Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 864

Search results for: stringed instruments

864 Physical, Iconographic and Symbolic Features of the Plectrum Some Reflections on Sound Production in Ancient Greek String Instruments

Authors: Felipe Aguirre

Abstract:

In this paper some of the relevant features of the πλῆκτρον within GrecoLatin tradition will be analyzed. Starting from the formal aspects (shape, materials, technical properties) and the archaeological evidence, some of its symbolic implications that emerge in the light of literary and iconographic analysis will be discussed. I shall expose that, in addition to fulfilling a purely physical function within the process of sound production, the πλῆκτρον was the object of a rich imaginery that provided it with an allegorical, metaphorical-poetic and even metaphysical dimension.

Keywords: musicology, ethnomusicology, ancient greek music, plectrum, stringed instruments

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863 Reliability and Validity for Measurement of Body Composition: A Field Method

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Zarizi Ab Rahman

Abstract:

Measurement of body composition via a field method has the most popular instruments which are used to estimate the percentage of body fat. Among the instruments used are the Body Mass Index, Bio Impedance Analysis and Skinfold Test. All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, are mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 and 14 years participated in this study. The study found that the test retest and Pearson correlation coefficient of reliability for the three instruments is very high, r = .99. While the inter class reliability also are at high level with r = .99 for Body Mass Index and Bio Impedance Analysis, r = .96 for Skin fold test. Intra class reliability coefficient for these three instruments is too high for Body Mass Index r = .99, Bio Impedance Analysis r = .97, and Skin fold Test r = .90. However, Standard Error of Measurement value for all three instruments indicates the Body Mass Index is the most appropriate instrument with a mean value of .000672 compared with other instruments. The findings show that the Body Mass Index is an instrument which is the most accurate and reliable in estimating body fat percentage for the population studied.

Keywords: reliability, validity, body mass index, bio impedance analysis and skinfold test

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862 A Novel Method for Silence Removal in Sounds Produced by Percussive Instruments

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Rakesh Pogula, T. Kishore Kumar

Abstract:

The steepness of an audio signal which is produced by the musical instruments, specifically percussive instruments is the perception of how high tone or low tone which can be considered as a frequency closely related to the fundamental frequency. This paper presents a novel method for silence removal and segmentation of music signals produced by the percussive instruments and the performance of proposed method is studied with the help of MATLAB simulations. This method is based on two simple features, namely the signal energy and the spectral centroid. As long as the feature sequences are extracted, a simple thresholding criterion is applied in order to remove the silence areas in the sound signal. The simulations were carried on various instruments like drum, flute and guitar and results of the proposed method were analyzed.

Keywords: percussive instruments, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal

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861 Financial Instrument with High Investment Risk on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

Authors: Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto

Abstract:

The market of financial instruments with high risk is developing very dynamically in recent years and attracts more and more interest of investors. It consists essentially of two groups of instruments, i.e. derivatives and exchange traded product (ETP), and each year new types are introduced and offered to investors. The aim of this paper is to present the principles concerning financial instruments with high investment risk available on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), because they have quite complex constructions, and to evaluate the development of this market. In order to achieve this aim, statistical data from 2014-2016 was analyzed. The results confirm that the financial instruments with high investment risk available on the WSE constitute a diversified and the most numerous group of financial instruments and attract the most interest of investors. Responsible investing requires, however, a good knowledge of how they work and how they can generate profit to not expose oneself to unexpected losses.

Keywords: derivatives, exchange traded products (ETP), financial instruments, financial market, risk, stock exchange

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860 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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859 The Optimum Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) Contribution to Iranian Traditional Music Genre Classification by Instrumental Features

Authors: M. Abbasi Layegh, S. Haghipour, K. Athari, R. Khosravi, M. Tafkikialamdari

Abstract:

An approach to find the optimum mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) for the Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, which is the principal emblem and the heart of Persian music, performed by most famous Iranian masters on two Iranian stringed instruments ‘Tar’ and ‘Setar’ is proposed. While investigating the variance of MFCC for each record in themusic database of 1500 gushe of the repertoire belonging to 12 modal systems (dastgâh and âvâz), we have applied the Fuzzy C-Mean clustering algorithm on each of the 12 coefficient and different combinations of those coefficients. We have applied the same experiment while increasing the number of coefficients but the clustering accuracy remained the same. Therefore, we can conclude that the first 7 MFCCs (V-7MFCC) are enough for classification of The Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh. Classical machine learning algorithms such as MLP neural networks, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been employed. Finally, it can be realized that SVM shows a better performance in this study.

