Search results for: railway earthworks
241 Condition Monitoring of Railway Earthworks using Distributed Rayleigh Sensing
Authors: Andrew Hall, Paul Clarkson
Abstract:Climate change is predicted to increase the number of extreme weather events intensifying the strain on Railway Earthworks. This paper describes the use of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing to monitor low frequency activity on a vulnerable earthworks sectionprone to landslides alongside a railway line in Northern Spain. The vulnerable slope is instrumented with conventional slope stability sensors allowing an assessment to be conducted of the application of Distributed Rayleigh Sensing as an earthwork condition monitoring tool to enhance the resilience of railway networks.
Keywords: condition monitoring, railway earthworks, distributed rayleigh sensing, climate changeProcedia PDF Downloads 120
240 Inspection of Railway Track Fastening Elements Using Artificial Vision
Authors: Abdelkrim Belhaoua, Jean-Pierre Radoux
Abstract:In France, the railway network is one of the main transport infrastructures and is the second largest European network. Therefore, railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety for passengers using significant means in personal and technical facilities. Artificial vision has recently been applied to several railway applications due to its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy when analyzing large databases of acquired images. In this paper, we present a vision system able to detect fastening elements based on artificial vision approach. This system acquires railway images using a CCD camera installed under a control carriage. These images are stitched together before having processed. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is robust for detection fasteners in a complex environment.
Keywords: computer vision, image processing, railway inspection, image stitching, fastener recognition, neural networkProcedia PDF Downloads 361
239 Modeling of Crack Growth in Railway Axles under Static Loading
Authors: Zellagui Redouane, Bellaouar Ahmed, Lachi Mohammed
Abstract:The railway axles are the essential parts in the bogie of train, and its failure creates a big problem in the railway transport; during the work of this parts we noticed a premature deterioration. The aim has been presented a predictive model allowing the identification of the probable causes that are the cause of these premature deterioration. The results are employed for predicting fatigue crack growth in the railway axle, Also we want to present the variation value of stress intensity factor in different positions of elliptical crack tip. The modeling of axle in performed by the SOLID WORKS software and imported into ANSYS.
Keywords: crack growth, static load, railway axle, lifetimeProcedia PDF Downloads 247
238 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method
Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar
Abstract:Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.
Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noiseProcedia PDF Downloads 111
237 Progressive View on Quality Management and Research on Improving Services in Railway Transport
Authors: Eva Nedeliakova, Michal Panak
Abstract:This article describes the results of research focused on progressive view on quality management. It characterizes a research of improving services in railway transport. Improvement of these services has a strong importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. The research provides quality characteristics of transportation, defines critical points of technological processes and specifies the quality model supported by software solution. Main principles and results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport.
Keywords: quality, service, software solution, railway transportProcedia PDF Downloads 277
236 Railway Accidents: Using the Global Railway Accident Database and Evaluation for Risk Analysis
Authors: Mathias Linden, André Schneider, Harald F. O. von Korflesch
Abstract:The risk of train accidents is an ongoing concern for railway organizations, governments, insurance companies and other depended sectors. Safety technologies are installed to reduce and to prevent potential damages of train accidents. Since the budgetary for the safety of railway organizations is limited, it is necessary not only to achieve a high availability and high safety standard but also to be cost effective. Therefore, an economic assessment of safety technologies is fundamental to create an accurate risk analysis. In order to conduct an economical assessment of a railway safety technology and a quantification of the costs of the accident causes, the Global Railway Accident Database & Evaluation (GRADE) has been developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of this accident database and to show how it can be used for risk analyses. A number of risk analysis methods, such as the probabilistic safety assessment method (PSA), was used to demonstrate this accident database’s different possibilities of risk analysis. In conclusion, it can be noted that these analyses would not be as accurate without GRADE. The information gathered in the accident database was not available in this way before. Our findings are relevant for railway operators, safety technology suppliers, assurances, governments and other concerned railway organizations.
