Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: timetable

14 Analysis of Temporal Factors Influencing Minimum Dwell Time Distributions

Authors: T. Pedersen, A. Lindfeldt


The minimum dwell time is an important part of railway timetable planning. Due to its stochastic behaviour, the minimum dwell time should be considered to create resilient timetables. While there has been significant focus on how to determine and estimate dwell times, to our knowledge, little research has been carried out regarding temporal and running direction variations of these. In this paper, we examine how the minimum dwell time varies depending on temporal factors such as the time of day, day of the week and time of the year. We also examine how it is affected by running direction and station type. The minimum dwell time is estimated by means of track occupation data. A method is proposed to ensure that only minimum dwell times and not planned dwell times are acquired from the track occupation data. The results show that on an aggregated level, the average minimum dwell times in both running directions at a station are similar. However, when temporal factors are considered, there are significant variations. The minimum dwell time varies throughout the day with peak hours having the longest dwell times. It is also found that the minimum dwell times are influenced by weekday, and in particular, weekends are found to have lower minimum dwell times than most other days. The findings show that there is a potential to significantly improve timetable planning by taking minimum dwell time variations into account.

Keywords: minimum dwell time, operations quality, timetable planning, track occupation data

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13 The Development of Online-Class Scheduling Management System Conducted by the Case Study of Department of Social Science: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Wipada Chaiwchan, Patcharee Klinhom


This research is aimed to develop the online-class scheduling management system and improve as a complex problem solution, this must take into consideration in various conditions and factors. In addition to the number of courses, the number of students and a timetable to study, the physical characteristics of each class room and regulations used in the class scheduling must also be taken into consideration. This system is developed to assist management in the class scheduling for convenience and efficiency. It can provide several instructors to schedule simultaneously. Both lecturers and students can check and publish a timetable and other documents associated with the system online immediately. It is developed in a web-based application. PHP is used as a developing tool. The database management system was MySQL. The tool that is used for efficiency testing of the system is questionnaire. The system was evaluated by using a Black-Box testing. The sample was composed of 2 groups: 5 experts and 100 general users. The average and the standard deviation of results from the experts were 3.50 and 0.67. The average and the standard deviation of results from the general users were 3.54 and 0.54. In summary, the results from the research indicated that the satisfaction of users was in a good level. Therefore, this system could be implemented in an actual workplace and satisfy the users’ requirement effectively

Keywords: timetable, schedule, management system, online

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12 A Survey on the Requirements of University Course Timetabling

Authors: Nurul Liyana Abdul Aziz, Nur Aidya Hanum Aizam


Course timetabling problems occur every semester in a university which includes the allocation of resources (subjects, lecturers and students) to a number of fixed rooms and timeslots. The assignment is carried out in a way such that there are no conflicts within rooms, students and lecturers, as well as fulfilling a range of constraints. The constraints consist of rules and policies set up by the universities as well as lecturers’ and students’ preferences of courses to be allocated in specific timeslots. This paper specifically focuses on the preferences of the course timetabling problem in one of the public universities in Malaysia. The demands will be considered into our existing mathematical model to make it more generalized and can be used widely. We have distributed questionnaires to a number of lecturers and students of the university to investigate their demands and preferences for their desired course timetable. We classify the preferences thus converting them to construct one mathematical model that can produce such timetable.

Keywords: university course timetabling problem, integer programming, preferences, constraints

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11 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar


Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

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10 Train Timetable Rescheduling Using Sensitivity Analysis: Application of Sobol, Based on Dynamic Multiphysics Simulation of Railway Systems