Keywords: radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, Gushe, mel frequency cepstral coefficients, fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), gaussian mixture model (GMM), hidden markov model (HMM), support vector machine (SVM)

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858 Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment

Authors: K. K. Saju, A. R. Reghuraj

Abstract:

High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.

Keywords: conversion coatings, 410 stainless steel, black oxide, reflectance

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857 A Systematic Review on Measuring the Physical Activity Level and Pattern in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Authors: Kuni Vergauwen, Ivan P. J. Huijnen, Astrid Depuydt, Jasmine Van Regenmortel, Mira Meeus

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A lower activity level and imbalanced activity pattern are frequently observed in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) / myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) due to debilitating fatigue and post-exertional malaise (PEM). Identification of measurement instruments to evaluate the activity level and pattern is therefore important. The objective is to identify measurement instruments suited to evaluate the activity level and/or pattern in patients with CFS/ME and review their psychometric properties. A systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science until 12 October 2016. Articles including relevant measurement instruments were identified and included for further analysis. The psychometric properties of relevant measurement instruments were extracted from the included articles and rated based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The review was performed and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 49 articles and 15 unique measurement instruments were found, but only three instruments were evaluated in patients with CFS/ME: the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Activity Questionnaire (CFS-AQ), Activity Pattern Interview (API) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), three self-report instruments measuring the physical activity level. The IPAQ-SF, CFS-AQ and API are all equally capable of evaluating the physical activity level, but none of the three measurement instruments are optimal to use. No studies about the psychometric properties of activity monitors in patients with CFS/ME were found, although they are often used as the gold standard to measure the physical activity pattern. More research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of existing instruments, including the use of activity monitors.

Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, data collection, physical activity, psychometrics

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856 Preparing Curved Canals Using Mtwo and RaCe Rotary Instruments: A Comparison Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Vito Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Irene Malagnino

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Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments, in cleaning and shaping root canals curvature. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 160 simulated canals in resin blocks, with an angle curvature 15°-30°. These 160 simulated canals were divided into two groups, where each group consisted of 80 blocks. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=40 canals each). The simulated canals subgroups were prepared with Mtwo and RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. The root canals were measured at four different points of reference, starting at 13 mm from the orifice. In the first group, the canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany). The Mtwo files used were: 10/0.04, 15/0.05, 20/0.06, and 25/0.06. These instruments entered in the full length of the canal. Each file was rotated in the canal until it reached the apical point. In the second group, the canals were prepared using RaCe instruments (La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland), performing the crown down technique, using the torque electric control motor (VDWCO, Munich, Germany), with 600 RPM and 2n/cm as follow: ≠40/0.10, ≠35/0.08, ≠30/0.06, ≠25/0.04, ≠25/0.02. The data were recorded using SPSS version 23 software (Microsoft, IL, USA). Data analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: The results obtained by using the Mtwo rotary instruments, showed that these instruments were able to clean and shape in the right-to-left motion curved canals, at different levels, without any deviation, and in perfect symmetry, with a P-value=0.000. The data showed that the greater the depth of the root canal, the greater the deviations of the RaCe rotary instruments. These deviations occurred in three levels, which are: S2(P=0.004), S3( P=0.007), S4(P=0.009). The Mtwo files can go deeper and create a greater angle in S4 level (21°-28°), compared to RaCe instruments with an angle equal to 19°-24°. Conclusion: The present study noted a clinically significant difference between Mtwo rotary instruments and RaCe rotary files used for the canal preparation and indicated that Mtwo instruments are a better choice for the curved canals.

