Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6013

Search results for: sensing range

6013 Load-Enabled Deployment and Sensing Range Optimization for Lifetime Enhancement of WSNs

Authors: Krishan P. Sharma, T. P. Sharma

Abstract:

Wireless sensor nodes are resource constrained battery powered devices usually deployed in hostile and ill-disposed areas to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Due to their limited power supply, the major challenge for researchers is to utilize their battery power for enhancing the lifetime of whole network. Communication and sensing are two major sources of energy consumption in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a deployment strategy for enhancing the average lifetime of a sensor network by effectively utilizing communication and sensing energy to provide full coverage. The proposed scheme is based on the fact that due to heavy relaying load, sensor nodes near to the sink drain energy at much faster rate than other nodes in the network and consequently die much earlier. To cover this imbalance, proposed scheme finds optimal communication and sensing ranges according to effective load at each node and uses a non-uniform deployment strategy where there is a comparatively high density of nodes near to the sink. Probable relaying load factor at particular node is calculated and accordingly optimal communication distance and sensing range for each sensor node is adjusted. Thus, sensor nodes are placed at locations that optimize energy during network operation. Formal mathematical analysis for calculating optimized locations is reported in present work.

Keywords: load factor, network lifetime, non-uniform deployment, sensing range

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6012 Development of a Force-Sensing Toothbrush for Gum Recession Measurement Using Programmable Automation Controller

Authors: Sorayya Kazemi, Hamed Kharrati, Mehdi Abedinpour Fallah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel electric pressure-sensitive toothbrush, capable of measuring the forces applied to the head of the brush. The developed device is used for gum recession measurement. In particular, the percentage of gum recession is measured by a Programmable Automation controller (PAC). Moreover, the brushing forces are measured by a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) sensor. These forces are analog inputs of PAC. According to the applied forces during patient’s brushing and the patient’s percentage of gum recession, dentist sets the standard force range. The instrument alarms when the patient applies a force over the set range.

Keywords: gum recession, force sensing resistor, controller, toothbrush

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
6011 Highly Sensitive, Low-Cost Oxygen Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Xin Chang, Daping Chu

Abstract:

Oxygen gas sensing technology has progressed since the last century and it has been extensively used in a wide range of applications such as controlling the combustion process by sensing the oxygen level in the exhaust gas of automobiles to ensure the catalytic converter is in a good working condition. Similar sensors are also used in industrial boilers to make the combustion process economic and environmentally friendly. Different gas sensing mechanisms have been developed: ceramic-based potentiometric equilibrium sensors and semiconductor-based sensors by oxygen absorption. In this work, we present a highly sensitive and low-cost oxygen gas sensor based on Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (average particle size of 35nm) dispersion in ethanol. The sensor is able to measure the pressure range from 103 mBar to 10-5 mBar with a sensitivity of more than 102 mA/Bar. The sensor is also erasable with heat.

Keywords: nanoparticles, oxygen, sensor, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
6010 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

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6009 Assesing Spatio-Temporal Growth of Kochi City Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Navya Saira George, Patroba Achola Odera

Abstract:

This study aims to determine spatio-temporal expansion of Kochi City, situated on the west coast of Kerala State in India. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to determine land use/cover and urban expansion of the City. Classification of Landsat images of the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2018 have been used to reproduce a visual story of the growth of the City over a period of 45 years. Accuracy range of 0.79 ~ 0.86 is achieved with kappa coefficient range of 0.69 ~ 0.80. Results show that the areas covered by vegetation and water bodies decreased progressively from 53.0 ~ 30.1% and 34.1 ~ 26.2% respectively, while built-up areas increased steadily from 12.5 to 42.2% over the entire study period (1973 ~ 2018). The shift in land use from agriculture to non-agriculture may be attributed to the land reforms since 1980s.

