Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 916

Search results for: ancient greek music

916 The Greek Root Word ‘Kos’ and the Trade of Ancient Greek with Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: D. Pugazhendhi

Abstract:

The ancient Greeks were forerunners in many fields than other societies. So, the Greeks were well connected with all the countries which were well developed during that time through trade route. In this connection, trading of goods from the ancient Greece to Tamil Nadu which is presently in India, though they are geographically far away, played an important role. In that way, the word and the goods related with kos and kare got exchanged between these two societies. So, it is necessary to compare the phonology and the morphological occurrences of these words that are found common both in the ancient Greek and Tamil literatures of the contemporary period. The results show that there were many words derived from the root kos with the basic meaning of ‘arrange’ in the ancient Greek language, but this is not the case in the usage of the word kare. In the ancient Tamil literature, the word ‘kos’ does not have any root and also had rare occurrences. But it was just the opposite in the case of the word ‘kare’. One of all the meanings of the word, which was derived from the root ‘kos’ in ancient Greek literature, is related with costly ornaments. This meaning seems to have close resemblance with the usage of word ‘kos’ in ancient Tamil literature. Also, the meaning of the word ‘kare’ in ancient Tamil literature is related with spices whereas, in the ancient Greek literature, its meaning is related to that of the cooking of meat using spices. Hence, the similarity seen in the meanings of these words ‘kos’ and ‘kare’ in both these languages provides lead for further study. More than that, the ancient literary resources which are available in both these languages ensure the export and import of gold and spices from the ancient Greek land to Tamil land.

Keywords: arrange, kare, Kos, ornament, Tamil

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915 Physical, Iconographic and Symbolic Features of the Plectrum Some Reflections on Sound Production in Ancient Greek String Instruments

Authors: Felipe Aguirre

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In this paper some of the relevant features of the πλῆκτρον within GrecoLatin tradition will be analyzed. Starting from the formal aspects (shape, materials, technical properties) and the archaeological evidence, some of its symbolic implications that emerge in the light of literary and iconographic analysis will be discussed. I shall expose that, in addition to fulfilling a purely physical function within the process of sound production, the πλῆκτρον was the object of a rich imaginery that provided it with an allegorical, metaphorical-poetic and even metaphysical dimension.

Keywords: musicology, ethnomusicology, ancient greek music, plectrum, stringed instruments

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914 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan's Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng-Wei Hsu

Abstract:

Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Taiwanese traditional music, piano performance research, Kuo Chih-Yuan, fugue, variations

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913 Digital Athena – Contemporary Commentaries and Greek Mythology Explored through 3D Printing

Authors: Rose Lastovicka, Bernard Guy, Diana Burton

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Greek myth and art acted as tools to think with, and a lens through which to explore complex topics as a form of social media. In particular, coins were a form of propaganda to communicate the wealth and power of the city-states they originated from as they circulated from person to person. From this, how can the application of 3D printing technologies explore the infusion of ancient forms with contemporary commentaries to promote discussion? The digital reconstruction of artifacts is a topic that has been researched by various groups all over the globe. Yet, the exploration of Greek myth through artifacts infused with contemporary issues is currently unexplored in this medium. Using the Stratasys J750 3D printer - a multi-material, full-colour 3D printer - a series of coins inspired by ancient Greek currency and myth was created to present commentaries on the adversities surrounding individuals in the LGBT+ community. Using the J750 as the medium for expression allows for complete control and precision of the models to create complex high-resolution iconography. The coins are printed with a hard, translucent material with coloured 3D visuals embedded into the coin to then be viewed in close contact by the audience. These coins as commentaries present an avenue for wider understanding by drawing perspectives not only from sources concerned with the contemporary LGBT+ community but also from sources exploring ancient homosexuality and the perception and regulation of it in antiquity. By displaying what are usually points of contention between anti- and pro-LGBT+ parties, this visual medium opens up a discussion to both parties, suggesting heritage can play a vital interpretative role in the contemporary world.