Keywords: canal curvature, canal preparation, Mtwo, RaCe, resin blocks

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855 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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854 Financial Instruments Disclosure: A Review of the Literature

Authors: Y. Tahat, T. Dunne, S. Fifield, D. Power

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Information about a firm’s usage of Financial Instruments (FIs) plays a very important role in determining its financial position and performance. Yet accounting standard-setters have encountered problems when deciding on the FI-related disclosures which firms must make. The primary objective of this paper is to review the extant literature on FI disclosure. This objective is achieved by surveying the literature on: the corporate usage of FIs; the different accounting standards adopted concerning FIs; and empirical studies on FI disclosure. This review concludes that the current research on FI disclosure has generated a number of useful insights. In particular, the paper reports that: FIs are a very important risk management mechanism in ensuring that companies have the cash available to make value-enhancing investments, however, without a clear set of risk management objectives, using such instruments can be dangerous; accounting standards concerning FIs have resulted in enhanced transparency about the usage of these instruments; and FI-related information is a key input into investors’ decision-making processes. Finally, the paper provides a number of suggestions for future research in the area.

Keywords: financial instruments, financial reporting, accounting standards, value relevance, corporate disclosure

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853 The Next Game Changer: 3-D Printed Musical Instruments

Authors: Leonardo Ko

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In an era marked by rapid technological innovation, the classical instrument industry nonetheless has not seen significant change. Is this a matter of stubborn traditionalism, or do old, conventional instruments really sound better? Because of the widespread use of 3-D printing, it seems feasible to produce modern, 3-D printed instruments that adhere to the basic conventions of standard construction. This study aimed to design and create a practical, effective 3-D printed acoustic violin. A cost-benefit analysis of materials and design is presented in addition to a report on sound tests in which a pool of professional musicians compared the traditional violin to its synthetic counterpart with regard to acoustic properties. With a low-cost yet functional instrument, musicians of all levels would be able to afford instruments with much greater ease; the present study thus hopes to contribute to efforts to increase the accessibility of classical music education.

Keywords: acoustic musical instrument, classical musical education, low-cost, 3-D printing

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852 Green Energy, Fiscal Incentives and Conflicting Signals: Analysing the Challenges Faced in Promoting on Farm Waste to Energy Projects

Authors: Hafez Abdo, Rob Ackrill

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Renewable energy (RE) promotion in the UK relies on multiple policy instruments, which are required to overcome the path dependency pressures favouring fossil fuels. These instruments include targeted funding schemes and economy-wide instruments embedded in the tax code. The resulting complexity of incentives raises important questions around the coherence and effectiveness of these instruments for RE generation. This complexity is exacerbated by UK RE policy being nested within EU policy in a multi-level governance (MLG) setting. To gain analytical traction on such complexity, this study will analyse policies promoting the on-farm generation of energy for heat and power, from farm and food waste, via anaerobic digestion. Utilising both primary and secondary data, it seeks to address a particular lacuna in the academic literature. Via a localised, in-depth investigation into the complexity of policy instruments promoting RE, this study will help our theoretical understanding of the challenges that MLG and path dependency pressures present to policymakers of multi-dimensional policies.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, energy, green, policy, renewable, tax, UK

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851 The Context of Human Rights in a Poverty-Stricken Africa: A Reflection

Authors: Ugwu Chukwuka E.

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The African context of human right instruments as recognized today can be traced to Africa’s relationship with the Western World. A significant preponderance of these instruments are found in both colonial and post colonial statutes as the colonial laws, the post colonial legal documents as constitutions or Africa’s adherence to relevant international instruments on human rights as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981). In spite of all these human rights instruments inherent in the African continent, it is contended in this paper that, these Western-oriented notion of human rights, emphasizes rights that hardly meets the current needs of contemporary African citizens. Adopting a historical research methodology, this study interrogates the dynamics of the African poverty context in relation to the implementation of human rights instruments in the continent. In this vein, using human rights and poverty scenarios from one Anglophone (Uganda) and one Francophone (Senegal) countries in Africa, the study hypothesized that, majority of Africans are not in a historical condition for the realization of these rights. The raison d’etre for this claim emerges from the fact that, the present generations of African hoi polloi are inundated with extensive powerlessness, ignorance, diseases, hunger and overall poverty that emasculates their interest in these rights instruments. In contrast, the few Africans who have access to the enjoyment of these rights in the continent hardly needs these instruments, as their power and resources base secures them that. The paper concludes that the stress of African states and stakeholders on African affairs should concentrated significantly, on the alleviation of the present historical poverty squalor of Africans, which when attended to, enhances the realization of human right situations in the continent.