Keywords: Geographical Information Systems, Kochi City, Land use/cover, Remote Sensing, Urban Sprawl

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6008 Malate Dehydrogenase Enabled ZnO Nanowires as an Optical Tool for Malic Acid Detection in Horticultural Products

Authors: Rana Tabassum, Ravi Kant, Banshi D. Gupta

Abstract:

Malic acid is an extensively distributed organic acid in numerous horticultural products in minute amounts which significantly contributes towards taste determination by balancing sugar and acid fractions. An enhanced concentration of malic acid is utilized as an indicator of fruit maturity. In addition, malic acid is also a crucial constituent of several cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. An efficient detection and quantification protocol for malic acid is thus highly demanded. In this study, we report a novel detection scheme for malic acid by synergistically collaborating fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FOSPR) and distinctive features of nanomaterials favorable for sensing applications. The design blueprint involves the deposition of an assembly of malate dehydrogenase enzyme entrapped in ZnO nanowires forming the sensing route over silver coated central unclad core region of an optical fiber. The formation and subsequent decomposition of the enzyme-analyte complex on exposure of the sensing layer to malic acid solutions of diverse concentration results in modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. Optimization of experimental variables such as enzyme concentration entrapped in ZnO nanowires, dip time of probe for deposition of sensing layer and working pH range of the sensing probe have been accomplished through SPR measurements. The optimized sensing probe displays high sensitivity, broad working range and a minimum limit of detection value and has been successfully tested for malic acid determination in real samples of fruit juices. The current work presents a novel perspective towards malic acid determination as the unique and cooperative combination of FOSPR and nanomaterials provides myriad advantages such as enhanced sensitivity, specificity, compactness together with the possibility of online monitoring and remote sensing.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, optical fiber, sensor, malic acid

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6007 Capacity Optimization in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Mahdi Pirmoradian, Olayinka Adigun, Christos Politis

Abstract:

Cooperative spectrum sensing is a crucial challenge in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative sensing can increase the reliability of spectrum hole detection, optimize sensing time and reduce delay in cooperative networks. In this paper, an efficient central capacity optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize cooperative sensing time in a homogenous sensor network using OR decision rule subject to the detection and false alarm probabilities constraints. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in the sensing time and normalized capacity of the cognitive sensors.

Keywords: cooperative networks, normalized capacity, sensing time

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6006 An Investigation of the Structural and Microstructural Properties of Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films Applied as Gas Sensors

Authors: Ariadne C. Catto, Luis F. da Silva, Khalifa Aguir, Valmor Roberto Mastelaro

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) pure or doped are one of the most promising metal oxide semiconductors for gas sensing applications due to the well-known high surface-to-volume area and surface conductivity. It was shown that ZnO is an excellent gas-sensing material for different gases such as CO, O2, NO2 and ethanol. In this context, pure and doped ZnO exhibiting different morphologies and a high surface/volume ratio can be a good option regarding the limitations of the current commercial sensors. Different studies showed that the sensitivity of metal-doped ZnO (e.g. Co, Fe, Mn,) enhanced its gas sensing properties. Motivated by these considerations, the aim of this study consisted on the investigation of the role of Co ions on structural, morphological and the gas sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO samples. ZnO and Zn1-xCoxO (0 < x < 5 wt%) thin films were obtained via the polymeric precursor method. The sensitivity, selectivity, response time and long-term stability gas sensing properties were investigated when the sample was exposed to a different concentration range of ozone (O3) at different working temperatures. The gas sensing property was probed by electrical resistance measurements. The long and short-range order structure around Zn and Co atoms were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement was performed in order to identify the elements present on the film surface as well as to determine the sample composition. Microstructural characteristics of the films were analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Zn1-xCoxO XRD patterns were indexed to the wurtzite ZnO structure and any second phase was observed even at a higher cobalt content. Co-K edge XANES spectra revealed the predominance of Co2+ ions. XPS characterization revealed that Co-doped ZnO samples possessed a higher percentage of oxygen vacancies than the ZnO samples, which also contributed to their excellent gas sensing performance. Gas sensor measurements pointed out that ZnO and Co-doped ZnO samples exhibit a good gas sensing performance concerning the reproducibility and a fast response time (around 10 s). Furthermore, the Co addition contributed to reduce the working temperature for ozone detection and improve the selective sensing properties.

