Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: nano-silver

11 Preparation and in vitro Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of NanoSilver/Methylcellulose Hydrogel

Authors: A. Panacek, M. Kilianova, R. Prucek, V. Husickova, R. Vecerova, M. Kolar, L. Kvitek, R. Zboril


In this work we describe the preparation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) for topical bactericidal applications. Highly concentrated dispersion of silver NPs as high as of 5g/L of silver with diameter of 10nm was prepared by reduction of AgNO3 via strong reducing agent NaBH4. Silver NPs were stabilized by addition of sodium polyacrylate in order to prevent their aggregation at such high concentration. This way synthesized silver NPs were subsequently incorporated into methylcellulose suspension at elevated temperature resulting in formation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel when temperature cooled down to laboratory conditions. In vitro antibacterial activity assay proved high bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency of silver NPs alone in the form of dispersion as well as in the form of hydrogel against broad spectrum of bacteria and yeasts including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A very low concentrations of silver as low as 0.84mg/L Ag in as-prepared dispersion gave antibacterial performance. NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel showed antibacterial action at the lowest used silver concentration equal to 25mg/L. Such prepared NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel represent promising topical antimicrobial formulation for treatment of burns and wounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, burn, hydrogel, silver NPs

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10 Nanosilver Containing Biodegradable Bionanocomposites for Antimicrobial Application: Design, Preparation and Study

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Shorena Tskhadadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava


Surgical device-associated infection and biofilm formation are some of the major problems in biomedicine for today. The losing protection ability of conventional antimicrobial-drugs leads to the challenges in the current antibiotic therapy, the most serious of which is antibiotic resistance. Our strategy to overcome the biofilm formation consists in coating devices with polymeric film containing nanosilver(AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent. Such bionanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials. For this purpose, we have developed a new generation of AgNPs containing polymeric composites in which amino acid based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) were served as both matrices and AgNPs stabilizers. The AgNPs were formed by photochemical (daylight) reduction of AgNO3 in ethanol solution. The formation of AgNPs was monitored by coloring the solution in brownish-red and appearance of the absorption maximum at 420-430 nm in UV spectrum. Comparative studies of PEAs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as particle stabilizers were carried out. It was found that PVP is better stabilizer in terms of particles yield and stability. Therefore, in subsequent experiments blends of PEAs and PVP were used as stabilizers for fabricating AgNPs. As expected, PVP increased the stabilizing effect and this apparently observed in the UV spectrum of the samples after 7 h daylight irradiation: for pure PVP λmax = 430 nm, D = 2.03, for pure PEA λmax= 420 nm, D = 0.65, and for the blend of PVP and PEA λmax = 435 nm, D = 1.88. Further study of the obtained nanobiocomposites is in progress now.

Keywords: biodegradation, bionanocompositions, polymer, nanosilver

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9 Evaluation of Risk and the Beneficial Effects of Synthesized Nano Silver-Based Disinfectant on Poultry Mortality and Health

Authors: Indrajeet Kumar, Jayanta Bhattacharya


This study was evaluated for the potential use of nanosilver (nAg) as a disinfectant and antimicrobial growth promoter supplement for the poultry. The experiments were conducted in the Kangsabati river basin region, in West Medinipur district, West Bengal, India for six months. Two poultry farms were adopted for the experiment. The rural economy of this region from Jhargram to Barkola is heavily dependent on contract poultry farming. The water samples were collected from the water source of poultry farm which has been used for poultry drinking purpose. The bacteriological analysis of water sample revealed that the total bacterial count (total coliform and E. coli) were higher than the acceptable standards. The bacterial loads badly affected the growth performance and health of the poultry. For disinfection, a number of chemical compounds (like formaldehyde, calcium hypochloride, sodium hypochloride, and sodium bicarbonate) have been used in typical commercial formulations. However, the effects of all these chemical compounds have not been significant over time. As a part of our research-to-market initiative, we used nanosilver (nAg) formulation as a disinfectant. The nAg formulation was synthesized by hydrothermal technique and characterized by UV-visible, TEM, SEM, and EDX. The obtained results revealed that the mortality rate of poultry was reduced due to nAg formulation compared to the mortality rate of the negative control. Moreover, the income of the farmer family was increased by 10-20% due to less mortality and better health of the poultry.