Keywords: Africa, human rights, poverty, western world

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850 Exchange Traded Products on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

Authors: Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto

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A dynamic development of financial market is accompanied by the emergence of new products on stock exchanges which give absolutely new possibilities of investing money. Currently, the most innovative financial instruments offered to investors are exchange traded products (ETP). They can be defined as financial instruments whose price depends on the value of the underlying instrument. Thus, they offer investors a possibility of making a profit that results from the change in value of the underlying instrument without having to buy it. Currently, the Warsaw Stock Exchange offers many types of ETPs. They are investment products with full or partial capital protection, products without capital protection as well as leverage products, issued on such underlying instruments as indices, sector indices, commodity indices, prices of energy commodities, precious metals, agricultural produce or prices of shares of domestic and foreign companies. This paper presents the mechanism of functioning of ETP available on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the results of the analysis of statistical data on these financial instruments.

Keywords: exchange traded products, financial market, investment, stock exchange

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849 Gender Inequality in the Workplace: A Literature Review on the Discrimination of Women by Human Resources Instruments

Authors: Katja Wiedemann, Melinda Gainschnigg

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This paper deals with gender inequality in companies. In the context of this paper, it is analyzed how women are discriminated by means of Human Resources instruments. The existing gender inequality is made apparent by the ‘Equal Pay Day. Women in Austria work without payment from 20 October onwards, which represents inequality of 21.7 percent points. This gender pay gap is due to the unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. Since the majority of activities related to the family and care are carried out by women, there are human capital deficits on women’s side. In addition to the discrimination of women in compensation, there are also discrimination cases caused by other Human Resources instruments. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of Human Resources instruments with regard to the discrimination of women and to identify measures to counteract this discrimination. Within the scope of this paper, possible instructions for companies on how to design and implement Human Resources instruments will be elaborated. Therefore personnel planning, recruiting, workforce management, compensation, and leadership are used as the basis for that analysis. The data were collected by a literature review and evaluated by means of a summary content analysis. The literature analysis includes papers of scientific journals from various business fields. On the basis of the results of the literature review, it is clear that women are discriminated by all analyzed Human Resources instruments. As a result, existing potentials are not optimally used. In order to limit or even prevent this loss of potential, companies must take specific measures to counteract the discrimination of women.

Keywords: employment issues, gender inequality , women's studies, workplace

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848 Transaction Cost Analysis, Execution Quality, and Best Execution under MiFID II

Authors: Rodrigo Zepeda

Abstract:

Transaction cost analysis (TCA) is a way of analyzing the relative performance of different intermediaries and different trading strategies for trades undertaken in financial instruments. It is a way for an investor to determine the overall quality of execution of a particular trade, and there are many different approaches to undertaking TCA. Under the updated Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (2014/65/EU) (MiFID II), investment firms are required when executing orders, to take all sufficient steps to obtain the best possible result for their clients. This requirement for 'Best Execution' must take into account price, costs, speed, likelihood of execution and settlement, size, nature or any other consideration relevant to the execution of the order. The new regulatory compliance framework under MiFID II will now also apply across a very broad range of financial instruments. This article will provide a comprehensive technical analysis of how TCA and Best Execution will significantly change under MiFID II. It will also explain why harmonization of post-trade reporting requirements under MiFID II could potentially support the development of peer group analysis, which in turn could provide a new and highly advanced framework for TCA that could more effectively support Best Execution requirements under MiFID II. The study is significant because there are no studies that have dealt with TCA and Best Execution under MiFID II in the literature.

Keywords: transaction cost analysis, execution quality, best execution, MiFID II, financial instruments

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847 Hybrid Model for Measuring the Hedge Strategy in Exchange Risk in Information Technology Industry

Authors: Yi-Hsien Wang, Fu-Ju Yang, Hwa-Rong Shen, Rui-Lin Tseng

Abstract:

The business is notably related to the market risk according to the increase of liberalization of financial markets. Hence, the company usually utilized high financial leverage of derivatives to hedge the risk. When the company choose different hedging instruments to face a variety of exchange rate risk, we employ the Multinomial Logistic-AHP to analyze the impact of various derivatives. Hence, the research summarized the literature on relevant factors affecting managers selected exchange rate hedging instruments, using Multinomial Logistic Model and and further integrate AHP. Using Experts’ Questionnaires can test multi-level selection and hedging effect of different hedging instruments in order to calculate the hedging instruments and the multi-level factors of weights to understand the gap between the empirical results and practical operation. Finally, the Multinomial Logistic-AHP Model will sort the weights to analyze. The research findings can be a basis reference for investors in decision-making.

