Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Amirhossein Khazali

20 Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Amirhossein Khazali, Mohsen Kalantar

Abstract:

Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.

Keywords: energy and reserve market, energy storage device, stochastic programming, wind generation

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19 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

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18 Risk Assessment of Building Information Modelling Adoption in Construction Projects

Authors: Amirhossein Karamoozian, Desheng Wu, Behzad Abbasnejad

Abstract:

Building information modelling (BIM) is a new technology to enhance the efficiency of project management in the construction industry. In addition to the potential benefits of this useful technology, there are various risks and obstacles to applying it in construction projects. In this study, a decision making approach is presented for risk assessment in BIM adoption in construction projects. Various risk factors of exerting BIM during different phases of the project lifecycle are identified with the help of Delphi method, experts’ opinions and related literature. Afterward, Shannon’s entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Situation) are applied to derive priorities of the identified risk factors. Results indicated that lack of knowledge between professional engineers about workflows in BIM and conflict of opinions between different stakeholders are the risk factors with the highest priority.

Keywords: risk, BIM, fuzzy TOPSIS, construction projects

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17 Scheduling Nodes Activity and Data Communication for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: AmirHossein Mohajerzadeh, Mohammad Alishahi, Saeed Aslishahi, Mohsen Zabihi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider sensor nodes with the capability of measuring the bearings (relative angle to the target). We use geometric methods to select a set of observer nodes which are responsible for collecting data from the target. Considering the characteristics of target tracking applications, it is clear that significant numbers of sensor nodes are usually inactive. Therefore, in order to minimize the total network energy consumption, a set of sensor nodes, called sentinel, is periodically selected for monitoring, controlling the environment and transmitting data through the network. The other nodes are inactive. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm provides a joint scheduling and routing algorithm to transmit data between network nodes and the fusion center (FC) in which not only provides an efficient way to estimate the target position but also provides an efficient target tracking. Performance evaluation confirms the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: coverage, routing, scheduling, target tracking, wireless sensor networks

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16 The Effects of Modern Materials on the Moisture Resistance Performance of Architectural Buildings

Authors: Leyli Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hoda Mortazavi Alavi, Amirhossein Habibzadeh

Abstract:

At present, the atmospheric and environmental factors impose massive damages to buildings. Thus, to reduce these damages, researchers pay more attention on qualitative and quantitative characteristic of buildings materials. Condensation is one of the problems in Contemporary Sustecture Design. It could cause serious damages to the frontage, interior and structural elements of buildings. As a result, taking preventative steps to avoid condensation from occurring in buildings will help prevent avoidable and costly problems in the future. Hence, the aim of this paper is to answer the question: “Does the use of advanced materials cause the reduction of condensation formed on the walls?" In response to those flaws, this paper considered similar articles and selected 20 buildings randomly from contemporary architecture of developing countries which have been built in recent decade from 2002 to 2012, to find out the mutual relation between the usage of advanced materials and level of condensation damages. This consideration shows that by using advanced materials, we will have fewer damages.

Keywords: condensation, advanced materials, contemporary sustecture, moisture

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15 A Novel Multi-Attribute Green Decision Making Model for Environmental Supply Chain Sustainability

Authors: Amirhossein Mahlouji

Abstract:

In current business market, the concept of integrating environmental sustainability into long-term as well as routine operations is becoming a prevailing trend. Therefore, several stimuli are helping organization to move toward environmental sustainability. The concept of green supply chain management can help provide a strategic framework to develop a customized sustainability roadmap for each organization. In this regard, this paper is mainly focused on presenting a strategic decision making framework that will assist top level decision-making issues. This decision-making tool is based on literature and practice in the area of environmentally conscious business practices. The goal of this paper will be on the components and parameters of green supply chain management and how they serve as a baseline for the decision framework. Later, the applicability of a multi-input multi-output decision model (MIMO), will be analyzed as the analytical network process, within the green supply chain.

Keywords: Multi-attribute, Green Supply Chain, Environmental, Sustainability

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14 Improving the Security of Internet of Things Using Encryption Algorithms

Authors: Amirhossein Safi

Abstract:

Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of advanced information technology which has drawn societies’ attention. Sensors and stimulators are usually recognized as smart devices of our environment. Simultaneously, IOT security brings up new issues. Internet connection and possibility of interaction with smart devices cause those devices to involve more in human life. Therefore, safety is a fundamental requirement in designing IOT. IOT has three remarkable features: overall perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing. Because of IOT span, security of conveying data is an essential factor for system security. Hybrid encryption technique is a new model that can be used in IOT. This type of encryption generates strong security and low computation. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid encryption algorithm which has been conducted in order to reduce safety risks and enhancing encryption's speed and less computational complexity. The purpose of this hybrid algorithm is information integrity, confidentiality, non-repudiation in data exchange for IOT. Eventually, the suggested encryption algorithm has been simulated by MATLAB software, and its speed and safety efficiency were evaluated in comparison with conventional encryption algorithm.