Authors: Soha Saad, Jean Bigeon, Florence Ossart, Etienne Sourdille


Developing better solutions for train rescheduling problems has been drawing the attention of researchers for decades. Most researches in this field deal with minor incidents that affect a large number of trains due to cascading effects. They focus on timetables, rolling stock and crew duties, but do not take into account infrastructure limits. The present work addresses electric infrastructure incidents that limit the power available for train traction, and hence the transportation capacity of the railway system. Rescheduling is needed in order to optimally share the available power among the different trains. We propose a rescheduling process based on dynamic multiphysics railway simulations that include the mechanical and electrical properties of all the system components and calculate physical quantities such as the train speed profiles, voltage along the catenary lines, temperatures, etc. The optimization problem to solve has a large number of continuous and discrete variables, several output constraints due to physical limitations of the system, and a high computation cost. Our approach includes a phase of sensitivity analysis in order to analyze the behavior of the system and help the decision making process and/or more precise optimization. This approach is a quantitative method based on simulation statistics of the dynamic railway system, considering a predefined range of variation of the input parameters. Three important settings are defined. Factor prioritization detects the input variables that contribute the most to the outputs variation. Then, factor fixing allows calibrating the input variables which do not influence the outputs. Lastly, factor mapping is used to study which ranges of input values lead to model realizations that correspond to feasible solutions according to defined criteria or objectives. Generalized Sobol indexes are used for factor prioritization and factor fixing. The approach is tested in the case of a simple railway system, with a nominal traffic running on a single track line. The considered incident is the loss of a feeding power substation, which limits the power available and the train speed. Rescheduling is needed and the variables to be adjusted are the trains departure times, train speed reduction at a given position and the number of trains (cancellation of some trains if needed). The results show that the spacing between train departure times is the most critical variable, contributing to more than 50% of the variation of the model outputs. In addition, we identify the reduced range of variation of this variable which guarantees that the output constraints are respected. Optimal solutions are extracted, according to different potential objectives: minimizing the traveling time, the train delays, the traction energy, etc. Pareto front is also built.

Keywords: optimization, rescheduling, railway system, sensitivity analysis, train timetable

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9 Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network

Authors: R. Rajabpour, N. Talebbeydokhti, M. H. Ahmadi


In recent years, new techniques for solving complex problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated. Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation (status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval. Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms. The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions with reasonable computational cost.

Keywords: G-JPSO, operation, optimization, pumping station, water distribution networks

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8 Difficulties Faced by the Sports Clubs in the Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Majid Al-Busafi, Almur Al-Hashmi


The aim of this study was to identify the difficulties of planning and organizational, technical and finance facing sports clubs in the Sultanate of Oman. To answer the research questions, the researchers set up and developed a questionnaire as a major tool for the study. The researchers also conducted field visits to targeted clubs, collecting documents and publications related to the current situation of these clubs. The study sample (totaling 231) was selected of boards members of sports clubs and federations, executive staff of the Ministry of Sports Affairs, sports clubs and federations, and the media. The results indicated that the order of the difficulties faced by sports clubs is as follows: planning difficulties, the financial difficulties, technical difficulties and fourth and finally organizational difficulties. The study recommended the need to develop long-term plans and a timetable for the activities of the federations or the clubs. It is also important not to ignore to plan the qualification activities for the workers in the federations and clubs. Finally, there is a need to develop regulated forms of relations between members in the clubs. This study makes an original contribution to knowledge as it addresses needs in a country with no clear clubs systems and is informed by case studies from other countries, two of which have similar cultural contexts.

Keywords: sports club, sports federation, difficulties, plans

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7 Impacts of Applying Automated Vehicle Location Systems to Public Bus Transport Management

Authors: Vani Chintapally


The expansion of modest and minimized Global Positioning System (GPS) beneficiaries has prompted most Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) frameworks today depending solely on satellite-based finding frameworks, as GPS is the most stable usage of these. This paper shows the attributes of a proposed framework for following and dissecting open transport in a run of the mill medium-sized city and complexities the qualities of such a framework to those of broadly useful AVL frameworks. Particular properties of the courses broke down by the AVL framework utilized for the examination of open transport in our study incorporate cyclic vehicle courses, the requirement for particular execution reports, and so forth. This paper particularly manages vehicle movement forecasts and the estimation of station landing time, combined with consequently produced reports on timetable conformance and other execution measures. Another side of the watched issue is proficient exchange of information from the vehicles to the control focus. The pervasiveness of GSM bundle information exchange advancements combined with decreased information exchange expenses have brought on today's AVL frameworks to depend predominantly on parcel information exchange administrations from portable administrators as the correspondences channel in the middle of vehicles and the control focus. This methodology brings numerous security issues up in this conceivably touchy application field.