Keywords: accident causes, accident costs, accident database, global railway accident database & evaluation, GRADE, probabilistic safety assessment, PSA, railway accidents, risk analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 297
235 Factors Affecting At-Grade Railway Level Crossing Accidents in Bangladesh
Authors: Armana Huq
Abstract:Railway networks have a significant role in the economy of any country. Similar to other transportation modes, many lives suffer from fatalities or injuries caused by accidents related to the railway. Railway accidents are not as common as roadway accidents yet they are more devastating and damaging than other roadway accidents. Despite that, issues related to railway accidents are not taken into consideration with significant attention as a major threat because of their less frequency compared to other accident categories perhaps. However, the Federal Railroad Administration reported nearly twelve thousand train accidents related to the railroad in the year 2014, resulting in more than eight hundred fatalities and thousands of injuries in the United States alone of which nearly one third fatalities resulted from railway crossing accidents. From an analysis of railway accident data of six years (2005-2010), it has been revealed that 344 numbers of the collision were occurred resulting 200 people dead and 443 people injured in Bangladesh. This paper includes a comprehensive overview of the railway safety situation in Bangladesh from 1998 to 2015. Each year on average, eight fatalities are reported in at-grade level crossings due to railway accidents in Bangladesh. In this paper, the number of railway accidents that occurred in Bangladesh has been presented and a fatality rate of 58.62% has been estimated as the percentage of total at-grade railway level crossing accidents. For this study, analysis of railway accidents in Bangladesh for the period 1998 to 2015 was obtained from the police reported accident database using MAAP (Microcomputer Accident Analysis Package). Investigation of the major contributing factors to the railway accidents has been performed using the Multinomial Logit model. Furthermore, hotspot analysis has been conducted using ArcGIS. Eventually, some suggestions have been provided to mitigate those accidents.
Keywords: safety, human factors, multinomial logit model, railwayProcedia PDF Downloads 88
234 Low-Level Modeling for Optimal Train Routing and Scheduling in Busy Railway Stations
Authors: Quoc Khanh Dang, Thomas Bourdeaud’huy, Khaled Mesghouni, Armand Toguy´eni
Abstract:This paper studies a train routing and scheduling problem for busy railway stations. Our objective is to allow trains to be routed in dense areas that are reaching saturation. Unlike traditional methods that allocate all resources to setup a route for a train and until the route is freed, our work focuses on the use of resources as trains progress through the railway node. This technique allows a larger number of trains to be routed simultaneously in a railway node and thus reduces their current saturation. To deal with this problem, this study proposes an abstract model and a mixed-integer linear programming formulation to solve it. The applicability of our method is illustrated on a didactic example.
Keywords: busy railway stations, mixed-integer linear programming, offline railway station management, train platforming, train routing, train schedulingProcedia PDF Downloads 100
233 Restoration of Railway Turnout Frog with FCAW
Authors: D. Sergejevs, A. Tipainis, P. Gavrilovs
Abstract:Railway turnout frogs restored with MMA often have such defects as infusions, pores, a.o., which under the influence of dynamic forces cause premature destruction of the restored surfaces. To prolong the operational time of turnout frog, i.e. operational time of the restored surface, turnout frog was restored using FCAW and afterwards matallographic examination was performed. Experimental study revealed that railway turnout frog restored with FCAW had better quality than elements restored with MMA, furthermore it provided considerable time economy.
Keywords: elements of railway turnout, FCAW, metallographic examination, quality of build-up weldingProcedia PDF Downloads 326
232 Study on Monitoring Techniques Developed for a City Railway Construction
Authors: Myoung-Jin Lee, Sung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Il Kim
Abstract:Currently, sinkholes may occur due to natural or unknown causes. When the sinkhole is an instantaneous phenomenon, most accidents occur because of significant damage. Thus, methods of monitoring are being actively researched, such that the impact of the accident can be mitigated. A sinkhole can severely affect and wreak havoc in community-based facilities such as a city railway construction. Therefore, the development of a laser / scanning system and an image-based tunnel is one method of pre-monitoring that it stops the accidents. The laser scanning is being used but this has shortcomings as it involves the development of expensive equipment. A laser / videobased scanning tunnel is being developed at Korea Railroad Research Institute. This is designed to automatically operate the railway. The purpose of the scanning is to obtain an image of the city such as of railway structures (stations, tunnel). At the railway structures, it has developed 3D laser scanning that can find a micro-crack can not be distinguished by the eye. An additional aim is to develop technology to monitor the status of the railway structure without the need for expensive post-processing of 3D laser scanning equipment, by developing corresponding software.
