Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Semra İçer

15 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya

Abstract:

In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis

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14 Modeling of CREB Pathway Induced Gene Induction: From Stimulation to Repression

Authors: K. Julia Rose Mary, Victor Arokia Doss

Abstract:

Electrical and chemical stimulations up-regulate phosphorylaion of CREB, a transcriptional factor that induces its target gene production for memory consolidation and Late Long-Term Potentiation (L-LTP) in CA1 region of the hippocampus. L-LTP requires complex interactions among second-messenger signaling cascade molecules such as cAMP, CAMKII, CAMKIV, MAPK, RSK, PKA, all of which converge to phosphorylate CREB which along with CBP induces the transcription of target genes involved in memory consolidation. A differential equation based model for L-LTP representing stimulus-mediated activation of downstream mediators which confirms the steep, supralinear stimulus-response effects of activation and inhibition was used. The same was extended to accommodate the inhibitory effect of the Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER). ICER is the natural inducible CREB antagonist represses CRE-Mediated gene transcription involved in long-term plasticity for learning and memory. After verifying the sensitivity and robustness of the model, we had simulated it with various empirical levels of repressor concentration to analyse their effect on the gene induction. The model appears to predict the regulatory dynamics of repression on the L-LTP and agrees with the experimental values. The flux data obtained in the simulations demonstrate various aspects of equilibrium between the gene induction and repression.

Keywords: CREB, L-LTP, mathematical modeling, simulation

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13 Application of Discrete-Event Simulation in Health Technology Assessment: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Using Real-World Evidence in Thailand

Authors: Khachen Kongpakwattana, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Abstract:

Background: Decision-analytic models for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been advanced to discrete-event simulation (DES), in which individual-level modelling of disease progression across continuous severity spectra and incorporation of key parameters such as treatment persistence into the model become feasible. This study aimed to apply the DES to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment for AD in Thailand. Methods: A dataset of Thai patients with AD, representing unique demographic and clinical characteristics, was bootstrapped to generate a baseline cohort of patients. Each patient was cloned and assigned to donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine or no treatment. Throughout the simulation period, the model randomly assigned each patient to discrete events including hospital visits, treatment discontinuation and death. Correlated changes in cognitive and behavioral status over time were developed using patient-level data. Treatment effects were obtained from the most recent network meta-analysis. Treatment persistence, mortality and predictive equations for functional status, costs (Thai baht (THB) in 2017) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were derived from country-specific real-world data. The time horizon was 10 years, with a discount rate of 3% per annum. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated based on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB/QALY gained (4,994 US$/QALY gained) in Thailand. Results: Under a societal perspective, only was the prescription of donepezil to AD patients with all disease-severity levels found to be cost-effective. Compared to untreated patients, although the patients receiving donepezil incurred a discounted additional costs of 2,161 THB, they experienced a discounted gain in QALY of 0.021, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 138,524 THB/QALY (4,062 US$/QALY). Besides, providing early treatment with donepezil to mild AD patients further reduced the ICER to 61,652 THB/QALY (1,808 US$/QALY). However, the dominance of donepezil appeared to wane when delayed treatment was given to a subgroup of moderate and severe AD patients [ICER: 284,388 THB/QALY (8,340 US$/QALY)]. Introduction of a treatment stopping rule when the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score goes below 10 to a mild AD cohort did not deteriorate the cost-effectiveness of donepezil at the current treatment persistence level. On the other hand, none of the AD medications was cost-effective when being considered under a healthcare perspective. Conclusions: The DES greatly enhances real-world representativeness of decision-analytic models for AD. Under a societal perspective, treatment with donepezil improves patient’s quality of life and is considered cost-effective when used to treat AD patients with all disease-severity levels in Thailand. The optimal treatment benefits are observed when donepezil is prescribed since the early course of AD. With healthcare budget constraints in Thailand, the implementation of donepezil coverage may be most likely possible when being considered starting with mild AD patients, along with the stopping rule introduced.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, cost-effectiveness analysis, discrete event simulation, health technology assessment

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12 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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11 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design

Authors: Semra Çoruh, Yusuf Tibet

Abstract:

Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.