Keywords: internet of things, security, hybrid algorithm, privacy

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13 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: aggregation, estimation, queuing, wireless sensor network

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12 A Bi-Objective Model to Optimize the Total Time and Idle Probability for Facility Location Problem Behaving as M/M/1/K Queues

Authors: Amirhossein Chambari

Abstract:

This article proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem subject to congestion (overcrowding). Motivated by implementations to locate servers in internet mirror sites, communication networks, one-server-systems, so on. This model consider for situations in which immobile (or fixed) service facilities are congested (or queued) by stochastic demand to behave as M/M/1/K queues. We consider for this problem two simultaneous perspectives; (1) Customers (desire to limit times of accessing and waiting for service) and (2) Service provider (desire to limit average facility idle-time). A bi-objective model is setup for facility location problem with two objective functions; (1) Minimizing sum of expected total traveling and waiting time (customers) and (2) Minimizing the average facility idle-time percentage (service provider). The proposed model belongs to the class of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models and the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, controlled elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (Controlled NSGA-II) and controlled elitist non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA-I) are proposed. Furthermore, the two proposed metaheuristics algorithms are evaluated by establishing standard multiobjective metrics. Finally, the results are analyzed and some conclusions are given.

Keywords: bi-objective, facility location, queueing, controlled NSGA-II, NRGA-I

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11 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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10 The Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Exercises on Quality of Life and Lumbar Spine Position Sense in Patients with Low Back Pain: A Comparative Study with a 4-Week Follow-Up

Authors: Vahid Mazloum, Mansour Sahebozamani, Amirhossein Barati, Nouzar Nakhaee, Pouya Rabiei

Abstract:

Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common condition with no exact diagnosis and mechanism for its occurrence. Recently, different therapeutic exercises have taken into account to manage NSCLBP. So, the aim of this study has mainly been placed on comparing the effects of Pilates and Mackenzie exercises on quality of life (QOL) lumbar spine position sense (LSPS) in patients with NSCLBP. In this randomized clinical trial, 47 patients with NSCLBP were voluntarily divided into three groups of Pilates (n=16) (with mean age 37.1 ± 9.5 years, height 168.9 ± 7.4 cm, body mass 76.1 ± 5.9 k), McKenzie (n=15) (with mean age 42.7 ± 8.1 years, height 165.7 ± 6.8, body mass 74.1 ± 4.8 kg) and control (n=16) (with mean age 39.3 ± 9.8 years, height 168.1 ± 8.1 cm, body mass 74.2 ± 5.8 kg). Primary outcome included QOL and secondary was LSPS. Both variables were assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires and electrogoniameter, respectively. The measurements were performed at baseline, following a 6-week intervention, and after a 4-week follow-up. The ANCOVA test at P < 0.05 was administrated to analyze the collected data using SPSS software. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups and the control group to improve QOL. But, no difference was seen regarding the effects of two exercises on LSPS (p < 0.05). Both Pilates and Mackenzie exercises demonstrated improvement in QOL after 6-week intervention and a 4-week follow-up while none of them considerably affected LSPS. Further studies are required to establish a supporting evidence for the effectiveness of two exercises on NSCLBP.

Keywords: pilates, Mackenzie, preconception, low back pain, physical health

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9 The Effect of Simultaneous Doping of Silicate Bioglass with Alkaline and Alkaline-Earth Elements on Biological Behavior

Authors: Tannaz Alimardani, Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO₂-CaO-P₂O₅ glass with a nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of the opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF, but also stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on the dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with the live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S bioactive glass exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioglass, co-doping, ion release

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8 Comparative Study of Calcium Content on in vitro Biological and Antibacterial Properties of Silicon-Based Bioglass

Authors: Morteza Elsa, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

The major aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CaO content on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation, MC3T3 cells cytotoxicity and proliferation as well as antibacterial efficiency of sol-gel derived SiO2–CaO–P2O5 ternary system. For this purpose, first two grades of bioactive glass (BG); BG-58s (mol%: 60%SiO2–36%CaO–4%P2O5) and BG-68s (mol%: 70%SiO2–26%CaO–4%P2O5)) were synthesized by sol-gel method. Second, the effect of CaO content in their composition on in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the BG-58s and BG-68s powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time periods up to 14 days and followed by characterization inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Additionally, live/dead staining, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays were conducted respectively, as qualitatively and quantitatively assess for cell viability, proliferation and differentiations of MC3T3 cells in presence of 58s and 68s BGs. Results showed that BG-58s with higher CaO content showed higher in vitro bioactivity with respect to BG-68s. Moreover, the dissolution rate was inversely proportional to oxygen density of the BG. Live/dead assay revealed that both 58s and 68s increased the mean number live cells which were in good accordance with MTT assay. Furthermore, BG-58s showed more potential antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. Taken together, BG-58s with enhanced MC3T3 cells proliferation and ALP activity, acceptable bioactivity and significant high antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria is suggested as a suitable candidate in order to further functionalizing for delivery of therapeutic ions and growth factors in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: antibacterial, bioactive glass, hydroxyapatite, proliferation, sol-gel processes