Keywords: farm water, nanosilver, field application, and poultry performance

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8 Improvement of Resistance Features of Anti- Mic Polyaspartic Coating (DTM) Using Nano Silver Particles by Preventing Biofilm Formation

Authors: Arezoo Assarian, Reza Javaherdashti


Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is an electrochemical process that can affect both metals and non-metals. The cost of MIC can amount to 40% of the cost of corrosion. MIC is enhanced via factors such as but not limited to the presence of certain bacteria and archaea as well as mechanisms such as external electron transfer. There are five methods by which electrochemical corrosion, including MIC, can be prevented, of which coatings are an effective method due to blinding anode, cathode and, electrolyte from each other. Conventional ordinary coatings may themselves become nutrient sources for the bacteria and therefore show low efficiency in dealing with MIC. Recently our works on polyaspartic coating (DTM) have shown promising results, therefore nominating DTM as the most appropriate coating material to manage both MIC and general electrochemical corrosion very efficiently. Nanosilver particles are known for their antimicrobial properties that make them of desirable distractive impacts on any germs. This coating will be formulated based on Nanosilver phosphate and copper II oxide in the resin network and co-reactant. The nanoparticles are light and heat-sensitive agents. The method which is used to keep nanoparticles in the film coating is the encapsulation of active ingredients. By this method, it will prevent incompatibility between different particles. For producing microcapsules, the interfacial cross-linking method will be used. This is achieved by adding an active ingredient to an aqueous solution of the cross-linkable polymer. In this paper, we will first explain the role of coating materials in controlling and preventing electrochemical corrosion. We will explain MIC and some of its fundamental principles, such as bacteria establishment (biofilm) and the role they play in enhancing corrosion via mechanisms such as the establishment of differential aeration cells. Later we will explain features of DTM coatings that highly contribute to preventing biofilm formation and thus microbial corrosion.

Keywords: biofilm, corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion(MIC), nanosilver particles, polyaspartic coating (DTM)

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7 Green Synthesis of Nanosilver-Loaded Hydrogel Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Application

Authors: D. Berdous, H. Ferfera-Harrar


Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) or hydrogels with three-dimensional hydrophilic network structure are high-performance water absorbent and retention materials. The in situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles within polymeric network as antibacterial agents for bio-applications is an approach that takes advantage of the existing free-space into networks, which not only acts as a template for nucleation of nanoparticles, but also provides long term stability and reduces their toxicity by delaying their oxidation and release. In this work, SAP/nanosilver nanocomposites were successfully developed by a unique green process at room temperature, which involves in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within hydrogels as a template. The aim of this study is to investigate whether these AgNPs-loaded hydrogels are potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Firstly, the superabsorbents were prepared through radical copolymerization via grafting and crosslinking of acrylamide (AAm) onto chitosan backbone (Cs) using potassium persulfate as initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker. Then, they were hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. Lastly, the AgNPs were biosynthesized and entrapped into hydrogels through a simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective method using aqueous silver nitrate as a silver precursor and curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The formed superabsorbents nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAAm)/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-visible Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Microscopic surface structure analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has showed spherical shapes of AgNPs with size in the range of 3-15 nm. The extent of nanosilver loading was decreased by increasing Cs content into network. The silver-loaded hydrogel was thermally more stable than the unloaded dry hydrogel counterpart. The swelling equilibrium degree (Q) and centrifuge retention capacity (CRC) in deionized water were affected by both contents of Cs and the entrapped AgNPs. The nanosilver-embedded hydrogels exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These comprehensive results suggest that the elaborated AgNPs-loaded nanomaterials could be used to produce valuable wound dressing.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, superabsorbent Hydrogel

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6 Nanosilver Loaded Biomaterial for Wound Healing Applications: In Vitro Studies

