with food content, recipes and gastronomic feature of cities.

Keywords: culture portal, gastronomy tourism, government, Turkey

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813 Disaster Recovery and Tourism Development: The Case of Diving Industry in Coron Island Palawan

Authors: Kimberly Joyce A. Roguis, Mica Lorraine L. Fernando, Alan Vito B. Macadangdang, Jennina Mari C. Mijares, Maria Carinnes A. Gonzalez

Abstract:

The paper showcases the vulnerability of the tourism industry especially the inevitable occurrence of natural disasters, implicating the necessity for post-disaster analysis on tourist attractions. This study discusses the aftermath of the super typhoon ‘Yolanda’ incident in the locality of Coron Island, Palawan, assessing its general effect on the community and its tourism livelihood through the analysis of responses from key role-players in the tourism industry of the area gathered through semi-structured interviews and direct observation. The local government’s instigation of recovery programs to their locality has been a pivotal factor in reviving the vitality of their tourism industry and the involvement of the community has been the determining condition that shifted the industry towards revival a year after the incidence. The study illuminates the disaster mitigation processes in the local tourism livelihood perspective, predominantly the diving industry. It did not suffer physical damage to a great extent but was affected because of the public imagery the disaster brought upon. Collaboration between the local government and the community is the highlight of the research for they maneuvered recovery revealing that cooperation between these two parties bridged the correlation of recovery to tourism development. The disaster paved way to a stance towards promoting progressive tourism outlooks, raising awareness among the public and private sectors and re-assessment of the tourism vitality in their locality. The mayhem and destruction proved to be a liberating creative process to give way to progression and was deemed to be of high significance in the over-all tourism system process despite its impediments in the case of the tourism industry in Coron, Palawan.

Keywords: disaster recovery, tourism development, diving, Palawan

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812 Tourism Potential Investment Opportunities in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Khalil Ahmad Khosa

Abstract:

Pakistan is such a diverse region, it is the center of various religions and settlements long before the creation of the nation that exists today. The country's attraction range from the ruin of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially K2.[4] The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalash people community. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary, Punjab province has the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan. However, till this date, the government has not be able to take the tourism market seriously within Pakistan. Pakistan is home to a diverse number of tourist attractions which have not been funded or protected due to the government giving the tourism market a low priority.

Keywords: architecture, Pakistan, tourism, turist

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