Keywords: exchange rate risk, derivatives, hedge, multinomial logistic-AHP

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846 Piezosurgery in Periodontics and Oral Implantology

Authors: Neelesh Papineni

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Aim: Piezosurgery is a relatively new technique for osteotomy and osteoplasty that uses ultrasonic vibration. The conventional method of treating periodontal cases are by conventional surgeries. However, in this advancing field the use of motor-driven instruments is being considered less invasive. Out of these motor-driven instruments, piezo-electric device has been introduced to the field of periodontics and oral implantology. This article discusses about the wide range of application of piezo-electric device in periodontology, its advantages over conventional surgical therapies and other motor-driven instruments. Results: Piezo- electric has shown better results in aspect of osteotomy, osteoplasty, implants, and any procedure which includes conserving the bone. Also piezo-electric does not cause any kind of damage to the surrounding soft tissue and eliminates the risk of bone necrosis which is a risk factor in other motor driven instruments. Conclusion: In this era of modern dentistry , a successful periodontal and implant surgery requires a sound osseous support. This review gives a pictorial representation about the wide range of application of piezo-electric device in periodontology.

Keywords: piezo-electric, osteotomy, osteoplasty, implantology

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845 A Review of Deformation and Settlement Monitoring on the Field: Types and Applications

Authors: Hassan Ali, Abdulrahman Hamid

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This paper discusses using of instruments to monitor deformation and settlement. Specifically, it concentrates on field instruments such as inclinometer and plate load test and their applications in the field. Inclinometer has been used effectively to monitor lateral earth movements and settlement in landslide areas, embankments and foundations. They are also used to monitor the deflection of retaining walls and piles under load. This paper is reviewing types of inclinometer systems, comparison between systems, applications, field accuracy and correction. The paper also will present a case study of using inclinometer to monitor the creep movements within the ancient landslide on The Washington Park Station. Furthermore, the application of deformation and settlement instruments in Saudi Arabia will be discussed in this manuscript.

Keywords: inclinometer, plate load test, backfills, sand, deformation and settlement

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844 The Effectiveness of Environmental Policy Instruments for Promoting Renewable Energy Consumption: Command-and-Control Policies versus Market-Based Policies

Authors: Mahmoud Hassan

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Understanding the impact of market- and non-market-based environmental policy instruments on renewable energy consumption (REC) is crucial for the design and choice of policy packages. This study aims to empirically investigate the effect of environmental policy stringency index (EPS) and its components on REC in 27 OECD countries over the period from 1990 to 2015, and then use the results to identify what the appropriate environmental policy mix should look like. By relying on the two-step system GMM estimator, we provide evidence that increasing environmental policy stringency as a whole promotes renewable energy consumption in these 27 developed economies. Moreover, policymakers are able, through the market- and non-market-based environmental policy instruments, to increase the use of renewable energy. However, not all of these instruments are effective for achieving this goal. The results indicate that R&D subsidies and trading schemes have a positive and significant impact on REC, while taxes, feed-in tariff and emission standards have not a significant effect. Furthermore, R&D subsidies are more effective than trading schemes for stimulating the use of clean energy. These findings proved to be robust across the three alternative panel techniques used.

Keywords: environmental policy stringency, renewable energy consumption, two-step system-GMM estimation, linear dynamic panel data model

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843 Ethical Investment Instruments for Financial Sustainability

Authors: Sarkar Humayun Kabir

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This paper aims to investigate whether ethical investment instruments could contribute to stability in financial markets. In order to address the main issue, the study investigates the stability of return in seven conventional and Islamic equity markets of Asia, Europe and North America and in five major commodity markets starting from 1996 to June 2012. In addition, the study examines the unconditional correlation between returns of the assets under review to investigate portfolio diversification benefits of investors. Applying relevant methods, the study finds that investors may enjoy sustainable returns from their portfolios by investing in ethical financial instruments such as Islamic equities. In addition, it should be noted that most of the commodities, gold in particular, are either low or negatively correlated with equity returns. These results suggest that investors would be better off by investing in portfolios combining Islamic equities and commodities in general. The sustainable returns of ethical investments has important implications for the investors and markets since these investments can provide stable returns while the investors can avoid production of goods and services which believes to be harmful for human and the society as a whole.

