Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: intermittency of intermittencies

17 Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Maksim O. Zhuravlev, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov

Abstract:

Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are illustrated using the example of two unidirectionally coupled Rössler systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectionally.

Keywords: chaotic oscillators, phase synchronization, noise, intermittency of intermittencies

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16 Preparation and Characterization of Electrospun CdTe Quantum Dots / Nylon-6 Nanofiber Mat

Authors: Negar Mesgara, Laleh Maleknia

Abstract:

In this paper, electrospun CdTe quantum dot / nylon-6 nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in different distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the electrospinning parameters. The phenomenon of ‘on ‘ and ‘off ‘ luminescence intermittency (blinking) of CdTe QDs in nylon-6 was investigated by single-molecule optical microscopy, and we identified that the intermittencies of single QDs were correlated with the interaction of water molecules absorbed on the QD surface. The ‘off’ times, the interval between adjacent ‘on’ states, remained essentially unaffected with an increase in excitation intensity. In the case of ‘on’ time distribution, power law behavior with an exponential cutoff tail is observed at longer time scales. These observations indicate that the luminescence blinking statistics of water-soluble single CdTe QDs is significantly dependent on the aqueous environment, which is interpreted in terms of passivation of the surface trap states of QDs.

Keywords: electrospinning, CdTe quantum dots, Nylon-6, Nanocomposite

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15 Magnetic Fluctuations in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath

Authors: Alexandre Gurchumelia, Luca Sorriso-Valvo, David Burgess, Khatuna Elbakidze, Oleg Kharshiladze, Diana Kvaratskhelia

Abstract:

The terrestrial magnetosheath is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of magnetic1field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These often include an inertial range where a2magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade is observed. The multifractal properties of the turbulent3cascade, strictly related to intermittency, are observed here during the transition from quasi-parallel to4quasi-perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the bow-shock normal. The different multifractal5behavior in the two regions is analyzed. A standard coarse-graining technique has been used6to evaluate the generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal spectrumf(α). A7p-model fit provided a quantitative measure of multifractality and intermittency, to be compared with8standard indicators: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling9exponent. Results show a clear transition and sharp differences in the intermittency properties for the two regions.

Keywords: magnetos heath, turbulence, multifractal, instabilities

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14 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish

Abstract:

Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

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13 Studying the Evolution of Soot and Precursors in Turbulent Flames Using Laser Diagnostics

Authors: Muhammad A. Ashraf, Scott Steinmetz, Matthew J. Dunn, Assaad R. Masri

Abstract:

This study focuses on the evolution of soot and soot precursors in three different piloted diffusion turbulent flames. The fuel composition is as follow flame A (ethylene/nitrogen, 2:3 by volume), flame B (ethylene/air, 2:3 by volume), and flame C (pure methane). These flames are stabilized using a 4mm diameter jet surrounded by a pilot annulus with an outer diameter of 15 mm. The pilot issues combustion products from stoichiometric premixed flames of hydrogen, acetylene, and air. In all cases, the jet Reynolds number is 10,000, and air flows in the coflow stream at a velocity of 5 m/s. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is collected at two wavelength bands in the visible (445 nm) and UV regions (266 nm) along with laser-induced incandescence (LII). The combined results are employed to study concentration, size, and growth of soot and precursors. A set of four fast photo-multiplier tubes are used to record emission data in temporal domain. A 266nm laser pulse preferentially excites smaller nanoparticles which emit a fluorescence spectrum which is analysed to track the presence, evolution, and destruction of nanoparticles. A 1064nm laser pulse excites sufficiently large soot particles, and the resulting incandescence is collected at 1064nm. At downstream and outer radial locations, intermittency becomes a relevant factor. Therefore, data collected in turbulent flames is conditioned to account for intermittency so that the resulting mean profiles for scattering, fluorescence, and incandescence are shown for the events that contain traces of soot. It is found that in the upstream regions of the ethylene-air and ethylene-nitrogen flames, the presence of soot precursors is rather similar. However, further downstream, soot concentration grows larger in the ethylene-air flames.

