Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: M. Abdollahi

17 Understanding Seismic Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: Alireza Mirzaee, Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi


Unreinforced Masonry (URM) wall is vulnerable in resisting horizontal load such as wind and seismic loading. It is due to the low tensile strength of masonry, the mortar connection between the brick units. URM structures are still widely used in the world as an infill wall and commonly constructed with door and window openings. This research aimed to investigate the behavior of URM wall with openings when horizontal load acting on it and developed load-drift relationship of the wall. The finite element (FE) method was chosen to numerically simulate the behavior of URM with openings. In this research, ABAQUS, commercially available FE software with explicit solver was employed. In order to ensure the numerical model can accurately represent the behavior of an URM wall, the model was validated for URM wall without openings using available experimental results. Load-displacement relationship of numerical model is well agreed with experimental results. Evidence shows the same load displacement curve shape obtained from the FE model. After validating the model, parametric study conducted on URM wall with openings to investigate the influence of area of openings and pre-compressive load on the horizontal load capacity of the wall. The result showed that the increasing of area of openings decreases the capacity of the wall in resisting horizontal loading. It is also well observed from the result that capacity of the wall increased with the increasing of pre-compressive load applied on the top of the walls.

Keywords: masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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16 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

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15 Paternal Postpartum Depression and Its Relationship to Maternal Depression

Authors: Fatemeh Abdollahi, Mehran Zarghami, Jamshid Yazdani Jarati, Mun-Sunn Lye


Fathers may be at risk of depression during the postpartum period. Some studies have been reported maternal depression is the key predictor of paternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study aimed to explore this association. Using a cross-sectional study design, 591 couples referring to primary health centers at 2-8 weeks postpartum (during 2017) were recruited. Couples screened for depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors was also gathered. Paternal PPD was analyzed in relation to maternal PPD and other related factors using multiple regressions. The prevalence of Paternal and maternal postpartum depression was 15.7% (93) and 31.8% (188), respectively. The regression model showed that there was increased risk of PPD in fathers whose wives experienced PPD [OR=1.15, (95%CI: 1.04-1.27)], who had a lower state of general health [OR=1.21, (95%CI: 1.11-1.33)], who experienced increased number of life events [OR=1.42, (95%CI: 1.01-1.2.00)], and who were at older age [OR=1.20, (95%CI: 1.05- 1.36)]. Also, there was a decreased risk of depression in fathers with more children compared with those with fewer children [OR=0.20, (95%CI: 0.07-0.53)]. Maternal PPD and psychosocial risk factors were the strong predictors of parental PPD. Being grown up in a family with two depressed parents are an important issue for children and needs futher research and attention.

Keywords: Father, Mother, Postpartum depression, Risk factors

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14 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: R. Ahmadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi


The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: froth flotation, copper, water treatment, optimization, recycling

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13 Cloud Computing in Data Mining: A Technical Survey

Authors: Ghaemi Reza, Abdollahi Hamid, Dashti Elham


Cloud computing poses a diversity of challenges in data mining operation arising out of the dynamic structure of data distribution as against the use of typical database scenarios in conventional architecture. Due to immense number of users seeking data on daily basis, there is a serious security concerns to cloud providers as well as data providers who put their data on the cloud computing environment. Big data analytics use compute intensive data mining algorithms (Hidden markov, MapReduce parallel programming, Mahot Project, Hadoop distributed file system, K-Means and KMediod, Apriori) that require efficient high performance processors to produce timely results. Data mining algorithms to solve or optimize the model parameters. The challenges that operation has to encounter is the successful transactions to be established with the existing virtual machine environment and the databases to be kept under the control. Several factors have led to the distributed data mining from normal or centralized mining. The approach is as a SaaS which uses multi-agent systems for implementing the different tasks of system. There are still some problems of data mining based on cloud computing, including design and selection of data mining algorithms.

Keywords: cloud computing, data mining, computing models, cloud services

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12 Multi-Criteria Decision Approach to Performance Measurement Techniques Data Envelopment Analysis: Case Study of Kerman City’s Parks

Authors: Ali A. Abdollahi


During the last several decades, scientists have consistently applied Multiple Criteria Decision-Making methods in making decisions about multi-faceted, complicated subjects. While making such decisions and in order to achieve more accurate evaluations, they have regularly used a variety of criteria instead of applying just one Optimum Evaluation Criterion. The method presented here utilizes both ‘quantity’ and ‘quality’ to assess the function of the Multiple-Criteria method. Applying Data envelopment analysis (DEA), weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS), Weighted Sum Approach (WSA), Analytic Network Process (ANP), and Charnes, Cooper, Rhodes (CCR) methods, we have analyzed thirteen parks in Kerman city. It further indicates that the functions of WASPAS and WSA are compatible with each other, but also that their deviation from DEA is extensive. Finally, the results for the CCR technique do not match the results of the DEA technique. Our study indicates that the ANP method, with the average rate of 1/51, ranks closest to the DEA method, which has an average rate of 1/49.