Keywords: 3D laser scanning, sinkhole, tunnel, city railway constructionProcedia PDF Downloads 362
231 Fuzzy Decision Support System for Human-Realistic Overtaking in Railway Traffic Simulations
Authors: Tomáš Vyčítal
Abstract:In a simulation model of a railway system it is important, besides other crucial algorithms, to have correct behaviour of train overtaking in stochastic conditions. This problem is being addressed in many simulation tools focused on railway traffic, however these are not very human-realistic. The goal of this paper is to create a more human-realistic overtaking decision support system for the use in railway traffic simulations. A fuzzy system has been chosen for this task as fuzzy systems are well-suited for human-like decision making. The fuzzy system designed takes into account timetables, train positions, delays and buffer times as inputs and provides an instruction to overtake or not overtake.
Keywords: decision-making support, fuzzy systems, simulation, railway, transportProcedia PDF Downloads 34
230 Dynamic Model Conception of Improving Services Quality in Railway Transport
Authors: Eva Nedeliakova, Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj
Abstract:This article describes the results of research focused on quality of railway freight transport services. Improvement of these services has a crucial importance in customer considering on the future use of railway transport. Processes filling the customer demands and output quality assessment were defined as a part of the research. In this, contribution is introduced the map of quality planning and the algorithm of applied methodology. It characterises a model which takes into account characters of transportation with linking a perception services quality in ordinary and extraordinary operation. Despite the fact that rail freight transport has its solid position in the transport market, lots of carriers worldwide have been experiencing a stagnation for a couple of years. Therefore, specific results of the research have a significant importance and belong to numerous initiatives aimed to develop and support railway transport not only by creating a single railway area or reducing noise but also by promoting railway services. This contribution is focused also on the application of dynamic quality models which represent an innovative method of evaluation quality services. Through this conception, time factor, expected and perceived quality in each moment of the transportation process can be taken into account.
Keywords: quality, railway, transport, serviceProcedia PDF Downloads 375
229 Model of Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Railway Lines
Authors: Juraj Camaj, Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Masek
Abstract:The paper is focused to the evaluation railway tracks in the Slovakia by using Multi-Criteria method. Evaluation of railway tracks has important impacts for the assessment of investment in technical equipment. Evaluation of railway tracks also has an important impact for the allocation of marshalling yards. Marshalling yards are in transport model as centers for the operation assigned catchment area. This model is one of the effective ways to meet the development strategy of the European Community's railways. By applying this model in practice, a transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and then expect an increase in performance. The model is also applicable to other rail networks. This model supplements a theoretical problem of train formation problem of new ways of looking at evaluation of factors affecting the organization of wagon flows.
Keywords: railway track, multi-criteria methods, evaluation, transportation modelProcedia PDF Downloads 396
228 Evaluation of Railway Network and Service Performance Based on Transportation Sustainability in DKI Jakarta
Authors: Nur Bella Octoria Bella, Ayomi Dita Rarasati
Abstract:DKI Jakarta is Indonesia's capital city with the 10th highest congestion rate in the world based on the 2019 traffic index. Other than that based on World Air Quality Report in 2019 showed DKI Jakarta's air pollutant concentrate 49.4 µg and the 5th highest air pollutant in the world. In the urban city nowadays, the mobility rate is high enough and the efficiency for sustainability assessment in transport infrastructure development is needed. This efficiency is the important key for sustainable infrastructure development. DKI Jakarta is nowadays in the process of constructing the railway infrastructure to support the transportation system. The problems appearing are the railway infrastructure networks and the service in DKI Jakarta already planned based on sustainability factors or not. Therefore, the aim of this research is to make the evaluation of railways infrastructure networks performance and services in DKI Jakarta regards on the railway sustainability key factors. Further, this evaluation will be used to make the railway sustainability assessment framework and to offer some of the alternative solutions to improve railway transportation sustainability in DKI Jakarta. Firstly a very detailed literature review of papers that have focused on railway sustainability factors and their improvements of railway sustainability, published in the scientific journal in the period 2011 until 2021. Regarding the sustainability factors from the literature review, further, it is used to assess the current condition of railway infrastructure in DKI Jakarta. The evaluation will be using a Likert rate questionnaire and directed to the transportation railway expert and the passenger. Furthermore, the mapping and evaluation rate based on the sustainability factors will be compared to the effect factors using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). This research offers the network's performance and service rate impact on the sustainability aspect and the passenger willingness for using the rail public transportation in DKI Jakarta.