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7 Comparative Study on the Effect of Substitution of Li and Mg Instead of Ca on Structural and Biological Behaviors of Silicate Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alireza Arab, Morteza Elsa, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

In this study, experiments were carried out to achieve a promising multifunctional and modified silicate based bioactive glass (BG). The main aim of the study was investigating the effect of lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg) substitution, on in vitro bioactivity of substituted-58S BG. Moreover, it is noteworthy to state that modified BGs were synthesized in 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)Li2O and 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)MgO (where x = 0, 5, 10 mol.%) quaternary systems, by sol-gel method. Their performance was investigated through different aspects such as biocompatibility, antibacterial activity as well as their effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and proliferation of MC3T3 cells. The antibacterial efficiency was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To do so, CaO was substituted with Li2O and MgO up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs and then samples were immersed in simulated body fluid up to 14 days and then, characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that this modification led to a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium revealed further pronounced effect. The 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and ALP analysis illustrated that substitutions of both Li2O and MgO, up to 5 mol %, had increasing effect on biocompatibility and stimulating proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells in comparison to the control specimen. Regarding to bactericidal efficiency, the substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition led to statistically significant difference in antibacterial behaviors of substituted-BGs. Meanwhile, the sample containing 5 mol % CaO/Li2O substitution (BG-5L) was selected as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration due to the improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity and antibacterial efficiency among all of the synthesized L-BGs and M-BGs.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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6 Machinability Analysis in Drilling Flax Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bio-Composite Laminates

Authors: Amirhossein Lotfi, Huaizhong Li, Dzung Viet Dao

Abstract:

Interest in natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC) is progressively growing both in terms of academia research and industrial applications thanks to their abundant advantages such as low cost, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and relatively good mechanical properties. However, their widespread use is still presumed as challenging because of the specificity of their non-homogeneous structure, limited knowledge on their machinability characteristics and parameter settings, to avoid defects associated with the machining process. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of the cutting tool geometry and material on the drilling-induced delamination, thrust force and hole quality produced when drilling a fully biodegradable flax/poly (lactic acid) composite laminate. Three drills with different geometries and material were used at different drilling conditions to evaluate the machinability of the fabricated composites. The experimental results indicated that the choice of cutting tool, in terms of material and geometry, has a noticeable influence on the cutting thrust force and subsequently drilling-induced damages. The lower value of thrust force and better hole quality was observed using high-speed steel (HSS) drill, whereas Carbide drill (with point angle of 130o) resulted in the highest value of thrust force. Carbide drill presented higher wear resistance and stability in variation of thrust force with a number of holes drilled, while HSS drill showed the lower value of thrust force during the drilling process. Finally, within the selected cutting range, the delamination damage increased noticeably with feed rate and moderately with spindle speed.

Keywords: natural fiber reinforced composites, delamination, thrust force, machinability

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5 Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

Authors: Sara Ataei, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Amir Sarayani, Asieh Ashouri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Kheirollah Gholami

Abstract:

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P<0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P<0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, hemtopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Receiver-operating characteristic curve

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4 Comparative Evaluation on in vitro Bioactivity, Proliferation and Antibacterial Efficiency of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass Substituted by Li and Mg

Authors: Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa, Mehrnaz Aminitabar

Abstract:

Modified bioactive glass has been considered as a promising multifunctional candidate in bone repair and regeneration due to its attractive properties. The present study mainly aims to evaluate how the individual substitution of lithium (L-BG) and magnesium (M-BG) for calcium can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG); and to present one composition in both of the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂ –(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with improved biocompatibility, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the most efficient antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To address these aims, and study the effect of CaO/Li₂O and CaO/MgO substitution up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy after immersion in simulated body fluid up to 14 days. Results indicated that substitution of either CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO had a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium had a more pronounced effect. The 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays showed that both substitutions of CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO up to 5mol % in 58s-BGs led to increased biocompatibility and stimulated proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells with respect to the control. On the other hand, the substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition resulted in improved bactericidal efficiency against MRSA bacteria. Taken together, sample 58s-BG with 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration with improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity as well as significant antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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3 Sol-Gel Derived 58S Bioglass Substituted by Li and Mg: A Comparative Evaluation on in vitro Bioactivity, MC3T3 Proliferation and Antibacterial Efficiency