Keywords: 3D printing, design, Greek mythology, LGBT+ community

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912 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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911 The Functions of the Student Voice and Student-Centred Teaching Practices in Classroom-Based Music Education

Authors: Sofia Douklia

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The present context paper aims to present the important role of ‘Student voice’ in the music classroom which contributes to a more student-centered music education. My aim is to focus on the functions of the student voice through the music spectrum, which have been born in the music classroom. The music curriculum, the principles of a student-centered music education, the role of students and music teachers as music ambassadors have been considered as the major music parameters of student voice. And what is better than referring into the authentic words of a great music educator as John Paynter? How important is to elicit the student voice in the music classroom? What is the role of the music teachers in UK Music Education?

Keywords: student's voice, student-centred education, music ambassators, music teachers

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910 Athena Parthenos: Athenian Cultural Imperialism and the Patriarchy

Authors: Kaia Brose

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The Parthenon occupies a dominating position on top of the ancient Acropolis of Athens, giving the Greek world a clear view of the ancient city’s patron goddess, Athena. The technically refined nature of the fifth century B.C. temple, combined with the colossal statue of Athena Parthenos, has been considered a monumental tribute to Athenian hubris. The Parthenon specifically calls on Athena’s main personage as a goddess who creates and advances culture, a notion the Athenians specifically portray in her epithet as a parthenos or a virgin. This paper builds off of the modern research of R. F. Hooker, C. J. Herington and Susan Deacy, who discuss the evolution of Athena and distinguishes the significance of the Parthenos epithet attached to Athena on the Acropolis. The use of Parthenos suggests the Athenians intentionally portrayed a virginal Athena to reaffirm the presence of the patriarchy within the Greek world of the fifth century, specifically seen in the scene of Athena’s birth on the Parthenon. The suggestive subjugation of Athena to the patriarchy serves to establish a patriarchal presence within the Acropolis while simultaneously exposing the rise of Athenian hubris following the Persian War. Various elements of the Parthenon, from its pediments to the monumental statue inside, show Athena as a goddess reduced to mere womanhood in the presence of the patriarchy, a function that emphasizes the Athenian hubris displayed throughout the Parthenon.

Keywords: ancient history, greek mythology, women studies, religion

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909 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

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The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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908 Third generation Greek identities

Authors: Panayiota Romios

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Greek diaspora communities with their specific cultural identity are found throughout the world and exist on a continuum of redefinition and renewal. This paper investigates Greek migration to Australia, followed by a discussion of findings from a qualitative study of sixteen third generation Greek Australians conducted by the author in Melbourne, Australia, in 2021. The Greek-born population in Australia increased from 15,000 in 1930 to well over 300,000 by 1970. Over the next decades, first-generation Greek migrants successfully sustain a Greek identity that promotes difference within Australia. Their Australian-born children, while constructing Greek Australian hybrid identities through an encounter with difference, integrate successfully into Australian society and maintain strong connections to Greece. This study explores the third generation Greek Australian identities, the children of the second generation, and their having horizontal and vertical orientations, where the former designates transgression of borders and space and the latter is connected to the movement across time. This approach is particularly interesting in the context of Greek Australian migrant and diasporic experience as hybridity understood as movement and translocation can offer new perspectives on migrant identities in multi-and transcultural worlds.