Keywords: transportation sustainability, railway transportation, sustainability, DKI JakartaProcedia PDF Downloads 98
227 Identifying Strategies for Improving Railway Services in Bangladesh
Authors: Armana Sabiha Huq, Tahmina Rahman Chowdhury
Abstract:In this paper, based on the stated preference experiment, the service quality of Bangladesh Railway has been assessed, and particular importance has been given to investigate if there exists a relationship between service quality and safety. For investigation purposes, environmental and organizational factors were assumed to determine the safety performance of the railway. Data collected from the survey has been analyzed by importance-performance analysis (IPA). In this paper, a modification of the well-known importance-performance analysis (IPA) has been done by adopting the importance of the weights determined through a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and by plotting the gap between importance and performance on a visual graph. It has been found that there exists a relationship between safety and serviceability to some extent. Limited resources are an important factor to improve the safety and serviceability condition of the BD railway. Moreover, it is observed that the limited resources available to monitor and improve the safety performance of railway.
Keywords: importance-performance analysis, GAP-IPA, SEM, serviceability, safety, factor analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 71
226 Enhancement of the Corrosion Resistance of Fastening System of Ballasted Railway in Sandy Desert by Using Nano-Coating
Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Navid Sabet, Mohamad Ali Mohit, Fatemeh Palizdar
Abstract:Railway as one of the most important transportation modes, passes through various areas with different conditions inevitably, and in many countries such as China, United States, Australia, and Iran, it passes through sandy desert areas. One of the main problems in these areas is the movement of sand, causing various damages to ballasted railway track such as corrosion in the railway fastening system. The soil composition of some desert areas like Fahraj in Iran consists of sand and salt. Due to the movement of sand and corrosive ions of salt, the fastening system of the railway is corroded, which, in turn, reduces the thickness of the components and their life span. In this research, the Nano-coating for fastening system of the railway is introduced, and its performance has been investigated in both laboratory and field tests. The Nano-coating of the fastening system consists of zinc-rich, epoxy, polyurethane, and additive, which is produced through Nano technology. This layer covers the surface of the fastening system and prohibits the chemical reactions, which result in corrosion. The results of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) indicate that corrosion resistance increases 315 times by using nano-coating, salt spray test results demonstrate that nano-coated components remained intact after 1000 hours.
Keywords: ballasted railway, Nano-coating, railway fastening system, sandy desertProcedia PDF Downloads 58
225 Impacts on Regional Economy by the Upgrade of Railway Infrastructure
Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki
Abstract:Transport is often the key driver for growth, especially for regions providing key opportunities for connectivity between busy areas and mature markets. Even though the benefits of transports are essential, limited research is published regarding the linkage of inland transport systems and other business sectors, the spillover effects on regional economy and the overall contribution to regional development. This paper deals with the determination of the key socioeconomic benefits on regions caused by the upgrade and the modernization of a railway corridor. The analysis framework is following a four-step analysis, providing key messages to planners, managers and decision makers. The provided case study is the upgrade of the railway corridor in North Greece, which is a very sensitive region suffering long time from economic stress. The application results are essential for comparisons with other destinations and provide key messages regarding the relationship of railway and economic development.
Keywords: regional development, economic impact assessment variables, railway infrastructure, strategic planningProcedia PDF Downloads 242
224 Characteristics and Durability Evaluation of Air Spring
Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park
Abstract:Air spring system is widely accepted for railway vehicle secondary suspension to reduce and absorb the vibration and noise. The low natural frequency ensures a comfortable ride and an invariably good stiffness. In this paper, the characteristic and durability test was conducted in laboratory by using servo-hydraulic fatigue testing system to reliability evaluation of air spring for electric railway vehicle. The experimental results show that the characteristics and durability of domestically developed products are excellent. Moreover, to guarantee the adaption of air spring, the ride comfort and air pressure variation were measured in train test on subway line. Air spring developed by this study for railway vehicles can guarantee the reliability of average usage of 1 million times at 90% confidence level.