Keywords: malachite green, adsorption, red mud, fly ash, full factorial design

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10 The Determination of Stress Experienced by Nursing Undergraduate Students during Their Education

Authors: Gülden Küçükakça, Şefika Dilek Güven, Rahşan Kolutek, Seçil Taylan

Abstract:

Objective: Nursing students face with stress factors affecting academic performance and quality of life as from first moments of their educational life. Stress causes health problems in students such as physical, psycho-social, and behavioral disorders and might damage formation of professional identity by decreasing efficiency of education. In addition to determination of stress experienced by nursing students during their education, it was aimed to help review theoretical and clinical education settings for bringing stress of nursing students into positive level and to raise awareness of educators concerning their own professional behaviors. Methods: The study was conducted with 315 students studying at nursing department of Semra and Vefa Küçük Health High School, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University in the academic year of 2015-2016 and agreed to participate in the study. “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researchers upon the literature review and “Nursing Education Stress Scale (NESS)” were used in this study. Data were assessed with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results: Mean NESS Scale score of the nursing students was estimated to be 66.46±16.08 points. Conclusions: As a result of this study, stress level experienced by nursing undergraduate students during their education was determined to be high. In accordance with this result, it can be recommended to determine sources of stress experienced by nursing undergraduate students during their education and to develop approaches to eliminate these stress sources.

Keywords: stress, nursing education, nursing student, nursing education stress

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9 The Role of the STAT3 Signaling for Melatonergic Synthetic Pathway in the Rat Pineal Gland

Authors: Simona Moravcova, Jiri Novotny, Zdenka Bendova

Abstract:

The pineal gland of the vertebrate brain is a circumventricular organ which serves as a major neuroendocrine gland with the primary function of rhythmic secretion of neurohormone melatonin under the control of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Soon after the onset of the darkness, the activity of the key rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), raises due to the increased release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons terminating on the parenchymal cells where it binds to β-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin codes the length of the night, and it is well recognized for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the effect of the immune system on the melatonin biosynthesis and the precise role of the STAT3 in the signaling pathway leading to the expression of AANAT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the essential component in the outer surface membrane of gram-negative bacteria and acts as a strong stimulator of natural and innate immunity. STAT3 acts as an important factor in immune response. Here we investigated the effect of LPS on the components of the melatonergic synthetic pathway in the pineal gland. The experiments were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The changes in AANAT activity were determined by radioenzymatic assay. PCR analyses were carried out to detect aa-nat, icer, spi-3 and stat3 gene expression. From our results, it is apparent that the high basal level of phosphorylated forms of STAT3 can be elevated after systemic as well as in vitro administration of LPS. Our experiments have shown that LPS reduces melatonin synthesis, nevertheless, the activity of AANAT was increased. Moreover, the basal level of phosphorylated STAT3 counteracts β-adrenergic receptor-mediated aa-nat gene expression and sustains its own and spi-3 gene expression. In conclusion, LPS can affect immunomodulators such as melatonin in the pineal gland.

Keywords: AANAT, lipopolysaccharide, pineal gland, rat, STAT3

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8 A New Source on Ottoman Self-Narratives: Kulakzade Mahmud Pasha’s Dream Diary

Authors: Semra Çörekçi̇

Abstract:

In this study, a new source on Ottoman Self-narratives, Kulakzâde Mahmud Paşa’s Düşname (Dreambook), will be introduced to illustrate how dreams can provide a ground for historical analysis. The manuscript looks like a private notebook of an Ottoman official, Mahmud Pasha, who lived and operated in Rumelia in the early eighteenth century. It provides insight into the ordinary and daily concerns of a bureaucrat who had the knowledge and tools to record them in writing. On the one side of the notebook, Mahmud Pasha recorded his travels and appointments in 1730-1731. He wrote places that he reached and stayed every day. On the reverse side, the same author kept a record of his dreams and named that part of his notebook, Düşname. He recorded his dreams on a daily basis in writing and therefore they were well-preserved in a dream diary. This study aims at drawing the social, cultural and psychic life of an early modern Ottoman bureaucrat. It will uncover the ways and means whereby he interpreted his environment, as well as how he made meaning of his dreams considering the social milieu and historical context within which he lived. The first part will focus on 'official dreams' uncovering how his official life and ambitions coincide with his spiritual life. Related to this, connection between anxiety and dream narratives will be evaluated as dreams in which the mundane concerns of securing a post occupied the most central place in the construction of his narrative. A further point will be made by questioning Mahmud Pasha’s possible Sufi connections and his familiarity with the tradition of dream interpretation. Also, considering Mahmud Pasha’s inclusion of other’s dreams in his Düşnâme, the issue of dream-telling will be questioned in order to reveal how dreams were interconnected and how they created a space for social gathering.