Keywords: diaspora, migration, hybridity, ethnicty

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907 Assisting Dating of Greek Papyri Images with Deep Learning

Authors: Asimina Paparrigopoulou, John Pavlopoulos, Maria Konstantinidou

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Dating papyri accurately is crucial not only to editing their texts but also for our understanding of palaeography and the history of writing, ancient scholarship, material culture, networks in antiquity, etc. Most ancient manuscripts offer little evidence regarding the time of their production, forcing papyrologists to date them on palaeographical grounds, a method often criticized for its subjectivity. By experimenting with data obtained from the Collaborative Database of Dateable Greek Bookhands(https://www.baylor.edu/classics/index.php?id=958430, Baylor University) and the PapPal(http://www.pappal.info/, University of Heidelberg) online collections of objectively dated Greek papyri, this study shows that deep learning dating models, pre-trained on generic images and fine-tuned on a training subset of the data, can achieve accurate chronological estimates for a test subset (67,97% accuracy for bookhands and 55,25% for documents). To compare the estimates of our models with those of humans, experts were asked to complete a questionnaire with samples of literary and documentary hands, which had to be sorted chronologically by century. The same samples were dated by the models in question. This paper presents and analyses the results.

Keywords: dating papyri images, deep neural image models, handwritten text image classification, transfer learning

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906 'Wandering Uterus': An Analogy of Perception of Women in Hippocratic Corpus and Post-Modern Times

Authors: Ankita Sharma

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The study proposes to review the perception of women in the Classical Age (500-336 BC) when Greek Philosophy was in bloom. It was observed that women had very few rights and were still under the control of men. One of the possible reasons for this exclusion was woman’s biology that had a huge influence on her being seen as inferior to men. The text ‘Hippocratic Corpus’ focuses on the biological construct of the female body in classical Greek science that perpetuated the idea of women as second-class citizens and were considered inherently weaker than men. The research highlights the significance of the text that was used to encourage women of that time to get married and produce children and how till today the perception remains the same. The Greek belief of need for confinement and control of 'wandering uterus' has led to superior understanding of men. The pivotal emphasis of this research is to women and their bodies that are depicted in a misogynistic way which paved the way for Hippocratic writers to influence the society’s attitude towards women in their writings. It is intended to draw attention to the prevailing cultural assumptions and preconceived notions about female anatomy that had a pervasive influence in the following centuries with its roots being in ancient science.

Keywords: classical Greek theory, women, wandering womb, modern ideology

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905 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

Abstract:

Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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904 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano

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The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

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903 Investigating Cultural Identities in Contemporary Greek Art: the Case of Greek Artists in Paris in 1980s

Authors: Sapfo Mortaki

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Over the years, Greeks were leaving their homeland looking for better luck, including artists - painters and sculptors. Until mid-1940's, few were the ones who lived, worked, studied and were distinguished abroad. After the end of the Second World War, the group exit towards the cultural centers of the West commences. Since the mid-1970s, and especially in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora has undergone a new period. The creation of the European Community affects both the character of the immigration of artists as well as the creation of their identity within cultural pluralism. Since 1980 the situation in Greece changed significantly, and the contacts of artists with their homeland became greatly enhanced. Based on the above, this paper examines the cultural identity of the Greek artists in Paris during the 1980s, in comparison to the creation of the identity of the artists of the previous migratory movements, since this decade constitutes a critical point. Their cultural presence in Paris, as reflected in French and Greek daily press and journals of the period, is also investigated. At the same time, their connection with Greece and their contribution to the development and evolution of Contemporary Greek Art is discussed.

Keywords: artistic migration in Paris, cultural identity, cultural interaction, greek artists, greek contemporary art

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902 Analyzing the Perceptions of Emotions in Aesthetic Music

Authors: Abigail Wiafe, Charles Nutrokpor, Adelaide Oduro-Asante

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The advancement of technology is rapidly making people more receptive to music as computer-generated music requires minimal human interventions. Though algorithms are applied to generate music, the human experience of emotions is still explored. Thus, this study investigates the emotions humans experience listening to computer-generated music that possesses aesthetic qualities. Forty-two subjects participated in the survey. The selection process was purely arbitrary since it was based on convenience. Subjects listened and evaluated the emotions experienced from the computer-generated music through an online questionnaire. The Likert scale was used to rate the emotional levels after the music listening experience. The findings suggest that computer-generated music possesses aesthetic qualities that do not affect subjects' emotions as long as they are pleased with the music. Furthermore, computer-generated music has unique creativity, and expressioneven though the music produced is meaningless, the computational models developed are unable to present emotional contents in music as humans do.