Keywords: laser induced incandescence, laser induced fluorescence, soot, nanoparticles

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12 Generalized Synchronization in Systems with a Complex Topology of Attractor

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Vladislav A. Khanadeev, Anastasya D. Koloskova, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Anatoly A. Pivovarov

Abstract:

Generalized synchronization is one of the most intricate phenomena in nonlinear science. It can be observed both in systems with a unidirectional and mutual type of coupling including the complex networks. Such a phenomenon has a number of practical applications, for example, for the secure information transmission through the communication channel with a high level of noise. Known methods for the secure information transmission needs in the increase of the privacy of data transmission that arises a question about the observation of such phenomenon in systems with a complex topology of chaotic attractor possessing two or more positive Lyapunov exponents. The present report is devoted to the study of such phenomenon in two unidirectionally and mutually coupled dynamical systems being in chaotic (with one positive Lyapunov exponent) and hyperchaotic (with two or more positive Lyapunov exponents) regimes, respectively. As the systems under study, we have used two mutually coupled modified Lorenz oscillators and two unidirectionally coupled time-delayed generators. We have shown that in both cases the generalized synchronization regime can be detected by means of the calculation of Lyapunov exponents and phase tube approach whereas due to the complex topology of attractor the nearest neighbor method is misleading. Moreover, the auxiliary system approaches being the standard method for the synchronous regime observation, for the mutual type of coupling results in incorrect results. To calculate the Lyapunov exponents in time-delayed systems we have proposed an approach based on the modification of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure in the context of the time-delayed system. We have studied in detail the mechanisms resulting in the generalized synchronization regime onset paying a great attention to the field where one positive Lyapunov exponent has already been become negative whereas the second one is a positive yet. We have found the intermittency here and studied its characteristics. To detect the laminar phase lengths the method based on a calculation of local Lyapunov exponents has been proposed. The efficiency of the method has been verified using the example of two unidirectionally coupled Rössler systems being in the band chaos regime. We have revealed the main characteristics of intermittency, i.e. the distribution of the laminar phase lengths and dependence of the mean length of the laminar phases on the criticality parameter, for all systems studied in the report. This work has been supported by the Russian President's Council grant for the state support of young Russian scientists (project MK-531.2018.2).

Keywords: complex topology of attractor, generalized synchronization, hyperchaos, Lyapunov exponents

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11 On the Market Prospects of Long-Term Electricity Storages

Authors: Reinhard Haas, Amela Ajanovic

Abstract:

In recent years especially electricity generation from intermittent sources like wind and solar has increased remarkably. To balance electricity supply over time calls for storages has been launched. Because intermittency also exists over longer periods – months, years, especially the need for long-term electricity storages is discussed. The major conclusions of our analysis are: (i) Despite many calls for a prophylactic construction of new storage capacities with respect to all centralized long-term storage technologies the future perspectives will be much less promising than currently indicated in several papers and discussions; (ii) new long term hydro storages will not become economically attractive in general in the next decades; however, daily storages will remain the cheapest option and the most likely to be competitive; (iii) For PtG-technologies it will also become very hard to compete in the electricity markets despite a high technological learning potential. Yet, for hydrogen and methane there are prospects for use in the transport sector.

Keywords: storages, electricity markets, power-to-gas, hydro pump storages, economics

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10 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

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9 Frequency Control of Self-Excited Induction Generator Based Microgrid during Transition from Grid Connected to Island Mode

Authors: Azhar Ulhaq, Zubair Yameen, Almas Anjum

Abstract:

Frequency behaviour of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) wind turbines during control mode transition from grid connected to islanded mode is studied in detail. A robust control scheme for frequency regulation based on combined action of STATCOM, energy storage system (ESS) and pitch angle control for wind powered microgrid (MG) is proposed. Suggested STATCOM controller comprises a 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) that contains insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) based pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters along with a capacitor bank. Energy storage system control consists of current controlled voltage source converter and battery bank. Both of them acting simultaneously after detection of island compensates for reactive and active power demands, thus regulating frequency at point of common coupling (PCC) and also improves load stability. STATCOM integrates at point of common coupling and ESS is connected to microgrids main bus. Results reveal that proposed control not only stabilizes frequency during transition duration but also minimizes sudden frequency imbalance caused by load variation or wind intermittencies in islanded operation. System is investigated with and without suggested control scheme. The efficacy of proposed strategy has been verified by simulation in MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: energy storage system, island, wind, STATCOM, self-excited induction generator, SEIG, transient