Authors: Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Nicolette Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are classified as metal-based nanomaterials and have received considerable attention globally for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. Naturally available materials are a significant source of medicinal products to treat numerous diseases; polysaccharides are among them. Polysaccharides are non-toxic, safe, and inexpensive, and it has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Most polysaccharides are shown to have a positive effect on wound healing processes, including chitosan and gum tragacanth. The present study evaluated the improvement of cellular wound healing by nanosilver-loaded polysaccharide-based biomaterial (CGT-NS) in WS1 cells. The physicochemical properties of prepared CGT-NS were studied using different characterization techniques, and it exhibited better stability and swelling properties in various pH conditions. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and it revealed the porous morphology of the synthesized CGT-NS. The synthesized biomaterial displayed acceptable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, and it may prevent infection. The biocompatibility of the synthesized CGT-NS biomaterial was studied in WS1 cells, where it may lead to promote increased cell adhesion and proliferation properties. Thus, the CGT-NS biomaterial has good potential as a biomaterial in wound healing applications.

Keywords: biomaterial, wound healing, nano, silver nanoparticles

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5 Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-To-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C

Authors: Sangram Dhumal, Anil Karale


The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.

Keywords: anthocyanin content, pomegranate, MAP, minimally processed, microbial quality, Bhagwa, shelf-life, overall quality

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4 In vitro Cytotoxicity Study on Silver Powders Synthesized via Different Routes

Authors: Otilia Ruxandra Vasile, Ecaterina Andronescu, Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Bogdan Stefan Vasile, Roxana Trusca, Eugeniu Vasile, Alina Maria Holban, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc, Florin Iordache, Horia Maniu


Engineered powders offer great promise in several applications, but little information is known about cytotoxicity effects. The aim of the current study was the synthesis and cytotoxicity examination of silver powders using pyrosol method at temperatures of 600°C, 650°C and 700°C, respectively sol-gel method and calcinations at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C and 800°C. We have chosen to synthesize and examine silver particles cytotoxicity due to its use in biological applications. The synthesized Ag powders were characterized from the structural, compositional and morphological point of view by using XRD, SEM, and TEM with SAED. In order to determine the influence of the synthesis route on Ag particles cytotoxicity, different sizes of micro and nanosilver synthesized powders were evaluated for their potential toxicity. For the study of their cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis have been done analysis through flow cytometry on human colon carcinoma cells and mesenchymal stem cells and through the MTT assay, while the viability and the morphological changes of the cells have been evaluated by using cloning studies. The results showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles have displayed significant cytotoxicity effects on cell cultures. Our synthesized silver powders were found to present toxicity in a synthesis route and time-dependent manners for pyrosol synthesized nanoparticles; whereas a lower cytotoxicity has been measured after cells were treated with silver nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method.

Keywords: Ag, cytotoxicity, pyrosol method, sol-gel method

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3 Insecticidal Effect of Nanoparticles against Helicoverpa armigera Infesting Chickpea

Authors: Shabistana Nisar, Parvez Qamar Rizvi, Sheeraz Malik


The potential advantage of nanotechnology is comparably marginal due to its unclear benefits in agriculture and insufficiency in public opinion. The nanotech products might solve the pesticide problems of societal concern fairly at acceptable or low risk for consumers and environmental applications. The deleterious effect of chemicals used on crops can be compacted either by reducing the existing active ingredient to nanosize or by plummeting the metals into nanoform. Considering the above facts, an attempt was made to determine the efficacy of nanoelements viz., Silver, Copper Manganese and Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) for effective management of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera infesting chickpea, being the most damaging pest of large number of crops, gram pod borer was selected as test insect to ascertain the impact of nanoparticles under controlled conditions (25-27 ˚C, 60-80% RH). The respective nanoformulations (0.01, 0.005, 0.003, 0.0025, 0.002, 0.001) were topically applied on 4th instar larvae of pod borer. In general, nanochemicals (silver, copper, manganese, NSKE) produced relatively high mortality at low dilutions (0.01, 0.005, 0.003). The least mortality was however recorded at 0.001 concentration. Nanosilver proved most efficient producing significantly highest (f₄,₂₄=129.56, p < 0.05) mortality 63.13±1.77, 83.21±2.02 and 96.10±1.25 % at 0.01 concentration after 2nd, 4th and 6th day, respectively. The least mortality was however recorded with nanoNSKE. The mortality values obtained at respective days were 21.25±1.50%, 25.20±2.00%, and 56.20±2.25%. Nanocopper and nanomanganese showed slow rate of killing on 2nd day of exposure, but increased (79.20±3.25 and 65.33±1.25) at 0.01 dilution on 3rd day, followed by 83.00±3.50% and 70.20±2.20% mortality on 6thday. The sluggishness coupled with antifeedancy was noticed at early stage of exposure. The change in body colour to brown due to additional melanisation in copper, manganese, and silver treated larvae and demalinization in nanoNSKE exposed larvae was observed at later stage of treatment. Thus, all the nanochemicals applied, produced the significant lethal impact on Helicoverpa armigera and can be used as valuable tool for its effective management.