Keywords: aesthetic, algorithms, emotions, computer-generated music

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901 Planning and Strategies for Risks Prevention, Mitigating, and Recovery of Ancient Theatres Heritage: Investigation and Recommendations

Authors: Naif A. Haddad

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Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatre heritage are exposed to multiple risks at varied times or simultaneously. There is no single reason why a theatre building becomes ‘at risk’, as each case has different circumstances which have led to the theatre building decay. There are complicated processes of destruction and distress that show divergence in theatre building materials' decay. Theatre modern use for cultural performances causes much of the risks concerning the physical structure and authenticity of theatre sites. In addition, there are some deterioration and deformations due to previous poor quality restorations and interventions through related excavation and conservation programmes as also risks to authenticity due to new additions. For preventive conservation, theatre natural and anthropogenic risks management can provide a framework for decision making. These risks to ancient theatre heritage may stem from exposure to one or more risk or synergy of many factors. We, therefore, need to link the theatre natural risks to the risks that come from anthropogenic factors associated with social and economic development. However, this requires a holistic approach, and systematic methodology for understanding these risks from various sources while incorporating specific actions, planning and strategies for each specific risk. Elaborating on recent relevant studies, and ERATO and ATHENA EU projects for ancient theaters and odea and general surveys, this paper attempts to discuss the main aspects of the ancient Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatres risk related issues. Relevant case studies shall also be discussed and investigated to examine frameworks for risk mitigation, and related guidelines and recommendations that provide a systematic approach for sustainable management and planning in relation mainly to ‘compatible use’ of theatre sites.

Keywords: cultural heritage management, European ancient theatres projects, Anthropogenic risks mitigation, sustainable management and planning, preventive conservation, modern use, compatible use

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900 Non-Fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

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An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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899 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

Abstract:

Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

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898 Classical Myths in Modern Drama: A Study of the Vision of Jean Anouilh in Antigone

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

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Modern drama was characterised by realism and naturalism as dominant literary movements that focused on contemporary people and their issues to reflect the status of modern man and his environment. However, some modern dramatists have often fallen on classical mythology in ancient Greek tragedies to create a sense of the universality of the human experience. The tragic overtones of classical myths have helped modern dramatists in their attempts to create an enduring piece by evoking the majestic grandeur of the ancient myths and the heroic struggle of man against forces he cannot fight. Myths have continued to appeal to modern playwrights not only for the plot and narrative material but also for the vision and insight into the human experience and human condition. This paper intends to study how the reworking of Sophocles’ Antigone by Jean Anouilh in his Antigone, written in 1942 at the height of the Second World War and during the German occupation of his country, France, fits his own purpose and his own time. The paper will also offer an analysis of the vision in both plays to show how Anouilh has used the classical Antigone freely to produce a modern vision of the dilemma of man when faced by personal and national conflicts.

Keywords: Anouilh, Antigone, drama, Greek tragedy, modern, myth, sophocles

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897 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

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This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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896 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

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Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

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895 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel

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In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

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894 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

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Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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893 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

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Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: children, methods, music education, musicality

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892 Is There a Month Effect on the Deposits Interest Rates? Evidence from the Greek Banking Industry during the Period 2003-13

Authors: Konstantopoulos N., Samitas A., E. Vasileiou, Kinias I.

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This article introduces a new view on the month effect study. Applying a Markov Switching Regime model on data from the Greek Time Deposits (TDs) market for the time span January 2003 to October 2013, we examine if there is a month effect on the Greek banking industry. The empirical findings provide convincing evidence for a new king of monthly anomaly. The explanation for the specific abnormality may be the upward deposits window dressing. Further research should be done in order to examine if the specific calendar effect exists in other countries or it is only a Greek phenomenon.

