Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9674

Search results for: strong electric field

9674 Simulation of Piezoelectric Laminated Smart Structure under Strong Electric Field

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen

Abstract:

Applying strong electric field on piezoelectric actuators, on one hand very significant electroelastic material nonlinear effects will occur, on the other hand piezo plates and shells may undergo large displacements and rotations. In order to give a precise prediction of piezolaminated smart structures under large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for both electroelastic material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity with large rotations based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is applied to analyze a piezolaminated semicircular shell structure.

Keywords: smart structures, piezolamintes, material nonlinearity, strong electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
9673 Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen, , Jing Bai

Abstract:

Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.

Keywords: piezoelectric smart structures, finite element analysis, geometric nonlinearity, electroelastic material nonlinearities

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
9672 Localising Gauss’s Law and the Electric Charge Induction on a Conducting Sphere

Authors: Sirapat Lookrak, Anol Paisal

Abstract:

Space debris has numerous manifestations, including ferro-metalize and non-ferrous. The electric field will induce negative charges to split from positive charges inside the space debris. In this research, we focus only on conducting materials. The assumption is that the electric charge density of a conducting surface is proportional to the electric field on that surface due to Gauss's Law. We are trying to find the induced charge density from an external electric field perpendicular to a conducting spherical surface. An object is a sphere on which the external electric field is not uniform. The electric field is, therefore, considered locally. The localised spherical surface is a tangent plane, so the Gaussian surface is a very small cylinder, and every point on a spherical surface has its own cylinder. The electric field from a circular electrode has been calculated in near-field and far-field approximation and shown Explanation Touchless maneuvering space debris orbit properties. The electric charge density calculation from a near-field and far-field approximation is done.

Keywords: near-field approximation, far-field approximation, localized Gauss’s law, electric charge density

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
9671 An Autopilot System for Static Zone Detection

Authors: Yanchun Zuo, Yingao Liu, Wei Liu, Le Yu, Run Huang, Lixin Guo

Abstract:

Electric field detection is important in many application scenarios. The traditional strategy is measuring the electric field with a man walking around in the area under test. This strategy cannot provide a satisfactory measurement accuracy. To solve the mentioned problem, an autopilot measurement system is divided. A mini-car is produced, which can travel in the area under test according to respect to the program within the CPU. The electric field measurement platform (EFMP) carries a central computer, two horn antennas, and a vector network analyzer. The mini-car stop at the sampling points according to the preset. When the car stops, the EFMP probes the electric field and stores data on the hard disk. After all the sampling points are traversed, an electric field map can be plotted. The proposed system can give an accurate field distribution description of the chamber.

Keywords: autopilot mini-car measurement system, electric field detection, field map, static zone measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
9670 An Investigation on Electric Field Distribution around 380 kV Transmission Line for Various Pylon Models

Authors: C. F. Kumru, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan

Abstract:

In this study, electric field distribution analyses for three pylon models are carried out by a Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Analyses are performed in both stationary and time domains to observe instantaneous values along with the effective ones. Considering the results of the study, different line geometries is considerably affecting the magnitude and distribution of electric field although the line voltages are the same. Furthermore, it is observed that maximum values of instantaneous electric field obtained in time domain analysis are quite higher than the effective ones in stationary mode. In consequence, electric field distribution analyses should be individually made for each different line model and the limit exposure values or distances to residential buildings should be defined according to the results obtained.