Keywords: financial sustainability, ethical investment instruments, islamic equity, dynamic conditional correlation, conditional volatility

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842 Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology

Authors: Aishwarya Ravichandra, Kirtana Kirtivasan, Adithi Mahesh, Ashwini S.Savanth

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A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user’s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino ATmega2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.

Keywords: Arduino, detector, laser, MIDI, note on, note off, pitch bend, Sharp IR distance sensor

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841 Environmental Policy Instruments and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: VAR Analysis

Authors: Veronika Solilová, Danuše Nerudová

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The paper examines the interaction between the environmental taxation, size of government spending on environmental protection and greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption. The aim is to analyze the effects of environmental taxation and government spending on environmental protection as an environmental policy instruments on greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption in the EU15. The empirical study is performed using a VAR approach with the application of aggregated data of EU15 over the period 1995 to 2012. The results provide the evidence that the reactions of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption to the shocks of environmental policy instruments are strong, mainly in the short term and decay to zero after about 8 years. Further, the reactions of the environmental policy instruments to the shocks of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption are also strong in the short term, however with the deferred effects. In addition, the results show that government spending on environmental protection together with gross inland energy consumption has stronger effect on greenhouse gas emissions than environmental taxes in EU15 over the examined period.

Keywords: VAR analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, environmental taxation, government spending

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840 Analysis of Tools for Revitalization and Rehabilitation of Brownfields

Authors: Jiří Kugl

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Typology and specific opportunities of brownfield revitalization are already largely described. Challenges and opportunities that brownfields represent have been adequately studied and presented, as well as specific ways in which these areas can be used or how they are used abroad. In other words, the questions why (revitalize brownfields) and what (we should do with them) are satisfactorily answered, but the question how (we can work with them) is not. This work will focus on answering this question, which will deal with tools that enable the revitalization and rehabilitation projects in the area. Tools can be divided, for example in terms of spatial planning and urban design, from an environmental perspective, from the perspective of cultural heritage protection and from the perspective of investment opportunities. The result is that the issue of brownfields is handled by numerous institutions and instruments. The aim of this paper is to identify, classify and analyze these instruments. Paper will study instruments from other countries with long-term experience with this issue (eg. France, Great Britain, USA, Germany, Denmark, Czech Republic) and analyse their contribution and the feasibility of their implementation in other countries.

Keywords: brownfields, revitalization, rehabilitation, tools, urban planning

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839 Musical Instruments Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Bhalke D. G., Bormane D. S., Kharate G. K.

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This paper presents classification of musical instrument using machine learning techniques. The classification has been carried out using temporal, spectral, cepstral and wavelet features. Detail feature analysis is carried out using separate and combined features. Further, instrument model has been developed using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Benchmarked McGill university database has been used to test the performance of the system. Experimental result shows that SVM performs better as compared to KNN classifier.

Keywords: feature extraction, SVM, KNN, musical instruments

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838 Passive Attenuation with Multiple Resonator Rings for Musical Instruments Equalization

Authors: Lorenzo Bonoldi, Gianluca Memoli, Abdelhalim Azbaid El Ouahabi

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In this paper, a series of ring-shaped attenuators utilizing Helmholtz and quarter wavelength resonators in variable, fixed, and combined configurations have been manufactured using a 3D printer. We illustrate possible uses by incorporating such devices into musical instruments (e.g. in acoustic guitar sound holes) and audio speakers with a view to controlling such devices tonal emissions without electronic equalization systems. Numerical investigations into the transmission loss values of these ring-shaped attenuators using finite element method simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics) have been presented in the frequency range of 100– 1000 Hz. We compare such results for each attenuator model with experimental measurements using different driving sources such as white noise, a maximum-length sequence (MLS), square and sine sweep pulses, and point scans in the frequency domain. Finally, we present a preliminary discussion on the comparison of numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: equaliser, metamaterials, musical, instruments