Keywords: automatic vehicle location (AVL), expectation of landing times, AVL security, data administrations, wise transport frameworks (ITS), guide coordinating

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6 Review on Crew Scheduling of Bus Transit: A Case Study in Kolkata

Authors: Sapan Tiwari, Namrata Ghosh


In urban mass transit, crew scheduling always plays a significant role. It deals with the formulation of work timetables for its staff so that an organization can meet the demand for its products or services. The efficient schedules of a specified timetable have an enormous impact on staff demand. It implies that an urban mass transit company's financial outcomes are strongly associated with planning operations in the region. The research aims to demonstrate the state of the crew scheduling studies and its practical implementation in mass transit businesses in metropolitan areas. First, there is a short overview of past studies in the field. Subsequently, the restrictions and problems with crew scheduling and some models, which have been developed to solve the related issues with their mathematical formulation, are defined. The comments are completed by a description of the solution opportunities provided by computer-aided scheduling program systems for operational use and exposures from urban mass transit organizations. Furthermore, Bus scheduling is performed using the Hungarian technique of problem-solving tasks and mathematical modeling. Afterward, the crew scheduling problem, which consists of developing duties using predefined tasks with set start and end times and places, is resolved. Each duty has to comply with a set line of work. The objective is to minimize a mixture of fixed expenses (number of duties) and varying costs. After the optimization of cost, the outcome of the research is that the same frequency can be provided with fewer buses and less workforce.

Keywords: crew scheduling, duty, optimization of cost, urban mass transit

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5 Assessment of E-learning Facilities and Information Need by Open and Distance Learning Students in Jalingo, Nigeria

Authors: R. M. Bashir, Sabo Elizabeth


Electronic learning is an increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. An investigation on the assessment of e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students in Jalingo, Nigeria was conducted. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 students of the university. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Information on assessment of e-learning facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women, a large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students. A high proportion of the students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate students was higher compared with those students that owned a computer. Inadequate e-books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities. Inadequate computer facilities caused delay in examination schedule at the study center. Open and distance learning students required to a high extent information on university timetable and schedule of activities, books (hard and e-books) and reference materials and contact with course coordinators via internet for better learning and academic performance.

Keywords: open and distance learning, information required, electronic books, internet gadgets, Likert scale test

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4 Evaluation of Environmental and Social Management System of Green Climate Fund's Accredited Entities: A Qualitative Approach Applied to Environmental and Social System

Authors: Sima Majnooni


This paper discusses the Green Climate Fund's environmental and social management framework (GCF). The environmental and social management framework ensures the accredited entity considers the GCF's accreditation standards and effectively implements each of the GCF-funded projects. The GCF requires all accredited entities to meet basic transparency and accountability standards as well as environmental and social safeguards (ESMS). In doing so, the accredited entity sets up different independent units. One of these units is called the Grievance Mechanism. When allegations of environmental and social harms are raised in association with GCF-funded activities, affected parties can contact the entity’s grievance unit. One of the most challenging things about the accredited entity's grievance unit is the lack of available information and resources on the entities' websites. Many AEs have anti-corruption or anti-money laundering unit, but they do not have the environmental and social unit for affected people. This paper will argue the effectiveness of environmental and social grievance mechanisms of AEs by using a qualitative approach to indicate how many of AEs have a poor or an effective GRM. Some ESMSs seem highly effective. On the other hand, other mechanisms lack basic requirements such as a clear, transparent, uniform procedure and a definitive timetable. We have looked at each AE mechanism not only in light of how the website goes into detail regarding the process of grievance mechanism but also in light of their risk category. Many mechanisms appear inadequate for the lower level risk category entities (C) and, even surprisingly, for many higher-risk categories (A). We found; in most cases, the grievance mechanism of AEs seems vague.

Keywords: grievance mechanism, vague environmental and social policies, green climate fund, international climate finance, lower and higher risk category

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3 Using E-learning in a Tertiary Institution during Community Outbreak of COVID-19 in Hong Kong