Keywords: multiple criteria decision making, Data envelopment analysis (DEA), Charnes Cooper Rhodes (CCR), Weighted Sum Approach (WSA)

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11 Numerical Investigation on Performance of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Block in Protecting Buried Lifeline Structures

Authors: M. Abdollahi, S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is often used in below ground applications in geotechnical engineering. A most recent configuration system implemented in roadways to protect lifelines such as buried pipes, electrical cables and culvert systems could be consisted of two EPS geofoam blocks, “posts” placed on each side of the structure, an EPS block capping, “beam” put atop two posts, and soil cover on the beam. In this configuration, a rectangular void space will be built atop the lifeline. EPS blocks will stand all the imposed vertical forces due to their strength and deformability, thus the lifeline will experience no vertical stress. The present paper describes the results of a numerical study on the post and beam configuration subjected to the static loading. Three-dimensional finite element analysis using ABAQUS software is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters such as beam thickness, soil thickness over the beam, post height to width ratio, EPS density, and free span between two posts, on the stress distribution and the deflection of the beam. The results show favorable performance of EPS geofoam for protecting sensitive infrastructures.

Keywords: beam, EPS block, numerical analysis, post, stress distribution

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10 Design and Control of a Knee Rehabilitation Device Using an MR-Fluid Brake

Authors: Mina Beheshti, Vida Shams, Mojtaba Esfandiari, Farzaneh Abdollahi, Abdolreza Ohadi


Most of the people who survive a stroke need rehabilitation tools to regain their mobility. The core function of these devices is a brake actuator. The goal of this study is to design and control a magnetorheological brake which can be used as a rehabilitation tool. In fact, the fluid used in this brake is called magnetorheological fluid or MR that properties can change by variation of the magnetic field. The braking properties can be set as control by using this feature of the fluid. In this research, different MR brake designs are first introduced in each design, and the dimensions of the brake have been determined based on the required torque for foot movement. To calculate the brake dimensions, it is assumed that the shear stress distribution in the fluid is uniform and the fluid is in its saturated state. After designing the rehabilitation brake, the mathematical model of the healthy movement of a healthy person is extracted. Due to the nonlinear nature of the system and its variability, various adaptive controllers, neural networks, and robust have been implemented to estimate the parameters and control the system. After calculating torque and control current, the best type of controller in terms of error and control current has been selected. Finally, this controller is implemented on the experimental data of the patient's movements, and the control current is calculated to achieve the desired torque and motion.

Keywords: rehabilitation, magnetorheological fluid, knee, brake, adaptive control, robust control, neural network control, torque control

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9 Distributed Generation Connection to the Network: Obtaining Stability Using Transient Behavior

Authors: A. Hadadi, M. Abdollahi, A. Dustmohammadi


The growing use of DGs in distribution networks provide many advantages and also cause new problems which should be anticipated and be solved with appropriate solutions. One of the problems is transient voltage drop and short circuit in the electrical network, in the presence of distributed generation - which can lead to instability. The appearance of the short circuit will cause loss of generator synchronism, even though if it would be able to recover synchronizing mode after removing faulty generator, it will be stable. In order to increase system reliability and generator lifetime, some strategies should be planned to apply even in some situations which a fault prevent generators from separation. In this paper, one fault current limiter is installed due to prevent DGs separation from the grid when fault occurs. Furthermore, an innovative objective function is applied to determine the impedance optimal amount of fault current limiter in order to improve transient stability of distributed generation. Fault current limiter can prevent generator rotor's sudden acceleration after fault occurrence and thereby improve the network transient stability by reducing the current flow in a fast and effective manner. In fact, by applying created impedance by fault current limiter when a short circuit happens on the path of current injection DG to the fault location, the critical fault clearing time improve remarkably. Therefore, protective relay has more time to clear fault and isolate the fault zone without any instability. Finally, different transient scenarios of connection plan sustainability of small scale synchronous generators to the distribution network are presented.