Keywords: cobalt-doped ZnO, nanostructured, ozone gas sensor, polymeric precursor method

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6005 Refractometric Optical Sensing by Using Photonics Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: Gong Zhang, Hong Cai, Bin Dong, Jifang Tao, Aiqun Liu, Dim-Lee Kwong, Yuandong Gu

Abstract:

An on-chip refractive index sensor with high sensitivity and large measurement range is demonstrated in this paper. The sensing structures are based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, built on the SOI substrate. The wavelength sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be 3129 nm/RIU. Meanwhile, according to the interference pattern period changes, the measured period sensitivities are 2.9 nm/RIU (TE mode) and 4.21 nm/RIU (TM mode), respectively. As such, the wavelength shift and the period shift can be used for fine index change detection and larger index change detection, respectively. Therefore, the sensor design provides an approach for large index change measurement with high sensitivity.

Keywords: Mach-Zehnder interferometer, nanotechnology, refractive index sensing, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
6004 Effect of Using a Mixture of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the Sensing Membrane for Polysilicon Wire on pH Sensing

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Zong-Xian Wu, Jing-Jenn Lin, Shih-Hung Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a polysilicon wire (PSW) coated with a mixture of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (r-APTES) and Al2O3 nanoparticles as the sensing membrane prepared with various Al2O3/r-APTES and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratios for pH sensing is studied. The r-APTES and dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture was directly transferred to PSW surface by solution phase deposition (SPD). It is found that using a mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES as the sensing membrane help in improving the pH sensing of the PSW sensor and a 5 min SPD deposition time is the best. Dispersing agent is found to be necessary for better pH sensing when preparing the mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES. The optimum condition for preparing the mixture is found to be Al2O3/r-APTES ratio of 2% and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratio of 0.3%.

Keywords: al2o3 nanoparticles, ph sensing, polysilicon wire sensor, r-aptes

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6003 Multiband Fractal Patch Antenna for Small Spacecraft of Earth Remote Sensing

Authors: Beibit Karibayev, Akmaral Imanbayeva, Timur Namazbayev

Abstract:

Currently, the small spacecraft (SSC) industry is experiencing a big boom in popularity. This is primarily due to ease of use, low cost and mobility. In addition, these programs can be implemented not only at the state level but also at the level of companies, universities and other organizations. For remote sensing of the Earth (ERS), small spacecraft with an orientation system is used. It is important to take into account here that a remote sensing device, for example, a camera for photographing the Earth's surface, must be directed at the Earth's surface. But this, at first glance, the limitation can be turned into an advantage using a patch antenna. This work proposed to use a patch antenna based on a unidirectional fractal in the SSC. The CST Microwave Studio software package was used for simulation and research. Copper (ε = 1.0) was chosen as the emitting element and reflector. The height of the substrate was 1.6 mm, the type of substrate material was FR-4 (ε = 4.3). The simulation was performed in the frequency range of 0 – 6 GHz. As a result of the research, a patch antenna based on fractal geometry was developed for ERS nanosatellites. The capabilities of these antennas are modeled and investigated. A method for calculating and modeling fractal geometry for patch antennas has been developed.

Keywords: antenna, earth remote sensing, fractal, small spacecraft

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6002 Fiber-Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali

Abstract:

This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensor, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue

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6001 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar

Abstract:

The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic

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6000 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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5999 Chemical Sensing Properties of Self-Assembled Film Based on an Amphiphilic Ambipolar Triple-Decker (Phthalocyaninato) (Porphyrinato) Europium Semiconductor

Authors: Kiran Abdullah, Yanli Chen

Abstract:

An amphiphilic mixed (phthalocyaninato) (porphyrinato) europium triple-decker complex Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) has been synthesized and characterized. Introducing electron-withdrawing pyridyl substituents onto the meso-position of porphyrin ring in the triple-decker to ensure the sufficient hydrophilicity and suitable HOMO and LUMO energy levels and thus successfully realize amphiphilic ambipolar organic semiconductor. Importantly, high sensitive, reproducible p-type and n-type responses towards NH₃ andNO₂ respectively, based on the self-assembled film of the Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) fabricated by a simple solution-based Quasi–Langmuir–Shäfer (QLS) method, have been first revealed. The good conductivity and crystallinity for the QLS film of Eu₂(Pc)₂(TPyP) render it excellent sensing property. This complex is sensitive to both electron-donating NH₃ gas in 5–30 ppm range and electron-accepting NO₂ gas 400–900 ppb range. Due to uniform nano particles there exist effective intermolecular interaction between triple decker molecules. This is the best result of Phthalocyanine–based chemical sensors at room temperature. Furthermore, the responses of the QLS film are all linearly correlated to both NH₃ and NO₂ with excellent sensitivity of 0.04% ppm⁻¹ and 31.9 % ppm⁻¹, respectively, indicating the great potential of semiconducting tetrapyrrole rare earth triple-decker compounds in the field of chemical sensors.