Keywords: electric field, energy transmission line, finite element method, pylon

Procedia PDF Downloads 638
9669 Nonreciprocal Optical Effects in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates

Authors: Ward Brullot, Thierry Verbiest

Abstract:

Nonreciprocal optical effects, such as Faraday rotation or magnetic circular dichroism, are very useful both for fundamental studies as for applications such as magnetic field sensors or optical isolators. In this study, we developed layer-by-layer deposited 20nm thick plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates consisting of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles that show broadband nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission. As such, the optical transmittance, or absorbance, depends on the direction of light propagation in the material, which means that looking from one direction or the other, more or less light passes through the sample. Theoretical analysis showed that strong electric quadrupole fields, which are electric field gradients, occur in the aggregates and that these quadrupole fields are responsible for the observed asymmetric transmission and the nonreciprocity of the effect. Apart from nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission, also other effects such as, but not limited to, optical rotation, circular dichroism or nonlinear optical responses were measured in the plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates and the influences of the intense electric quadrupole fields determined. In conclusion, the presence of strong electric quadrupole fields make the developed plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates ideal candidates for the study and application of various nonreciprocal optical effects.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, electric quadrupoles, nanoparticle aggregates, nonreciprocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
9668 Feedback Matrix Approach for Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches Dynamics in Complex Electric Field Structures

Authors: Egor Stadnichuk

Abstract:

Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA) are a widely accepted source of thunderstorm gamma-radiation. In regions with huge electric field strength, RREA can multiply via relativistic feedback. The relativistic feedback is caused both by positron production and by runaway electron bremsstrahlung gamma-rays reversal. In complex multilayer thunderstorm electric field structures, an additional reactor feedback mechanism appears due to gamma-ray exchange between separate strong electric field regions with different electric field directions. The study of this reactor mechanism in conjunction with the relativistic feedback with Monte Carlo simulations or by direct solution of the kinetic Boltzmann equation requires a significant amount of computational time. In this work, a theoretical approach to study feedback mechanisms in RREA physics is developed. It is based on the matrix of feedback operators construction. With the feedback matrix, the problem of the dynamics of avalanches in complex electric structures is reduced to the problem of finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues. A method of matrix elements calculation is proposed. The proposed concept was used to study the dynamics of RREAs in multilayer thunderclouds.

Keywords: terrestrial Gamma-ray flashes, thunderstorm ground enhancement, relativistic runaway electron avalanches, gamma-rays, high-energy atmospheric physics, TGF, TGE, thunderstorm, relativistic feedback, reactor feedback, reactor model

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
9667 Electric Field Investigation in MV PILC Cables with Void Defect

Authors: Mohamed A. Alsharif, Peter A. Wallace, Donald M. Hepburn, Chengke Zhou

Abstract:

Worldwide, most PILC MV underground cables in use are approaching the end of their design life; hence, failures are likely to increase. This paper studies the electric field and potential distributions within the PILC insulted cable containing common void-defect. The finite element model of the performance of the belted PILC MV underground cable is presented. The variation of the electric field stress within the cable using the Finite Element Method (FEM) is concentrated. The effects of the void-defect within the insulation are given. Outcomes will lead to deeper understanding of the modeling of Paper Insulated Lead Covered (PILC) and electric field response of belted PILC insulted cable containing void defect.

Keywords: MV PILC cables, finite element model/COMSOL multiphysics, electric field stress, partial discharge degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
9666 Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil

Authors: Hongda Guo, Wenxia Sima

Abstract:

Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

Keywords: electric field, Kerr, space charge, transformer oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
9665 Nonlinear Pollution Modelling for Polymeric Outdoor Insulator

Authors: Rahisham Abd Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear pollution model has been proposed to compute electric field distribution over the polymeric insulator surface under wet contaminated conditions. A 2D axial-symmetric insulator geometry, energized with 11kV was developed and analysed using Finite Element Method (FEM). A field-dependent conductivity with simplified assumptions was established to characterize the electrical properties of the pollution layer. Comparative field studies showed that simulation of dynamic pollution model results in a more realistic field profile, offering better understanding on how the electric field behaves under wet polluted conditions.