Keywords: air spring, reliability, railway, service lifetimeProcedia PDF Downloads 402
223 A Case Study of Determining the Times of Overhauls and the Number of Spare Parts for Repairable Items in Rolling Stocks with Simulation
Authors: Ji Young Lee, Jong Woon Kim
Abstract:It is essential to secure high availability of railway vehicles to realize high quality and efficiency of railway service. Once the availability decreased, planned railway service could not be provided or more cars need to be reserved. additional cars need to be purchased or the frequency of railway service could be decreased. Such situation would be a big loss in terms of quality and cost related to railway service. Therefore, we make various efforts to get high availability of railway vehicles. Because it is a big loss to operators, we make various efforts to get high availability of railway vehicles. To secure high availability, the idle time of the vehicle needs to be reduced and the following methods are applied to railway vehicles. First, through modularization design, exchange time for line replaceable units is reduced which makes railway vehicles could be put into the service quickly. Second, to reduce periodic preventive maintenance time, preventive maintenance with short period would be proceeded test oriented to minimize the maintenance time, and reliability is secured through overhauls for each main component. With such design changes for railway vehicles, modularized components are exchanged first at the time of vehicle failure or overhaul so that vehicles could be put into the service quickly and exchanged components are repaired or overhauled. Therefore, spare components are required for any future failures or overhauls. And, as components are modularized and costs for components are high, it is considerably important to get reasonable quantities of spare components. Especially, when a number of railway vehicles were put into the service simultaneously, the time of overhauls come almost at the same time. Thus, for some vehicles, components need to be exchanged and overhauled before appointed overhaul period so that these components could be secured as spare parts for the next vehicle’s component overhaul. For this reason, components overhaul time and spare parts quantities should be decided at the same time. This study deals with the time of overhauls for repairable components of railway vehicles and the calculation of spare parts quantities in consideration of future failure/overhauls. However, as railway vehicles are used according to the service schedule, maintenance work cannot be proceeded after the service was closed thus it is quite difficult to resolve this situation mathematically. In this study, Simulation software system is used in this study for analyzing the time of overhauls for repairable components of railway vehicles and the spare parts for the railway systems.
Keywords: overhaul time, rolling stocks, simulation, spare partsProcedia PDF Downloads 265
222 Adaptable Regulatory Oversight and Safety Awareness Regime: An Experience-Based Contribution Towards Sustainability in a Changing Railway Environment
Authors: Peaceman Sopazi, Mabila Mathebula, John Smallwood
Abstract:Recent health and safety (H&S) concerns and their resultant impact on railway operations, namely, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or collectively known as SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) pandemic and the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), which have dominated public discourse, brought into question as to whether, or not, some aspects of how we have so far managed safety oversight as railway regulatory bodies and operators will remain relevant in a changing railway environment. Railway practitioners have generally found themselves between a proverbial rock and a hard place by being confronted by emerging challenges which have brought along great opportunities for sustainability. As witnesses and participants to the progressively introduced railway safety management, and transformation regimes, this paper attempts to share gathered field experience on adaptable regulatory oversight and safety awareness. The discourse is approached from a South African context but also with an informed perspective of what seems to work and what usually does not. The authors share their own multi and transdisciplinary experience coupled with insights they have gained as researchers of global trends in general safety management and specific aspects of railway safety management, for sustainability. In addition to sharing a largely experience-based methodology for survival, suggestions are offered for consideration as a way of keeping the railway safety management discourse alive as practitioners navigate a new path which is shrouded in a cloud of untold uncertainty. The authors further believe that the right timing for the implementation of the proposed suggestions in this paper will produce beneficial outcomes. Finally, the paper will identify areas that are still open for further investigation for and by researchers and practitioners alike.