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837 Revisiting Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in the Southern African Development Community: A Proposal for Synchronization

Authors: Tapiwa Shumba, Nyaradzo D. T. Karubwa

Abstract:

Dispute resolution is the plinth of regional integration initiatives anchored on the rule of law and compliance with obligations. Without effective and reliable despite resolution mechanisms, it may be difficult to foster deeper integration. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) legal and institutional framework exists an apparent recognition that dispute resolution is an integral part of the regional integration. Almost all legal instruments of SADC include some provision for dispute resolution. Institutionally, the somewhat now defunct SADC Tribunal is meant to be the fulcrum for resolving disputes that arise under SADC instruments. However, after a closer analysis of the substance of these legal provisions and the attendant procedural mechanisms for addressing disputes, an argument can be made that dispute resolution in SADC is somewhat scant, fragmented and neglected. In most instruments, the common provision on dispute resolution appears to be a ‘mid-night clause’. In other instruments which have specialised provisions and procedures, questions of practicality and genius cannot be avoided. Worse still there now appears to be a lack of magnanimity between the substantive provisions in various instruments and the role of the transformed Tribunal. This scant, fragmented and neglected dispute resolution system may have an impact on the observance of the rule of law and compliance with obligations in the rules-based SADC system. This all, in turn, has an effect on the common agenda for deeper regional integration. This article seeks to expose this scant, fragmented and neglected SADC dispute resolution system and to propose a harmonised system that addresses these challenges. A ‘one stop shop’ system under a strengthened SADC tribunal is proposed as a responsive solution.

Keywords: regional integration, harmonisation, SADC tribunal, dispute resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
836 The Agri-Environmental Instruments in Agricultural Policy to Reduce Nitrogen Pollution

Authors: Flavio Gazzani

Abstract:

Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for the production. However, the introduction of large amounts of nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts such as: the loss of biodiversity, eutrophication of waters and soils, drinking water pollution, acidification, greenhouse gas emissions, human health risks. It is a challenge to sustain or increase food production and at the same time reduce losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment, but there are many potential benefits associated with improving nitrogen use efficiency. Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of agricultural policy. Traditional regulatory instruments applied to implement environmental policies to reduce environmental impacts from nitrogen fertilizers, despite some successes, failed to address many environmental challenges and imposed high costs on the society to achieve environmental quality objectives. As a result, economic instruments started to be recognized for their flexibility and cost-effectiveness. The objective of the research project is to analyze the potential for increased use of market-based instruments in nitrogen control policy. The report reviews existing knowledge, bringing different studies together to assess the global nitrogen situation and the most relevant environmental management policy that aims to reduce pollution in a sustainable way without affect negatively agriculture production and food price. This analysis provides some guidance on how different market based instruments might be orchestrated in an overall policy framework to the development and assessment of sustainable nitrogen management from the economics, environmental and food security point of view.

Keywords: nitrogen emissions, chemical fertilizers, eutrophication, non-point of source pollution, dairy farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
835 Quality Teaching Evaluation Instrument: A Student Learning-centred Approach

Authors: Thuy T. T. Tran, Hamish Coates, Sophie Arkoudis

Abstract:

Evaluation instruments of teaching are abundant; however, these do not prompt any enhancement in the quality of teaching, not least because these instruments are framed only by teacher-centered conceptions of teaching. There is a need for more sophisticated teaching evaluation measures that focus on student learning and multi-stakeholder involvement. This study aims to develop such an evaluation instrument for Vietnamese higher education. The study uses several kinds of methods. The instrument was initially drafted through in-depth review of research, paying close attention to Vietnamese higher education. Draft evaluation instruments were produced and reviewed by 34 experts. The outcomes of this qualitative and quantitative data reveal an instrument that highlights the value of a multisource student-centered approach, and the rich integration of contextual and cultural traits where Confucian values are emphasized. The validation affirms that evaluating teaching in such way will facilitate the continuous learning growth of all stakeholders involved.

Keywords: multi stakeholders, quality teaching, student learning, teaching evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231