Keywords: ambipolar semiconductor, gas sensing, mixed (phthalocyaninato) (porphyrinato) rare earth complex, Self-assemblies

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5998 The MHz Frequency Range EM Induction Device Development and Experimental Study for Low Conductive Objects Detection

Authors: D. Kakulia, L. Shoshiashvili, G. Sapharishvili

Abstract:

The results of the study are related to the direction of plastic mine detection research using electromagnetic induction, the development of appropriate equipment, and the evaluation of expected results. Electromagnetic induction sensing is effectively used in the detection of metal objects in the soil and in the discrimination of unexploded ordnances. Metal objects interact well with a low-frequency alternating magnetic field. Their electromagnetic response can be detected at the low-frequency range even when they are placed in the ground. Detection of plastic things such as plastic mines by electromagnetic induction is associated with difficulties. The interaction of non-conducting bodies or low-conductive objects with a low-frequency alternating magnetic field is very weak. At the high-frequency range where already wave processes take place, the interaction increases. Interactions with other distant objects also increase. A complex interference picture is formed, and extraction of useful information also meets difficulties. Sensing by electromagnetic induction at the intermediate MHz frequency range is the subject of research. The concept of detecting plastic mines in this range can be based on the study of the electromagnetic response of non-conductive cavity in a low-conductivity environment or the detection of small metal components in plastic mines, taking into account constructive features. The detector node based on the amplitude and phase detector 'Analog Devices ad8302' has been developed for experimental studies. The node has two inputs. At one of the inputs, the node receives a sinusoidal signal from the generator, to which a transmitting coil is also connected. The receiver coil is attached to the second input of the node. The additional circuit provides an option to amplify the signal output from the receiver coil by 20 dB. The node has two outputs. The voltages obtained at the output reflect the ratio of the amplitudes and the phase difference of the input harmonic signals. Experimental measurements were performed in different positions of the transmitter and receiver coils at the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Arbitrary/Function Generator Tektronix AFG3052C and the eight-channel high-resolution oscilloscope PICOSCOPE 4824 were used in the experiments. Experimental measurements were also performed with a low-conductive test object. The results of the measurements and comparative analysis show the capabilities of the simple detector node and the prospects for its further development in this direction. The results of the experimental measurements are compared and analyzed with the results of appropriate computer modeling based on the method of auxiliary sources (MAS). The experimental measurements are driven using the MATLAB environment. Acknowledgment -This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNSF) (Grant number: NFR 17_523).

Keywords: EM induction sensing, detector, plastic mines, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
5997 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as P_f Vs P_d for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: spectrum sensing, energy detection, fading channels, probability of detection, probability of false alarm

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5996 Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Curvature Sensor Based on Four Mode Fiber

Authors: Qihang Zeng, Wei Xu, Ying Shen, Changyuan Yu

Abstract:

In this paper, a highly sensitive fiber-optic curvature sensor based on four mode fiber (FMF) is presented and investigated. The proposed sensing structure is constructed by fusing a section of FMF into two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) concatenated with two no core fiber (NCF), i.e., SMF-NCF-FMF-NCF-SMF structure is fabricated. The length of the NCF is very short about 1 millimeter acting as exciting/recoupling the light from/into the core of the SMF, while the FMF is with 3 centimeters long supporting four eigenmodes including LP₀₁, LP₁₁, LP₂₁ and LP₀₂. High core modes in FMF can be effectively stimulated owing to mismatched mode field distribution and the mainly sensing principle is based on modal interferometer spectrum analysis. Different curvatures induce different strains on the FMF such that affecting the modal excitation, resulting spectrum shifts. One can get the curvature value by tracking the wavelength shifting. Experiments have been done to address the sensing performance, which is about 7.8 nm/m⁻¹ within a range of 1.90 m⁻¹~3.18 m⁻¹.