Keywords: health & safety management, safety awareness, railway safety management, railway systems sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 113
221 A Framework for Railway Passenger Station Site Selection Using Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration Approaches
Authors: M. Taghavi Zavareh, H. Saremi
Abstract:Railway transportation is one of the types of transportation systems which, due to the advantages such as the ability to transport a large number of passengers, environmental protection, low energy consumption, and contribution to tourism, has importance. The existence of suitable and accessible stations is one of the requirements that leads to better performance and plays a significant role in the economic, social, political, and cultural development of urban areas. This paper aims to propose a framework for locating railway passenger stations. This research used descriptive-analytical methods and library tools to answer which definitions and theoretical approaches are suitable for the location of railway passenger stations. The results showed that theoretical approaches such as Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration are of the utmost importance theoretical bases in the field of research. Moreover, we studied three stations in Iran to find out about real trends and criteria in this research. This study also proposed four major criteria including accessibility, development, rail related and economics, and environmental harmony. Ultimately with an emphasis on the proposed criteria, the study concludes that the combination of Transit-Oriented Development and Urban Regeneration is the most suitable framework to locate railway passenger stations.
Keywords: railway passenger station, railway station, site selection, transit-oriented development, urban regenerationProcedia PDF Downloads 168
220 Mobile WiMAX Network based Wireless Communication on Rail: An Analysis
Authors: Vinod Kumar Jatav, Dr. Vrijendra Singh
Abstract:WiMAX is an emerging wireless technology designed by WiMAX forum. WiMAX technology delivers broadband internet access with QoS, mobility and robust security. WiMAX is among the prominent mobile broadband wireless technology which laid the foundation for the next generation networks (NGN). The next-generation communication system for railway should facilitate high level network availability, fast mobility for high speed trains with reliability, high handover rate, the firmness of train operations, and high QoS. The system should also be capable to provide various railway services by transmitting big data efficiently. One of the most promising technologies for the next generation railway wireless communication is Mobile WiMAX. This paper analyses some of the network architectures for railway wireless communication and considers the elementary concepts to facilitate the users with broadband internet access on trains. The paper aims to recognize the suitability of Mobile WiMAX technology for the special requirements of broadband internet facilities and wireless telecommunication services of Railways.
Keywords: Broadband internet, IEEE 802.16e, mobile WiMAX, Railway wireless communicationProcedia PDF Downloads 466
219 Developing Curricula for Signaling and Communication Course at Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) through Industrial Collaboration Program
Authors: Mohd Fairus Humar, Ibrahim Sulaiman, Pedro Cruz, Hasry Harun
Abstract:This paper presents the propose knowledge transfer program on railway signaling and communication by Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Thales Portugal. The fundamental issue is that there is no rail related course offered by local universities and colleges in Malaysia which could be an option to pursue student career path. Currently, dedicated trainings related to the rail technology are provided by in-house training academies established by the respective rail operators such as Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) and Rapid Rail Training Centre. In this matter, the content of training and facilities need to be strengthened to keep up-to-date with the dynamic evolvement of the rail technology. This is because rail products have evolved to be more sophisticated and embedded with high technology components which no longer exist in the mechanical form alone but combined with electronics, information technology and others. These demand for a workforce imbued with knowledge, multi-skills and competency to deal with specialized technical areas. Talent is needed to support sustainability in Southeast Asia. Keeping the above factors in mind, an Industrial Collaboration Program (ICP) was carried out to transfer knowledge on curricula of railway signaling and communication to a selected railway operators and tertiary educational institution in Malaysia. In order to achieve the aim, a partnership was formed between Technical Depository Agency (TDA), Thales Portugal and MyRA for two years with three main stages of program implementation comprising of: i) training on basic railway signaling and communication for 1 month with Thales in Malaysia; ii) training on advance railway signaling and communication for 4 months with Thales in Portugal and; iii) a series of workshop. Two workshops were convened to develop and harmonize curricula of railway signaling and communication course and were followed by one training for installation equipment of railway signaling and Controlled Train Centre (CTC) system from Thales Portugal. With active involvement from Technical Depository Agency (TDA), railway operators, universities, and colleges, in planning, executing, monitoring, control and closure, the program module of railway signaling and communication course with a lab railway signaling field equipment and CTC simulator were developed. Through this program, contributions from various parties help to build committed societies to engage important issues in relation to railway signaling and communication towards creating a sustainable future.