Keywords: chickpea, helicoverpa armigera, management, nanoparticles

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2 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb


Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Proteus mirabilis, multi-drug resistance, silver nanoparticles, resistance, next generation sequencing techniques, genome analysis, bioinformatics, phylogeny, pathogenomics, diabetic foot ulcer, xenobiotics, multidrug resistance efflux, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, resistome, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system, altruism

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1 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Poly (Ester-Amide)s and Their Potential Biomedical Applications as Drug Delivery Containers and Antibacterial

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Tamar Memanishvili, Natia Ochkhikidze, David Tugushi, Zaal Kokaia, Ramaz Katsarava


Amino acid-based Biodegradable poly(ester-amide)s (PEAs) have gained considerable interest as a promising materials for numerous biomedical applications. These polymers reveal a high biocompatibility and easily form small particles suitable for delivery various biological, as well as elastic bio-erodible films serving as matrices for constructing antibacterial coatings. In the present work we have demonstrated a potential of the PEAs for two applications: 1. cell therapy for stroke as vehicles for delivery and sustained release of growth factors, 2. bactericidal coating as prevention biofilm and applicable in infected wound management. Stroke remains the main cause of adult disability with limited treatment options. Although stem cell therapy is a promising strategy, it still requires improvement of cell survival, differentiation and tissue modulation. .Recently, microspheres (MPs) made of biodegradable polymers have gained significant attention for providing necessary support of transplanted cells. To investigate this strategy in the cell therapy of stroke, MPs loaded with transcription factors Wnt3A/BMP4 were prepared. These proteins have been shown to mediate the maturation of the cortical neurons. We have suggested that implantation of these materials could create a suitable microenvironment for implanted cells. Particles with spherical shape, porous surface, and 5-40 m in size (monitored by scanning electron microscopy) were made on the basis of the original PEA composed of adipic acid, L-phenylalanine and 1,4-butanediol. After 4 months transplantation of MPs in rodent brain, no inflammation was observed. Additionally, factors were successfully released from MPs and affected neuronal cell differentiation in in vitro. The in vivo study using loaded MPs is in progress. Another severe problem in biomedicine is prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation. Antimicrobial polymeric coatings are most effective “shields” to protect surfaces/devices from biofilm formation. Among matrices for constructing the coatings preference should be given to bio-erodible polymers. Such types of coatings will play a role of “unstable seating” that will not allow bacteria to occupy the surface. In other words, bio-erodible coatings would be discomfort shelter for bacteria that along with releasing “killers of bacteria” should prevent the formation of biofilm. For this purpose, we selected an original biodegradable PEA composed of L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid as a bio-erodible matrix, and nanosilver (AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent (“killer of bacteria”). Such nanocomposite material is also promising in treatment of superficial wound and ulcer. The solubility of the PEA in ethanol allows to reduce AgNO3 to NPs directly in the solution, where the solvent served as a reductive agent, and the PEA served as NPs stabilizer. The photochemical reduction was selected as a basic method to form NPs. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). According to the UV-data and TEM data the photochemical reduction resulted in spherical AgNPs with wide particle size distribution with a high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for bactericidal activity of AgNPs. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within ca. 50 nm.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, microparticles, nanocomposites, stem cell therapy, stroke

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