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8 Design and Study of a Hybrid Micro-CSP/Biomass Boiler System for Water and Space Heating in Traditional Hammam

Authors: Said Lamghari, Abdelkader Outzourhit, Hassan Hamdi, Mohamed Krarouch, Fatima Ait Nouh, Mickael Benhaim, Mehdi Khaldoun

Abstract:

Traditional Hammams are big consumers of water and wood-energy. Any approach to reduce this consumption will contribute to the preservation of these two resources that are more and more stressed in Morocco. In the InnoTherm/InnoBiomass 2014 project HYBRIDBATH, funded by the Research Institute for Solar Energy and New Energy (IRESEN), we will use a hybrid system consisting of a micro-CSP system and a biomass boiler for water and space heating of a Hammam. This will overcome the problem of intermittency of solar energy, and will ensure continuous supply of hot water and heat. We propose to use local agricultural residues (olive pomace, shells of walnuts, almonds, Argan ...). Underfloor heating using either copper or PEX tubing will perform the space heating. This work focuses on the description of the system and the activities carried out so far: The installation of the system, the principle operation of the system and some preliminary test results.

Keywords: biomass boiler, hot water, hybrid systems, micro-CSP, parabolic sensor, solar energy, solar fraction, traditional hammam, underfloor heating

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7 Impact of Increasing Distributed Solar PV Systems on Distribution Networks in South Africa

Authors: Aradhna Pandarum

Abstract:

South Africa is experiencing an exponential growth of distributed solar PV installations. This is due to various factors with the predominant one being increasing electricity tariffs along with decreasing installation costs, resulting in attractive business cases to some end-users. Despite there being a variety of economic and environmental advantages associated with the installation of PV, their potential impact on distribution grids has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This is especially true since the locations of these units cannot be controlled by Network Service Providers (NSPs) and their output power is stochastic and non-dispatchable. This report details two case studies that were completed to determine the possible voltage and technical losses impact of increasing PV penetration in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Some major impacts considered for the simulations were ramping of PV generation due to intermittency caused by moving clouds, the size and overall hosting capacity and the location of the systems. The main finding is that the technical impact is different on a constrained feeder vs a non-constrained feeder. The acceptable PV penetration level is much lower for a constrained feeder than a non-constrained feeder, depending on where the systems are located.

Keywords: medium voltage networks, power system losses, power system voltage, solar photovoltaic

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6 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network

Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan

Abstract:

We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.

Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulation

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5 A Comprehensive Study of a Hybrid System Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel cell, Gas Turbine, Organic Rankine Cycle with Compressed air Energy Storage

Authors: Taiheng Zhang, Hongbin Zhao

Abstract:

Compressed air energy storage become increasingly vital for solving intermittency problem of some renewable energies. In this study, a new hybrid system on a combination of compressed air energy storage (CAES), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), gas turbine (GT), and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is proposed. In the new system, excess electricity during off-peak time is utilized to compress air. Then, the compressed air is stored in compressed air storage tank. During peak time, the compressed air enters the cathode of SOFC directly instead of combustion chamber of traditional CAES. There is no air compressor consumption of SOFC-GT in peak demand, so SOFC- GT can generate power with high-efficiency. In addition, the waste heat of exhaust from GT is recovered by applying an ORC. Three different organic working fluid (R123, R601, R601a) of ORC are chosen to evaluate system performance. Based on Aspen plus and Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software, energy and exergoeconomic analysis are used to access the viability of the combined system. Besides, the effect of two parameters (fuel flow and ORC turbine inlet pressure) on energy efficiency is studied. The effect of low-price electricity at off-peak hours on thermodynamic criteria (total unit exergy cost of products and total cost rate) is also investigated. Furthermore, for three different organic working fluids, the results of round-trip efficiency, exergy efficiency, and exergoeconomic factors are calculated and compared. Based on thermodynamic performance and exergoeconomic performance of different organic working fluids, the best suitable working fluid will be chosen. In conclusion, this study can provide important guidance for system efficiency improvement and viability.