Keywords: knowledge transfer program, railway signaling and communication, curricula, module and teaching aid simulatorProcedia PDF Downloads 124
218 Networked Radar System to Increase Safety of Urban Railroad Crossing
Authors: Sergio Saponara, Luca Fanucci, Riccardo Cassettari, Ruggero Piernicola, Marco Righetto
Abstract:The paper presents an innovative networked radar system for detection of obstacles in a railway level crossing scenario. This Monitoring System (MS) is able to detect moving or still obstacles within the railway level crossing area automatically, avoiding the need of human presence for surveillance. The MS is also connected to the National Railway Information and Signaling System to communicate in real-time the level crossing status. The architecture is compliant with the highest Safety Integrity Level (SIL4) of the CENELEC standard. The number of radar sensors used is configurable at set-up time and depends on how large the level crossing area can be. At least two sensors are expected and up four can be used for larger areas. The whole processing chain that elaborates the output sensor signals, as well as the communication interface, is fully-digital, was designed in VHDL code and implemented onto a Xilinx Virtex 6.
Keywords: radar for safe mobility, railroad crossing, railway, transport safetyProcedia PDF Downloads 392
217 Rail Corridors between Minimal Use of Train and Unsystematic Tightening of Population: A Methodological Essay
Authors: A. Benaiche
Abstract:In the current situation, the automobile has become the main means of locomotion. It allows traveling long distances, encouraging urban sprawl. To counteract this trend, the train is often proposed as an alternative to the car. Simultaneously, the favoring of urban development around public transport nodes such as railway stations is one of the main issues of the coordination between urban planning and transportation and the keystone of the sustainable urban development implementation. In this context, this paper focuses on the study of the spatial structuring dynamics around the railway. Specifically, it is a question of studying the demographic dynamics in rail corridors of Nantes, Angers and Le Mans (Western France) basing on the radiation of railway stations. Consequently, the methodology is concentrated on the knowledge of demographic weight and gains of these corridors, the index of urban intensity and the mobility behaviors (workers’ travels, scholars' travels, modal practices of travels). The perimeter considered to define the rail corridors includes the communes of urban area which have a railway station and communes with an access time to the railway station is less than fifteen minutes by car (time specified by the Regional Transport Scheme of Travelers). The main tools used are the statistical data from the census of population, the basis of detailed tables and databases on mobility flows. The study reveals that the population is not tightened along rail corridors and train use is minimal despite the presence of a nearby railway station. These results lead to propose guidelines to make the train, a real vector of mobility across the rail corridors.
Keywords: coordination between urban planning and transportation, rail corridors, railway stations, travelsProcedia PDF Downloads 194
216 Features of the Functional and Spatial Organization of Railway Hubs as a Part of the Urban Nodal Area
Authors: Khayrullina Yulia Sergeevna, Tokareva Goulsine Shavkatovna
Abstract:The article analyzes the modern major railway hubs as a main part of the Urban Nodal Area (UNA). The term was introduced into the theory of urban planning at the end of the XX century. Tokareva G.S. jointly with Gutnov A.E. investigated the structure-forming elements of the city. UNA is the basic unit, the "cell" of the city structure. Specialization is depending on the position in the frame or the fabric of the city. This is related to feature of its organization. Spatial and functional features of UNA proposed to investigate in this paper. The base object for researching are railway hubs as connective nodes of inner and extern-city communications. Research used a stratified sampling type with the selection of typical objects. Research is being conducted on the 14 railway hubs of the native and foreign experience of the largest cities with a population over 1 million people located in one and close to the Russian climate zones. Features of the organization identified in the complex research of functional and spatial characteristics based on the hypothesis of the existence of dual characteristics of the organization of urban nodes. According to the analysis, there is using the approximation method that enable general conclusions of a representative selection of the entire population of railway hubs and it development’s area. Results of the research show specific ratio of functional and spatial organization of UNA based on railway hubs. Based on it there proposed typology of spaces and urban nodal areas. Identification of spatial diversity and functional organization’s features of the greatest railway hubs and it development’s area gives an indication of the different evolutionary stages of formation approaches. It help to identify new patterns for the complex and effective design as a prediction of the native hub’s development direction.