Keywords: critical clearing time, fault current limiter, synchronous generator, transient stability, transient states

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8 The Effect of Ice in Pain Control before Digital Nerve Block

Authors: Fatemeh Rasooli, Behzad Simiari, Pooya Payandemehr, Amir Nejati, Maryam Bahreini, Atefeh Abdollahi


Introduction: Pain is a complex physiological reaction to tissue injury. In the course of painful procedures such as nerve block, ice has been shown to be a feasible and inexpensive material to control pain. It delays nerve conduction, actives other senses and reduces inflammatory and painful responses. This study assessed the effect of ice in reducing pain caused by needling and infiltration during digital block. Patient satisfaction recorded as a secondary outcome. Methods: This study was designed as a non-blinded randomized clinical trial approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee. Informed consent was taken from all the participants who were then randomly divided into two groups. Digital block performed by standard approach in selected patients. Tubes of ice were prepared in gloves and were fragmented at a time of application for circling around the finger. Tubes were applied for 6 minutes before digital nerve block in the site of needling in the case group. Patients in the control group underwent digital nerve block with the conventional method without ice administration. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) used for grading pain. 0 used for no pain and 10 for the worst pain that patient had experienced until now. Scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and compared in case and control groups. Results: 100 patients aged 16-50 years were enrolled. Mean NRS scores with and without ice were 1.5 mm (S.D ± 1.44) and 6.8 mm (S.D ± 1.40) for needling pain and for infiltration pain were 2.7mm ( S.D ±1.65) and 8.5mm ( S.D ± 1.47), respectively (p<0.001). Besides, patients’ satisfactions were significantly higher in the ice group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of ice for 6 minutes significantly reduced pain of needling and infiltration in digital nerve block; thus, it seems to be a feasible and inexpensive material which acts effectively to decrease pain and stress before the procedure.

Keywords: digital block, ice, needle, pain

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7 Sensor and Actuator Fault Detection in Connected Vehicles under a Packet Dropping Network

Authors: Z. Abdollahi Biron, P. Pisu


Connected vehicles are one of the promising technologies for future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). A connected vehicle system is essentially a set of vehicles communicating through a network to exchange their information with each other and the infrastructure. Although this interconnection of the vehicles can be potentially beneficial in creating an efficient, sustainable, and green transportation system, a set of safety and reliability challenges come out with this technology. The first challenge arises from the information loss due to unreliable communication network which affects the control/management system of the individual vehicles and the overall system. Such scenario may lead to degraded or even unsafe operation which could be potentially catastrophic. Secondly, faulty sensors and actuators can affect the individual vehicle’s safe operation and in turn will create a potentially unsafe node in the vehicular network. Further, sending that faulty sensor information to other vehicles and failure in actuators may significantly affect the safe operation of the overall vehicular network. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take these issues into consideration while designing the control/management algorithms of the individual vehicles as a part of connected vehicle system. In this paper, we consider a connected vehicle system under Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and propose a fault diagnosis scheme that deals with these aforementioned challenges. Specifically, the conventional CACC algorithm is modified by adding a Kalman filter-based estimation algorithm to suppress the effect of lost information under unreliable network. Further, a sliding mode observer-based algorithm is used to improve the sensor reliability under faults. The effectiveness of the overall diagnostic scheme is verified via simulation studies.

Keywords: fault diagnostics, communication network, connected vehicles, packet drop out, platoon

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6 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi


Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: ethephon, DNA damage, γH2AX, oxidative stress

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5 Comparison of the Efficacy of Ketamine-Propofol versus Thiopental Sodium-Fentanyl in Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Mostafa Talebi Garekani, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi


Introduction: Procedural sedation and analgesia have been desirable to handle painful procedures. The trend to find the agent with more efficacy and less complications is still controversial; thus, many sedative regimens have been studied. This study tried to assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of thiopental sodium-fentanyl with the known medication, ketamine-propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department. Methods: Consenting patients were enrolled in this randomized double-blind trial to receive either 1:1 ketamine-propofol (KP) or thiopental-fentanyl (TF) 1:1 mg: Mg proportion on a weight-based dosing basis to reach the sedation level of American Society of Anesthesiologist class III/IV. The respiratory and hemodynamic complications, nausea and vomiting, recovery agitation, patient recall and satisfaction, provider satisfaction and recovery time were compared. The study was registered in Iranian randomized Control Trial Registry (Code: IRCT2015111325025N1). Results: 96 adult patients were included and randomized, 47 in the KP group and 49 in the TF group. 2.1% in the KP group and 8.1 % in the TF group experienced transient hypoxia leading to performing 4.2 % versus 8.1 % airway maneuvers for 2 groups, respectively; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between 2 combinations, and there was no report of endotracheal placement or further admission. Patient and physician satisfaction were significantly higher in the KP group. There was no difference in respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events, recovery time and patient recall of the procedure between groups. The efficacy and complications were not related to the type of procedure or patients’ smoking or addiction trends. Conclusion: Ketamine-propofol and thiopental-fentanyl combinations were effectively comparable although KP resulted in higher patient and provider satisfaction. It is estimated that thiopental fentanyl combination can be as potent and efficacious as ketofol with relatively similar incidence of adverse events in procedural sedation.