Keywords: calendar anomalies, banking crisis, month effect, Greek banking industry

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891 Microbial Assessment of Fenugreek Paste during Storage and Antimicrobial Effect of Greek Clover, Trigonella foenum-graecum

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

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In this study, antimicrobial effect of Greek clover was determined with usage of MIC (minimum inhibition concentration) and agar diffusion method. Moreover, pH, water activity and microbial change were determined during storage of fenugreek paste. At first part of our study, microbial load of spices was evaluated. Two different fenugreek pastes were produced with mixing of Greek clover, spices, garlic and water. Fenugreek pastes were stored at 4 °C. At the second part, antimicrobial effect of Greek clover was determined on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Aspergillus parasiticus, Candida rugosa, Mucor spp., when the concentrations of Greek clover were 8%, 12% and 16%. According to the results obtained, mould growth was determined at 15th and 30th days of storage in first and second fenugreek samples, respectively. Greek clover showed only antifungal effect on Aspergillus parasiticus at previously mentioned concentrations.

Keywords: antimicrobial, fenugreek, Greek clover, minimum inhibition concentration

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890 Incorporating Popular Nigerian Music into the School Curriculum: A Potential for National Development

Authors: David O. A. Ogunrinade

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The significance of education to the growth and development of man is imperative. The Nigerian education philosophy and national objectives are geared towards self-realization, social, cultural, and economic, just to mention a few. The acquisition of skills and abilities, both mental and physical, for individual to live and contribute to the development of society should be of major importance to a functional education curriculum. This study specifically set out to examine the momentous potentials of popular music as a veritable tool to be properly incorporated into the curriculum of music education in Nigeria. This will equip the learners to be self-reliant and contribute to the national economy. Interviews with exponents of Nigerian popular music and the stakeholders in the music industry, as well as audio-visual materials were employed to elicit information. Findings reveal that there are lots of potentials and dexterities in popular music that can enable Nigerian music graduates to contribute their own quota to the national development of the nation, as well as being useful to themselves. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of unemployable youths who could not raise the economic productivity of the country, it is deemed pertinent that the music curriculum as one of the vocational education needs to be reviewed to incorporate popular music, as well as to reflect more of the Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: popular music, music curriculum, music in schools, popular music prospect

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889 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

Abstract:

Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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888 Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century

Authors: Zimasa Siyasanga Gysman

Abstract:

This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: body, hybridisation, performance, sound

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887 The Ancient Port of Gaza 'Anthedon' and Relationship with Mediterranean Basin Ports

Authors: Ayman Hassouna

Abstract:

Gaza was famous in the history of trade, because it lies at the end of overland trade route, then the goods transferred by Gazzian merchants to different places around the Mediterranean, so it is described as ‘Mediterranean port of Arabs’, but Gaza is not located directly at the sea shore, so it is fortified by two ports: the first is Anthedon, and second is Maiomas. It is possible to dig in Anthedon but it is too difficult to do that in Maiomas because the site is full of modern buildings. Archaeological excavations at Anthedon's port provided us much archaeological and historical information about cooperation between Anthedon's port and different places at the Mediterranean basin. This research speaks about the roots of Anthedon's name, and it is related with other names in Greek land, by use different dictionaries language, and produce historical introduction were covering the ages beginning from the Iron Age to Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods. Then the study reviewed the most important architectural discoveries in the site, and highlighted the relationship with the civilizations' ports of the Mediterranean basin by studying number of artefacts pottery were imported from different places as Cyprus, Greece, Italy, North Africa, Carthage and Tripoli workshops. On the other hand, the archaeologists discovered some of local pottery made in Gaza at different sites on the Mediterranean basin which confirms the relationship of Gaza merchants with those areas. At the end of this study, there are some conclusions and recommendations about the site.

Keywords: ancient port of Gaza, pottery typology, Mediterranean basin ports, Palestine archaeology

Procedia PDF Downloads 248