Keywords: urban nodal area, railway hubs, features of structural, functional organizationProcedia PDF Downloads 319
215 An Analysis of the Relations between Aggregates’ Shape and Mechanical Properties throughout the Railway Ballast Service Life
Authors: Daianne Fernandes Diogenes
Abstract:Railway ballast aggregates’ shape properties and size distribution can be directly affected by several factors, such as traffic, fouling, and maintenance processes, which cause breakage and wearing, leading to the fine particles’ accumulation through the ballast layer. This research aims to analyze the influence of traffic, tamping process, and sleepers’ stiffness on aggregates' shape and mechanical properties, by using traditional and digital image processing (DIP) techniques and cyclic tests, like resilient modulus (RM) and permanent deformation (PD). Aggregates were collected in different phases of the railway service life: (i) right after the crushing process; (ii) after construction, for the aggregates positioned below the sleepers and (iii) after 5 years of operation. An increase in the percentage of cubic particles was observed for the materials (ii) and (iii), providing a better interlocking, increasing stiffness and reducing axial deformation after 5 years of service, when compared to the initial conditions.
Keywords: digital image processing, mechanical behavior, railway ballast, shape propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 55
214 Optical Flow Direction Determination for Railway Crossing Occupancy Monitoring
Authors: Zdenek Silar, Martin Dobrovolny
Abstract:This article deals with the obstacle detection on a railway crossing (clearance detection). Detection is based on the optical flow estimation and classification of the flow vectors by K-means clustering algorithm. For classification of passing vehicles is used optical flow direction determination. The optical flow estimation is based on a modified Lucas-Kanade method.
Keywords: background estimation, direction of optical flow, K-means clustering, objects detection, railway crossing monitoring, velocity vectorsProcedia PDF Downloads 447
213 Railway Process Automation to Ensure Human Safety with the Aid of IoT and Image Processing
Authors: K. S. Vedasingha, K. K. M. T. Perera, K. I. Hathurusinghe, H. W. I. Akalanka, Nelum Chathuranga Amarasena, Nalaka R. Dissanayake
Abstract:Railways provide the most convenient and economically beneficial mode of transportation, and it has been the most popular transportation method among all. According to the past analyzed data, it reveals a considerable number of accidents which occurred at railways and caused damages to not only precious lives but also to the economy of the countries. There are some major issues which need to be addressed in railways of South Asian countries since they fall under the developing category. The goal of this research is to minimize the influencing aspect of railway level crossing accidents by developing the “railway process automation system”, as there are high-risk areas that are prone to accidents, and safety at these places is of utmost significance. This paper describes the implementation methodology and the success of the study. The main purpose of the system is to ensure human safety by using the Internet of Things (IoT) and image processing techniques. The system can detect the current location of the train and close the railway gate automatically. And it is possible to do the above-mentioned process through a decision-making system by using past data. The specialty is both processes working parallel. As usual, if the system fails to close the railway gate due to technical or a network failure, the proposed system can identify the current location and close the railway gate through a decision-making system, which is a revolutionary feature. The proposed system introduces further two features to reduce the causes of railway accidents. Railway track crack detection and motion detection are those features which play a significant role in reducing the risk of railway accidents. Moreover, the system is capable of detecting rule violations at a level crossing by using sensors. The proposed system is implemented through a prototype, and it is tested with real-world scenarios to gain the above 90% of accuracy.
Keywords: crack detection, decision-making, image processing, Internet of Things, motion detection, prototype, sensorsProcedia PDF Downloads 116
212 Degradation Model for UK Railway Drainage System
Authors: Yiqi Wu, Simon Tait, Andrew Nichols
Abstract:Management of UK railway drainage assets is challenging due to the large amounts of historical assets with long asset life cycles. A major concern for asset managers is to maintain the required performance economically and efficiently while complying with the relevant regulation and legislation. As the majority of the drainage assets are buried underground and are often difficult or costly to examine, it is important for asset managers to understand and model the degradation process in order to foresee the upcoming reduction in asset performance and conduct proactive maintenance accordingly. In this research, a Markov chain approach is used to model the deterioration process of rail drainage assets. The study is based on historical condition scores and characteristics of drainage assets across the whole railway network in England, Scotland, and Wales. The model is used to examine the effect of various characteristics on the probabilities of degradation, for example, the regional difference in probabilities of degradation, and how material and shape can influence the deterioration process for chambers, channels, and pipes.
Keywords: deterioration, degradation, markov models, probability, railway drainageProcedia PDF Downloads 118