Keywords: adverse effects, conscious sedation, fentanyl, propofol, ketamine, safety, thiopental

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4 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi


The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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3 Evaluation of Triage Performance: Nurse Practice and Problem Classifications

Authors: Atefeh Abdollahi, Maryam Bahreini, Babak Choobi Anzali, Fatemeh Rasooli


Introduction: Triage becomes the main part of organization of care in Emergency department (ED)s. It is used to describe the sorting of patients for treatment priority in ED. The accurate triage of injured patients has reduced fatalities and improved resource usage. Besides, the nurses’ knowledge and skill are important factors in triage decision-making. The ability to define an appropriate triage level and their need for intervention is crucial to guide to a safe and effective emergency care. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study designed for emergency nurses working in four public university hospitals. Five triage workshops have been conducted every three months for emergency nurses based on a standard triage Emergency Severity Index (ESI) IV slide set - approved by Iranian Ministry of Health. Most influential items on triage performance were discussed through brainstorming in workshops which then, were peer reviewed by five emergency physicians and two head registered nurses expert panel. These factors that might distract nurse’ attention from proper decisions included patients’ past medical diseases, the natural tricks of triage and system failure. After permission had been taken, emergency nurses participated in the study and were given the structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by SPSS 21.0. Results: 92 emergency nurses enrolled in the study. 30 % of nurses reported the past history of chronic disease as the most influential confounding factor to ascertain triage level, other important factors were the history of prior admission, past history of myocardial infarction and heart failure to be 20, 17 and 11 %, respectively. Regarding the concept of difficulties in triage practice, 54.3 % reported that the discussion with patients and family members was difficult and 8.7 % declared that it is hard to stay in a single triage room whole day. Among the participants, 45.7 and 26.1 % evaluated the triage workshops as moderately and highly effective, respectively. 56.5 % reported overcrowding as the most important system-based difficulty. Nurses were mainly doubtful to differentiate between the triage levels 2 and 3 according to the ESI VI system. No significant correlation was found between the work record of nurses in triage and the uncertainty in determining the triage level and difficulties. Conclusion: The work record of nurses hardly seemed to be effective on the triage problems and issues. To correct the deficits, training workshops should be carried out, followed by continuous refresher training and supportive supervision.

Keywords: assessment, education, nurse, triage

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2 Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.

Keywords: biological control, nematode management, organic soil, Quercus branti, root knot nematode, soil amendment

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1 Nonlinear Response of Tall Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings under Wind Loads

Authors: Mahtab Abdollahi Sarvi, Siamak Epackachi, Ali Imanpour


Reinforced concrete shear walls are commonly used as the lateral load-resisting system of mid- to high-rise office or residential buildings around the world. Design of such systems is often governed by wind rather than seismic effects, in particular in low-to-moderate seismic regions. The current design philosophy as per the majority of building codes under wind loads require elastic response of lateral load-resisting systems including reinforced concrete shear walls when subjected to the rare design wind load, resulting in significantly large wall sections needed to meet strength requirements and drift limits. The latter can highly influence the design in upper stories due to stringent drift limits specified by building codes, leading to substantial added costs to the construction of the wall. However, such walls may offer limited to moderate over-strength and ductility due to their large reserve capacity provided that they are designed and detailed to appropriately develop such over-strength and ductility under extreme wind loads. This would significantly contribute to reducing construction time and costs, while maintaining structural integrity under gravity and frequently-occurring and less frequent wind events. This paper aims to investigate the over-strength and ductility capacity of several imaginary office buildings located in Edmonton, Canada with a glance at earthquake design philosophy. Selected models are 10- to 25-story buildings with three types of reinforced concrete shear wall configurations including rectangular, barbell, and flanged. The buildings are designed according to National Building Code of Canada. Then fiber-based numerical models of the walls are developed in Perform 3D and by conducting nonlinear static (pushover) analysis, lateral nonlinear behavior of the walls are evaluated. Ductility and over-strength of the structures are obtained based on the results of the pushover analyses. The results confirmed moderate nonlinear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls under extreme wind loads. This is while lateral displacements of the walls pass the serviceability limit states defined in Pre standard for Performance-Based Wind Design (ASCE). The results indicate that we can benefit the limited nonlinear response observed in the reinforced concrete shear walls to economize the design of such systems under wind loads.

Keywords: concrete shear wall, high-rise buildings, nonlinear static analysis, response modification factor, wind load

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