Keywords: Ottoman self-narratives, dreams, diary, Ottoman cultural history

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7 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Methods That Increase the Knowledge of Youths about the Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gonul Kurt, Semra Aciksoz

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All types of interventions that increase the knowledge and awareness of youths about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) are considered to be important for safe sex life and sexual health. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of nursing students about STD and evaluate the effectiveness of peer education and brochure methods to increase the knowledge and awareness about STD. This interventional study was carried out by participation of nursing students attending the first and second grade in a school of nursing on February–May 2015. The study participants were 200 undergraduate nursing student volunteers. The students were given education by peer trainers and brochure methods. First-grade students were divided into five groups with block randomization method and each group were given education by five peer trainers. Second-grade students were given education with brochure by the researchers. The knowledge level of study groups was evaluated before and after educational intervention. The data were collected using the “Data Collection Form” and “Sexually Transmitted Diseases Information Form”. The questionnaire forms developed by the researchers after the literature review. The SPSS 15.0 package software was used for the evaluation of the data obtained from the study. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U-Test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mc Nemar Test. A p value of <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. All of participants in the study were female nursing students. The mean age of students was 18.99±0.32 years old in the peer education group and 20.04±0.37 in the brochure education group. There was no statistically significant difference between knowledge levels of the students in both groups before the education (p>0.05). It was determined that an increase in knowledge levels of the students in both groups after the education. This increase was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was determined that knowledge level of the students about STD in brochure group was higher than the peer education group (p<0.001). The results of this study indicate that brochure education method was more effective than the peer education method in both increasing knowledge and awareness about STD.

Keywords: education method, knowledge, nursing students, sexually transmitted diseases

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6 Dynamic Ambulance Deployment to Reduce Ambulance Response Times Using Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Masoud Swalehe, Semra Günay

Abstract:

Developed countries are losing many lives to non-communicable diseases as compared to their developing counterparts. The effects of these diseases are mostly sudden and manifest at a very short time prior to death or a dangerous attack and this has consolidated the significance of emergency medical system (EMS) as one of the vital areas of healthcare service delivery. The primary objective of this research is to reduce ambulance response times (RT) of Eskişehir province EMS since a number of studies have established a relationship between ambulance response times and survival chances of patients especially out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. It has been found out that patients who receive out of hospital medical attention in few (4) minutes after cardiac arrest because of low ambulance response times stand higher chances of survival than their counterparts who take longer times (more than 12 minutes) to receive out of hospital medical care because of higher ambulance response times. The study will make use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to dynamically reallocate ambulance resources according to demand and time so as to reduce ambulance response times. Geospatial-time distribution of ambulance calls (demand) will be used as a basis for optimal ambulance deployment using system status management (SSM) strategy to achieve much demand coverage with the same number of ambulance resources to cause response time reduction. Drive-time polygons will be used to come up with time specific facility coverage areas and suggesting additional facility candidate sites where ambulance resources can be moved to serve higher demands making use of network analysis techniques. Emergency Ambulance calls’ data from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 obtained from Eskişehir province health directorate will be used in this study. This study will focus on the reduction of ambulance response times which is a key Emergency Medical Services performance indicator.

Keywords: emergency medical services, system status management, ambulance response times, geographic information system, geospatial-time distribution, out of hospital cardiac arrest

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5 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü

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Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: fermentation, ion exchange, lactic acid, purification, whey

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4 Investigation on Correlation of Earthquake Intensity Parameters with Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Semra Sirin Kiris