Keywords: curvature, four mode fiber, highly sensitive, modal interferometer

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5995 Radio-Frequency Technologies for Sensing and Imaging

Authors: Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Rapid, accurate, and safe sensing and imaging of physical quantities or structures finds many applications and is of significant interest to society. Sensing and imaging using radio-frequency (RF) techniques, particularly, has gone through significant development and subsequently established itself as a unique territory in the sensing world. RF sensing and imaging has played a critical role in providing us many sensing and imaging abilities beyond our human capabilities, benefiting both civilian and military applications - for example, from sensing abnormal conditions underneath some structures’ surfaces to detection and classification of concealed items, hidden activities, and buried objects. We present the developments of several sensing and imaging systems implementing RF technologies like ultra-wide band (UWB), synthetic-pulse, and interferometry. These systems are fabricated completely using RF integrated circuits. The UWB impulse system operates over multiple pulse durations from 450 to 1170 ps with 5.5-GHz RF bandwidth. It performs well through tests of various samples, demonstrating its usefulness for subsurface sensing. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 0.6 to 5.6 GHz can assess accurately subsurface structures. The synthetic-pulse system operating from 29.72-37.7 GHz demonstrates abilities for various surface and near-surface sensing such as profile mapping, liquid-level monitoring, and anti-personnel mine locating. The interferometric system operating at 35.6 GHz demonstrates its multi-functional capability for measurement of displacements and slow velocities. These RF sensors are attractive and useful for various surface and subsurface sensing applications. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: RF sensors, radars, surface sensing, subsurface sensing

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5994 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area

Authors: Hemant Kumar, R. N. K. Sharma, A. P. Krishna

Abstract:

The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.

Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, sensor, Landsat-8

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5993 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra

Abstract:

Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: RF Sputtering, silicon carbide, porous silicon, hydrogen gas sensor

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5992 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee

Abstract:

In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
5991 Monitoring Deforestation Using Remote Sensing And GIS

Authors: Tejaswi Agarwal, Amritansh Agarwal

Abstract:

Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from Indian institute of remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradoon in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud free and did not belong to dry and leafless season. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean, we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper, we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques, it is clearly shown that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: remote sensing, deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI, change detection

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5990 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang

Abstract:

This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

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5989 Condition Monitoring of Railway Earthworks using Distributed Rayleigh Sensing

Authors: Andrew Hall, Paul Clarkson

Abstract:

Climate change is predicted to increase the number of extreme weather events intensifying the strain on Railway Earthworks. This paper describes the use of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing to monitor low frequency activity on a vulnerable earthworks sectionprone to landslides alongside a railway line in Northern Spain. The vulnerable slope is instrumented with conventional slope stability sensors allowing an assessment to be conducted of the application of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing as an earthwork condition monitoring tool to enhance the resilience of railway networks.

Keywords: condition monitoring, railway earthworks, distributed rayleigh sensing, climate change

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5988 An Intelligent Traffic Management System Based on the WiFi and Bluetooth Sensing

Authors: Hamed Hossein Afshari, Shahrzad Jalali, Amir Hossein Ghods, Bijan Raahemi

Abstract:

This paper introduces an automated clustering solution that applies to WiFi/Bluetooth sensing data and is later used for traffic management applications. The paper initially summarizes a number of clustering approaches and thereafter shows their performance for noise removal. In this context, clustering is used to recognize WiFi and Bluetooth MAC addresses that belong to passengers traveling by a public urban transit bus. The main objective is to build an intelligent system that automatically filters out MAC addresses that belong to persons located outside the bus for different routes in the city of Ottawa. The proposed intelligent system alleviates the need for defining restrictive thresholds that however reduces the accuracy as well as the range of applicability of the solution for different routes. This paper moreover discusses the performance benefits of the presented clustering approaches in terms of the accuracy, time and space complexity, and the ease of use. Note that results of clustering can further be used for the purpose of the origin-destination estimation of individual passengers, predicting the traffic load, and intelligent management of urban bus schedules.