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow


The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached Hong Kong in 2019 resulting in epidemic in late January 2020. Considering the epidemic development, tertiary institutions made announcements that all on-campus classes were suspended since 01/29/2020. In Tung Wah College, e-learning was adopted in all courses for all programmes. For the undergraduate nursing students, the contact hours and curriculum are bounded by the Nursing Council of Hong Kong to ensure core competence after graduation. Unlike the usual e-learning where students are allowed having flexibility of time and place in their learning, real time learning mode using Blackboard was used to mimic the actual classroom learning environment. Students were required to attend classes according to the timetable using online platform. For lectures, voice over PowerPoint file was the initial step for mass lecturing. Real time lecture was then adopted to improve interactions between teacher and students. Post-lecture quizzes were developed to monitor the effectiveness of lecture delivery. The seminars and tutorials were conducted using real time mode where students were separated into small groups with interactive discussions with teacher within the group. Live time demonstrations were conducted during laboratory sessions. All teaching sessions were audio/video recorded for students’ referral. The assessments including seminar presentation and debate were retained. The learning mode creates an atmosphere for students to display the visual, audio and written works in a non-threatening atmosphere. Other students could comment using text or direct voice as they desired. Real time online learning is the pedagogy to replace classroom contacts in the emergent and unforeseeable circumstances. The learning pace and interaction between students and students with teacher are maintained. The learning mode has the advantage of creating an effective and beneficial learning experience.

Keywords: e-learning, nursing curriculum, real time mode, teaching and learning

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2 Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites

Authors: Yuko Hiramatsu, Fumihiro Sato, Atsushi Ito, Hiroyuki Hatano, Mie Sato, Yu Watanabe, Akira Sasaki


This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.

Keywords: BLE beacon, smartphone application, Zeigarnik effect, world heritage site, school trip

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1 Prospective Analytical Cohort Study to Investigate a Physically Active Classroom-Based Wellness Programme to Propose a Mechanism to Meet Societal Need for Increased Physical Activity Participation and Positive Subjective Well-Being amongst Adolescent

Authors: Aileen O'loughlin


‘Is Everybody Going WeLL?’ (IEGW?) is a 33-hour classroom-based initiative created to a) explore values and how they impact on well-being, b) encourage adolescents to connect with their community, and c) provide them with the education to encourage and maintain a lifetime love of physical activity (PA) to ensure beneficial effects on their personal well-being. This initiative is also aimed at achieving sustainable education and aligning with the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals numbers 3 and 4. The classroom is a unique setting in which adolescents’ PA participation can be positively influenced through fun PA policies and initiatives. The primary purpose of this research is to evaluate a range of psychosocial and PA outcomes following the 33-hour education programme. This research examined the impact of a PA and well-being programme consisting of either a 60minute or 80minute class, depending on the timetable structure of the school, delivered once a week. Participant outcomes were measured using validated questionnaires regarding Self-esteem, Mental Health Literacy (MHL) and Daily Physical Activity Participation. These questionnaires were administered at three separate time points; baseline, mid-intervention, and post intervention. Semi-structured interviews with participating teachers regarding adherence and participants’ attitudes were completed post-intervention. These teachers were randomly selected for interview. This perspective analytical cohort study included 235 post-primary school students between 11-13 years of age (100 boys and 135 girls) from five public Irish post-primary schools. Three schools received the intervention only; a 33hour interactive well-being learning unit, one school formed a control group and one school had participants in both the intervention and control group. Participating schools were a convenience sample. Data presented outlines baseline data collected pre-participation (0 hours completed). N = 18 junior certificate students returned all three questionnaires fully completed for a 56.3% return rate from 1 school, Intervention School #3. 94.4% (n = 17) of participants enjoy taking part in some form of PA, however only 5.5% (n = 1) of the participants took part in PA every day of the previous 7 days and only 5.5% (n = 1) of those surveyed participated in PA every day during a normal week. 55% (n = 11) had a low level of self-esteem, 50% (n = 9) fall within the normal range of self-esteem, and n = 0 surveyed demonstrated a high level of self-esteem. Female participants’ Mean score was higher than their male counterparts when MHL was compared. Correlation analyses revealed a small association between Self-esteem and Happiness (r = 0.549). Positive correlations were also revealed between MHL and Happiness, MHL and Self-esteem and Self-esteem and 60+ minutes of PA completed daily. IEGW? is a classroom-based with simple methods easy to implement, replicate and financially viable to both public and private schools. It’s unique dataset will allow for the evaluation of a societal approach to the psycho-social well-being and PA participation levels of adolescents. This research is a work in progress and future work is required to learn how to best support the implementation of ‘Is Everybody Going WeLL?’ as part of the school curriculum.

Keywords: education, life-long learning, physical activity, psychosocial well-being

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