Authors: Amir Khaleghipour, Amirhossein Moghanian, Elhamalsadat Ghaffari

Abstract:

Modified bioactive glass has been considered as a promising multifunctional candidate in bone repair and regeneration due to its attractive properties. The present study mainly aims to evaluate how the individual substitution of lithium (L-BG) and magnesium (M-BG) for calcium can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG); and to present one composition in both of the 60SiO₂–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)Li₂O and 60SiO₂–(36-x)CaO–4P₂O₅–(x)MgO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with improved biocompatibility, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the most efficient antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To address these aims, and study the effect of CaO/Li₂O and CaO/MgO substitution up to 10 mol % in 58S-BGs, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy after immersion in simulated body fluid up to 14 days. Results indicated that substitution of either CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO had a retarding effect on in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation due to the lower supersaturation degree for nucleation of HA compared with 58s-BG. Meanwhile, magnesium had a more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays showed that both substitutions of CaO/ Li₂O and CaO/ MgO up to 5mol % in 58s-BGs led to increased biocompatibility and stimulated proliferation of the pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells with respect to the control. On the other hand, substitution of either Li or Mg for Ca in the 58s BG composition resulted in improved bactericidal efficiency against MRSA bacteria. Taken together, sample 58s-BG with 5 mol % CaO/Li₂O substitution (BG-5L) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone repair/regeneration with improved biocompatibility, enhanced ALP activity as well enhanced antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria among all of the synthesized L-BGs and M-BGs.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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2 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Amirhossein Moslehi, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asieh Ashouri, Elham Amini, Kheirollah Gholami, Alireza Hayatshahi, Mohammad Vaezi, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, N-acetylcysteine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, randomized controlled trial

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1 Experimental Study of Energy Absorption Efficiency (EAE) of Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabric Reinforced Foam (WKSFRF) Under Low-Velocity Impact

Authors: Amirhossein Dodankeh, Hadi Dabiryan, Saeed Hamze

Abstract:

Using fabrics to reinforce composites considerably leads to improved mechanical properties, including resistance to the impact load and the energy absorption of composites. Warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WKSF) are fabrics consisting of two layers of warp-knitted fabric connected by pile yarns. These connections create a space between the layers filled by pile yarns and give the fabric a three-dimensional shape. Today because of the unique properties of spacer fabrics, they are widely used in the transportation, construction, and sports industries. Polyurethane (PU) foams are commonly used as energy absorbers, but WKSF has much better properties in moisture transfer, compressive properties, and lower heat resistance than PU foam. It seems that the use of warp-knitted spacer fabric reinforced PU foam (WKSFRF) can lead to the production and use of composite, which has better properties in terms of energy absorption from the foam, its mold formation is enhanced, and its mechanical properties have been improved. In this paper, the energy absorption efficiency (EAE) of WKSFRF under low-velocity impact is investigated experimentally. The contribution of the effect of each of the structural parameters of the WKSF on the absorption of impact energy has also been investigated. For this purpose, WKSF with different structures such as two different thicknesses, small and large mesh sizes, and position of the meshes facing each other and not facing each other were produced. Then 6 types of composite samples with different structural parameters were fabricated. The physical properties of samples like weight per unit area and fiber volume fraction of composite were measured for 3 samples of any type of composites. Low-velocity impact with an initial energy of 5 J was carried out on 3 samples of any type of composite. The output of the low-velocity impact test is acceleration-time (A-T) graph with a lot deviation point, in order to achieve the appropriate results, these points were removed using the FILTFILT function of MATLAB R2018a. Using Newtonian laws of physics force-displacement (F-D) graph was drawn from an A-T graph. We know that the amount of energy absorbed is equal to the area under the F-D curve. Determination shows the maximum energy absorption is 2.858 J which is related to the samples reinforced with fabric with large mesh, high thickness, and not facing of the meshes relative to each other. An index called energy absorption efficiency was defined, which means absorption energy of any kind of our composite divided by its fiber volume fraction. With using this index, the best EAE between the samples is 21.6 that occurs in the sample with large mesh, high thickness, and meshes facing each other. Also, the EAE of this sample is 15.6% better than the average EAE of other composite samples. Generally, the energy absorption on average has been increased 21.2% by increasing the thickness, 9.5% by increasing the size of the meshes from small to big, and 47.3% by changing the position of the meshes from facing to non-facing.

Keywords: composites, energy absorption efficiency, foam, geometrical parameters, low-velocity impact, warp-knitted spacer fabric

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