Keywords: WiFi-Bluetooth sensing, cluster analysis, artificial intelligence, traffic management

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5987 Optimal Sensing Technique for Estimating Stress Distribution of 2-D Steel Frame Structure Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jun Su Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Jin Woo Hwang, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

For the structural safety, the maximum stress calculated from the stress distribution of a structure is widely used. The stress distribution can be estimated by deformed shape of the structure obtained from measurement. Although the estimation of stress is strongly affected by the location and number of sensing points, most studies have conducted the stress estimation without reasonable basis on sensing plan such as the location and number of sensors. In this paper, an optimal sensing technique for estimating the stress distribution is proposed. This technique proposes the optimal location and number of sensing points for a 2-D frame structure while minimizing the error of stress distribution between analytical model and estimation by cubic smoothing splines using genetic algorithm. To verify the proposed method, the optimal sensor measurement technique is applied to simulation tests on 2-D steel frame structure. The simulation tests are performed under various loading scenarios. Through those tests, the optimal sensing plan for the structure is suggested and verified.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimal sensing, optimizing sensor placements, steel frame structure

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5986 PSRR Enhanced LDO Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit

Authors: Min-ju Kwon, Chae-won Kim, Jeong-yun Seo, Hee-guk Chae, Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR (Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2 dB at 1k Hz, -45.85 dB at 1 MHz and -45 dB at 10 MHz. the other performance of the proposed LDO was maintained at the same level of the conventional LDO regulator.

Keywords: LDO regulator, noise sensing circuit, current reference, pass transistor

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5985 Integration of GIS with Remote Sensing and GPS for Disaster Mitigation

Authors: Sikander Nawaz Khan

Abstract:

Natural disasters like flood, earthquake, cyclone, volcanic eruption and others are causing immense losses to the property and lives every year. Current status and actual loss information of natural hazards can be determined and also prediction for next probable disasters can be made using different remote sensing and mapping technologies. Global Positioning System (GPS) calculates the exact position of damage. It can also communicate with wireless sensor nodes embedded in potentially dangerous places. GPS provide precise and accurate locations and other related information like speed, track, direction and distance of target object to emergency responders. Remote Sensing facilitates to map damages without having physical contact with target area. Now with the addition of more remote sensing satellites and other advancements, early warning system is used very efficiently. Remote sensing is being used both at local and global scale. High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), airborne remote sensing and space-borne remote sensing is playing vital role in disaster management. Early on Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect, arrange, and map the spatial information but now it has capability to analyze spatial data. This analytical ability of GIS is the main cause of its adaption by different emergency services providers like police and ambulance service. Full potential of these so called 3S technologies cannot be used in alone. Integration of GPS and other remote sensing techniques with GIS has pointed new horizons in modeling of earth science activities. Many remote sensing cases including Asian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Mount Mangart landslides and Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005 are described in this paper.

Keywords: disaster mitigation, GIS, GPS, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
5984 A Combined Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance and Ta2O5: rGO Nanocomposite Synergistic Scheme for Trace Detection of Insecticide Fenitrothion

Authors: Ravi Kant, Banshi D. Gupta

Abstract:

The unbridled application of insecticides to enhance agricultural yield has become a matter of grave concern to both the environment and the human health and, thus pose a potential threat to sustainable development. Fenitrothion is an extensively used organophosphate insecticide whose residues are reported to be extremely toxic for birds, humans and aquatic life. A sensitive, swift and accurate detection protocol for fenitrothion is, thus, highly demanded. In this work, we report an SPR based fiber optic sensor for the detection of fenitrothion, where a nanocomposite arrangement of Ta2O5 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (Ta₂O₅: rGO) decorated on silver coated unclad core region of an optical fiber forms the sensing channel. A nanocomposite arrangement synergistically integrates the properties of involved components and consequently furnishes a conducive framework for sensing applications. The modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer on exposure to fenitrothion solutions of diverse concentration forms the sensing mechanism. This modification is reflected in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength. Experimental variables such as the concentration of rGO in the nanocomposite configuration, dip time of silver coated fiber optic probe for deposition of sensing layer and influence of pH on the performance of the sensor have been optimized to extract the best performance of the sensor. SPR studies on the optimized sensing probe reveal the high sensitivity, wide operating range and good reproducibility of the fabricated sensor, which unveil the promising utility of Ta₂O₅: rGO nanocomposite framework for developing an efficient detection methodology for fenitrothion. FOSPR approach in cooperation with nanomaterials projects the present work as a beneficial approach for fenitrothion detection by imparting numerous useful advantages such as sensitivity, selectivity, compactness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, optical fiber, sensor, fenitrothion

Procedia PDF Downloads 139