Keywords: CAES, SOFC, ORC, energy and exergoeconomic analysis, organic working fluids

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4 Energy Storage Modelling for Power System Reliability and Environmental Compliance

Authors: Rajesh Karki, Safal Bhattarai, Saket Adhikari

Abstract:

Reliable and economic operation of power systems are becoming extremely challenging with large scale integration of renewable energy sources due to the intermittency and uncertainty associated with renewable power generation. It is, therefore, important to make a quantitative risk assessment and explore the potential resources to mitigate such risks. Probabilistic models for different energy storage systems (ESS), such as the flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and the compressed air energy storage (CAES) incorporating specific charge/discharge performance and failure characteristics suitable for probabilistic risk assessment in power system operation and planning are presented in this paper. The proposed methodology used in FESS modelling offers flexibility to accommodate different configurations of plant topology. It is perceived that CAES has a high potential for grid-scale application, and a hybrid approach is proposed, which embeds a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) method in an analytical technique to develop a suitable reliability model of the CAES. The proposed ESS models are applied to a test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the energy storage technologies in system operation and planning, as well as to assess their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios. A comparative study considering various storage system topologies are also presented. The impacts of failure rates of the critical components of ESS on the expected state of charge (SOC) and the performance of the different types of ESS during operation are illustrated with selected studies on the test system. The paper also applies the proposed models on the test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the different ESS technologies and to evaluate their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios and system configurations. The conclusions drawn from the study results provide valuable information to help policymakers, system planners, and operators in arriving at effective and efficient policies, investment decisions, and operating strategies for planning and operation of power systems with large penetrations of renewable energy sources.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, compressed air energy storage, power system reliability, renewable energy, system planning, system operation

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3 Compression and Air Storage Systems for Small Size CAES Plants: Design and Off-Design Analysis

Authors: Coriolano Salvini, Ambra Giovannelli

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources for electric power production leads to reduced CO2 emissions and contributes to improving the domestic energy security. On the other hand, the intermittency and unpredictability of their availability poses relevant problems in fulfilling safely and in a cost efficient way the load demand along the time. Significant benefits in terms of “grid system applications”, “end-use applications” and “renewable applications” can be achieved by introducing energy storage systems. Among the currently available solutions, CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) shows favorable features. Small-medium size plants equipped with artificial air reservoirs can constitute an interesting option to get efficient and cost-effective distributed energy storage systems. The present paper is addressed to the design and off-design analysis of the compression system of small size CAES plants suited to absorb electric power in the range of hundreds of kilowatt. The system of interest is constituted by an intercooled (in case aftercooled) multi-stage reciprocating compressor and a man-made reservoir obtained by connecting large diameter steel pipe sections. A specific methodology for the system preliminary sizing and off-design modeling has been developed. Since during the charging phase the electric power absorbed along the time has to change according to the peculiar CAES requirements and the pressure ratio increases continuously during the filling of the reservoir, the compressor has to work at variable mass flow rate. In order to ensure an appropriately wide range of operations, particular attention has been paid to the selection of the most suitable compressor capacity control device. Given the capacity regulation margin of the compressor and the actual level of charge of the reservoir, the proposed approach allows the instant-by-instant evaluation of minimum and maximum electric power absorbable from the grid. The developed tool gives useful information to appropriately size the compression system and to manage it in the most effective way. Various cases characterized by different system requirements are analysed. Results are given and widely discussed.

Keywords: artificial air storage reservoir, compressed air energy storage (CAES), compressor design, compression system management.

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2 Upper Jurassic Foraminiferal Assemblages and Palaeoceanographical Changes in the Central Part of the East European Platform

Authors: Clementine Colpaert, Boris L. Nikitenko

Abstract:

The Upper Jurassic foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform have been strongly investigated through the 20th century with biostratigraphical and in smaller degree palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical purposes. Over the Late Jurassic, the platform was a shallow epicontinental sea that extended from Tethys to the Artic through the Pechora Sea and further toward the northeast in the West Siberian Sea. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Russian Sea were strongly affected by sea-level changes and were controlled by alternated Boreal to Peritethyan influences. The central part of the East European Platform displays very rich and diverse foraminiferal assemblages. Two sections have been analyzed; the Makar'yev Section in the Moscow Depression and the Gorodishi Section in the Yl'yanovsk Depression. Based on the evolution of foraminiferal assemblages, palaeoenvironment has been reconstructed, and sea-level changes have been refined. The aim of this study is to understand palaeoceanographical changes throughout the Oxfordian – Kimmeridgian of the central part of the Russian Sea. The Oxfordian was characterized by a general transgressive event with intermittency of small regressive phases. The platform was connected toward the south with Tethys and Peritethys. During the Middle Oxfordian, opening of a pathway of warmer water from the North-Tethys region to the Boreal Realm favoured the migration of planktonic foraminifera and the appearance of new benthic taxa. It is associated with increased temperature and primary production. During the Late Oxfordian, colder water inputs associated with the microbenthic community crisis may be a response to the closure of this warm-water corridor and the disappearance of planktonic foraminifera. The microbenthic community crisis is probably due to the increased sedimentation rate in the transition from the maximum flooding surface to a second-order regressive event, increasing productivity and inputs of organic matter along with sharp decrease of oxygen into the sediment. It is following during the Early Kimmeridgian by a replacement of foraminiferal assemblages. The almost all Kimmeridgian is characterized by the abundance of many common with Boreal and Subboreal Realm. Connections toward the South began again dominant after a small regressive event recorded during the Late Kimmeridgian and associated with the abundance of many common taxa with Subboreal Realm and Peritethys such as Crimea and Caucasus taxa. Foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform are strongly affected by palaeoecological changes and may display a very good model for biofacies typification under Boreal and Subboreal environments. The East European Platform appears to be a key area for the understanding of Upper Jurassic big scale palaeoceanographical changes, being connected with Boreal to Peritethyan basins.

Keywords: foraminifera, palaeoceanography, palaeoecology, upper jurassic

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1 Renewable Energy Micro-Grid Control Using Microcontroller in LabVIEW

Authors: Meena Agrawal, Chaitanya P. Agrawal

Abstract:

The power systems are transforming and becoming smarter with innovations in technologies to enable embark simultaneously upon the sustainable energy needs, rising environmental concerns, economic benefits and quality requirements. The advantages provided by inter-connection of renewable energy resources are becoming more viable and dependable with the smart controlling technologies. The limitation of most renewable resources have their diversity and intermittency causing problems in power quality, grid stability, reliability, security etc. is being cured by these efforts. A necessitate of optimal energy management by intelligent Micro-Grids at the distribution end of the power system has been accredited to accommodate sustainable renewable Distributed Energy Resources on large scale across the power grid. All over the world Smart Grids are emerging now as foremost concern infrastructure upgrade programs. The hardware setup includes NI cRIO 9022, Compact Reconfigurable Input Output microcontroller board connected to the PC on a LAN router with three hardware modules. The Real-Time Embedded Controller is reconfigurable controller device consisting of an embedded real-time processor controller for communication and processing, a reconfigurable chassis housing the user-programmable FPGA, Eight hot-swappable I/O modules, and graphical LabVIEW system design software. It has been employed for signal analysis, controls and acquisition and logging of the renewable sources with the LabVIEW Real-Time applications. The employed cRIO chassis controls the timing for the module and handles communication with the PC over the USB, Ethernet, or 802.11 Wi-Fi buses. It combines modular I/O, real-time processing, and NI LabVIEW programmable. In the presented setup, the Analog Input Module NI 9205 five channels have been used for input analog voltage signals from renewable energy sources and NI 9227 four channels have been used for input analog current signals of the renewable sources. For switching actions based on the programming logic developed in software, a module having Electromechanical Relays (single-pole single throw) with 4-Channels, electrically isolated and LED indicating the state of that channel have been used for isolating the renewable Sources on fault occurrence, which is decided by the logic in the program. The module for Ethernet based Data Acquisition Interface ENET 9163 Ethernet Carrier, which is connected on the LAN Router for data acquisition from a remote source over Ethernet also has the module NI 9229 installed. The LabVIEW platform has been employed for efficient data acquisition, monitoring and control. Control logic utilized in program for operation of the hardware switching Related to Fault Relays has been portrayed as a flowchart. A communication system has been successfully developed amongst the sources and loads connected on different computers using Hypertext transfer protocol, HTTP or Ethernet Local Stacked area Network TCP/IP protocol. There are two main I/O interfacing clients controlling the operation of the switching control of the renewable energy sources over internet or intranet. The paper presents experimental results of the briefed setup for intelligent control of the micro-grid for renewable energy sources, besides the control of Micro-Grid with data acquisition and control hardware based on a microcontroller with visual program developed in LabVIEW.

Keywords: data acquisition and control, LabVIEW, microcontroller cRIO, Smart Micro-Grid

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