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Nonlinear dynamic analysis is permitted to be used for structures without any restrictions. The important issue is the selection of the design earthquake to conduct the analyses since quite different response may be obtained using ground motion records at the same general area even resulting from the same earthquake. In seismic design codes, the method requires scaling earthquake records based on site response spectrum to a specified hazard level. Many researches have indicated that this limitation about selection can cause a large scatter in response and other charecteristics of ground motion obtained in different manner may demonstrate better correlation with peak seismic response. For this reason influence of eleven different ground motion parameters on the peak displacement of reinforced concrete systems is examined in this paper. From conducting 7020 nonlinear time history analyses for single degree of freedom systems, the most effective earthquake parameters are given for the range of the initial periods and strength ratios of the structures. In this study, a hysteresis model for reinforced concrete called Q-hyst is used not taken into account strength and stiffness degradation. The post-yielding to elastic stiffness ratio is considered as 0.15. The range of initial period, T is from 0.1s to 0.9s with 0.1s time interval and three different strength ratios for structures are used. The magnitude of 260 earthquake records selected is higher than earthquake magnitude, M=6. The earthquake parameters related to the energy content, duration or peak values of ground motion records are PGA(Peak Ground Acceleration), PGV (Peak Ground Velocity), PGD (Peak Ground Displacement), MIV (Maximum Increamental Velocity), EPA(Effective Peak Acceleration), EPV (Effective Peak Velocity), teff (Effective Duration), A95 (Arias Intensity-based Parameter), SPGA (Significant Peak Ground Acceleration), ID (Damage Factor) and Sa (Spectral Response Spectrum).Observing the correlation coefficients between the ground motion parameters and the peak displacement of structures, different earthquake parameters play role in peak displacement demand related to the ranges formed by the different periods and the strength ratio of a reinforced concrete systems. The influence of the Sa tends to decrease for the high values of strength ratio and T=0.3s-0.6s. The ID and PGD is not evaluated as a measure of earthquake effect since high correlation with displacement demand is not observed. The influence of the A95 is high for T=0.1 but low related to the higher values of T and strength ratio. The correlation of PGA, EPA and SPGA shows the highest correlation for T=0.1s but their effectiveness decreases with high T. Considering all range of structural parameters, the MIV is the most effective parameter.

Keywords: earthquake parameters, earthquake resistant design, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concrete

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3 Comparison of Gait Variability in Individuals with Trans-Tibial and Trans-Femoral Lower Limb Loss: A Pilot Study

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Fatih Erbahceci, Elif Kirdi, Ali Yalcin, Semra Topuz, Ozlem Ulger, Gul Sener

Abstract:

Objectives and Goals: The stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait is a determinant of qualified locomotion as known as gait variability. Gait variability is an important predictive factor of fall risk and useful for monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Comparison of gait variability in individuals with trans-tibial lower limb loss and trans femoral lower limb loss was the aim of the study. Methods: Ten individuals with traumatic unilateral trans femoral limb loss(TF), 12 individuals with traumatic transtibial lower limb loss(TT) and 12 healthy individuals(HI) were the participants of the study. All participants were evaluated with treadmill. Gait characteristics including mean step length, step length variability, ambulation index, time on each foot of participants were evaluated with treadmill. Participants were walked at their preferred speed for six minutes. Data from 4th minutes to 6th minutes were selected for statistical analyses to eliminate learning effect. Results: There were differences between the groups in intact limb step length variation, time on each foot, ambulation index and mean age (p < .05) according to the Kruskal Wallis Test. Pairwise analyses showed that there were differences between the TT and TF in residual limb variation (p=.041), time on intact foot (p=.024), time on prosthetic foot(p=.024), ambulation index(p = .003) in favor of TT group. There were differences between the TT and HI group in intact limb variation (p = .002), time on intact foot (p<.001), time on prosthetic foot (p < .001), ambulation index result (p < .001) in favor of HI group. There were differences between the TF and HI group in intact limb variation (p = .001), time on intact foot (p=.01) ambulation index result (p < .001) in favor of HI group. There was difference between the groups in mean age result from HI group were younger (p < .05).There were similarity between the groups in step lengths (p>.05) and time of prosthesis using in individuals with lower limb loss (p > .05). Conclusions: The pilot study provided basic data about gait stability in individuals with traumatic lower limb loss. Results of the study showed that to evaluate the gait differences between in different amputation level, long-range gait analyses methods may be useful to get more valuable information. On the other hand, similarity in step length may be resulted from effective prosthetic using or effective gait rehabilitation, in conclusion, all participants with lower limb loss were already trained. The differences between the TT and HI; TF and HI may be resulted from the age related features, therefore, age matched population in HI were recommended future studies. Increasing the number of participants and comparison of age-matched groups also recommended to generalize these result.

Keywords: lower limb loss, amputee, gait variability, gait analyses

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2 Attitudes of Nursing Students Towards Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction

Authors: Şefika Dilek Güven, Gülden Küçükakça

Abstract:

Objective: Learning the process of interaction with patient occurs within the process of nursing education. For this reason, it is considered to provide an opportunity for questioning and rearrangement of nursing education programs by assessing attitudes of nursing students towards caring nurse-patient interaction. Method: This is a descriptive study conducted in order to assess attitudes of nursing students towards caring nurse-patient interaction. The study was conducted with 318 students who were studying at nursing department of Semra and Vefa Küçük Health High School, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University in 2015-2016 academic year and agreed to participate in the study. “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researchers utilizing the literature and “Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale (CNPIS)”, who Turkish validity and reliability were conducted by Atar and Aştı, were used in the study. The Cronbach α coefficient of CNPIS was found as 0.973 in the study. Permissions of the institution and participants were received before starting to conduct study. Significance test of the difference between two means, analysis of variance, and correlation analysis were used to assess the data. Results: Average age of nursing students participating in the study was 20.72±1.91 and 74.8% were female, and 28.0% were the fourth-year students. 52.5% of the nursing students stated that they chose nursing profession willingly, 80.2% did not have difficulty in their interactions with patients, and 84.6% did not have difficulty in their social relationships. CNPIS total mean score of nursing students was found to be 295.31±40.95. When the correlation between total CNPIS mean score of the nursing students in terms of some variables was examined; it was determined there was a significant positive correlation between ages of the nursing students and total mean score of CNPIS (r=0.184, p=0.001). CNPIS total mean score was found to be higher in female students compared to male students, in 3rd–year students compared to students studying at other years, in those choosing their profession willingly compared to those choosing their profession unwillingly, in those not having difficulty in relations with the patients compared to those having difficulty, and in those not having difficulty in social relationships compared to those having difficulty. It was determined there was a significant difference between CNPIS total mean scores in terms of the year and state of having difficulty in social relationships (p<0,005). Conclusion: Nursing students had positive attitudes towards caring nurse-patient interactions, attitudes of nursing students, who were female, studying at 3rd year, chose nursing profession willingly, did not have difficulty in patient relations, and did not have difficulty in social relationships, towards caring nurse-patient interaction were found to be more positive. In the line with these results; it can be recommended to organize activities for introducing nursing profession to the youth preparing for the university, to use methods that will increase further communication skills to nursing students during their education, to support students in terms of communication skills, and to involve activities that will strengthen their social relationships.

Keywords: nurse-patient interaction, nursing student, patient, communication

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1 An Impact Assesment of Festive Events on Sustainable Cultural Heritage: İdrisyayla Village

Authors: Betül Gelengül Eki̇mci̇, Semra Günay Aktaş

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Festive, habitual activities celebrated on the specified date by a local community, are conducive to recognition of the region. The main function of festive events is to help gathering people via an annual celebration to create an atmosphere of understanding and the opportunity to participate in the joy of life. At the same time, festive events may serve as special occasions on which immigrants return home to celebrate with their family and community, reaffirming their identity and link to the community’s traditions. Festivals also support the local economy by bringing in different visitors to the region. The tradition of “Beet Brewing-Molasses Production,” which is held in İdrisyayla Village is an intangible cultural heritage with customs, traditions, and rituals carrying impacts of cuisine culture of Rumelian immigrants in the Ottoman. After the harvest of the beet plant in the autumn season of the year, Beet Brewing Molasses syrup is made by traditional production methods with co-op of the local community. Festive occurring brewing paste made process provided transmission of knowledge and experience to the young generations. Making molasses, which is a laborious process, is accompanied by folk games such as "sayacı," which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Performance provides enjoyable time and supporting motivation. Like other forms of intangible cultural heritage, “Beet Brewing-Molasses Festive in İdrasyayla is threatened by rapid urbanisation, young generation migration, industrialisation and environmental change. The festive events are threatened with gradual disappearance due to changes communities undergo in modern societies because it depends on the broad participation of practitioners. Ensuring the continuity of festive events often requires the mobilization of large numbers of individuals and the social, political and legal institutions and mechanisms of society. In 2015, Intangible cultural heritage research project with the title of "İdrisyayla Molasses Process" managed by the Eskişehir Governorship, City Directorate of Culture and Tourism and Anadolu University, project members took part in the festival organization to promote sustainability, making it visible, to encourage the broadest public participation possible, to ensure public awareness on the cultural importance. To preserve the originality of and encourage participation in the festive İdrisyayla, local associations, researchers and institutions created foundation and supports festive events, such as "sayacı" folk game, which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Practitioners find new opportunity to market İdrisyayla Molasses production. Publicity program through the press and exhibition made it possible to stress the cultural importance of the festive in İdrisyayla Village. The research reported here used a survey analysis to evaluate an affect of the festive after the spirit of the 2015 Festive in İdrisyayla Village. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the cultural aspects of the festival. Based on a survey of more than a hundred festival attendees, several recommendations are made to festival planners. Results indicate that the variety of festive activities and products offered for sale very important to attendees. The local participants care product sales rather than cultural heritage.

Keywords: agritourism, cultural tourism, festival, sustainable cultural heritage

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