Keywords: electric field distributions, pollution layer, dynamic model, polymeric outdoor insulators, finite element method (FEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
9664 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: capacitor copper plates, electric field distribution, dielectric heating, grains

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
9663 Harnessing Earth's Electric Field and Transmission of Electricity

Authors: Vaishakh Medikeri

Abstract:

Energy in this Universe is the most basic characteristic of every particle. Since the birth of life on this planet, there has been a quest undertaken by the living beings to analyze, understand and harness the precious natural facts of the nature. In this quest, one of the greatest undertaken is the process of harnessing the naturally available energy. Scientists around the globe have discovered many ways to harness the freely available energy. But even today we speak of “Power Crisis”. Nikola Tesla once said “Nature has stored up in this universe infinite energy”. Energy is everywhere around us in unlimited quantities; all of it waiting to be harnessed by us. Here in this paper a method has been proposed to harness earth's electric field and transmit the stored electric energy using strong magnetic fields and electric fields. In this paper a new technique has been proposed to harness earth's electric field which is everywhere around the world in infinite quantities. Near the surface of the earth there is an electric field of about 120V/m. This electric field is used to charge a capacitor with high capacitance. Later the energy stored is allowed to pass through a device which converts the DC stored into AC. The AC so produced is then passed through a step down transformer to magnify the incoming current. Later the current passes through the RLC circuit. Later the current can be transmitted wirelessly using the principle of resonant inductive coupling. The proposed apparatus can be placed in most of the required places and any circuit tuned to the frequency of the transmitted current can receive the energy. The new source of renewable energy is of great importance if implemented since the apparatus is not costly and can be situated in most of the required places. And also the receiver which receives the transmitted energy is just an RLC circuit tuned to the resonant frequency of the transmitted energy. By using the proposed apparatus the energy losses can be reduced to a very large extent.

Keywords: capacitor, inductive resonant coupling, RLC circuit, transmission of electricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
9662 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
9661 Weak Electric Fields Enhance Growth and Nutritional Quality of Kale

Authors: So-Ra Lee, Myung-Min Oh

Abstract:

Generally, plants growing on the earth are under the influence of natural electric fields and may even require exposure of the electric field to survive. Electric signals have been observed within plants and seem to play an important role on various metabolic processes, but their role is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to explore the response of plants under external electric fields in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The plants were hydroponically grown for 28 days in a plant factory. Electric currents at 10, 50 and 100 mA were supplied to nutrient solution for 3 weeks. Additionally, some of the plants were cultivated in a Faraday cage to remove the natural electric field. Kale plants exposed to electric fields had higher fresh weight than the control and plants in Faraday cage. Absence of electric field caused a significant decrease in shoot dry weight and root growth. Leaf area also showed a similar response with shoot fresh weight. Supplying weak electric stimulation enhanced nutritional quality including total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. This work provides basic information on the effects of electric fields on plants and is a meaningful attempt for developing a new economical technology to increase crop productivity and quality by applying an electric field. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Research Center Support Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (717001-07-02-HD240).

Keywords: electroculture, electric signal, faraday cage, electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
9660 A Comprehensive Approach in Calculating the Impact of the Ground on Radiated Electromagnetic Fields Due to Lightning

Authors: Lahcene Boukelkoul

Abstract:

The influence of finite ground conductivity is of great importance in calculating the induced voltages from the radiated electromagnetic fields due to lightning. In this paper, we try to give a comprehensive approach to calculate the impact of the ground on the radiated electromagnetic fields to lightning. The vertical component of lightning electric field is calculated with a reasonable approximation assuming a perfectly conducting ground in case the observation point does not exceed a few kilometres from the lightning channel. However, for distant observation points the radiated vertical component of lightning electric field is attenuated due finitely conducting ground. The attenuation is calculated using the expression elaborated for both low and high frequencies. The horizontal component of the electric field, however, is more affected by a finite conductivity of a ground. Besides, the contribution of the horizontal component of the electric field, to induced voltages on an overhead transmission line, is greater than that of the vertical component. Therefore, the calculation of the horizontal electric field is great concern for the simulation of lightning-induced voltages. For field to transmission lines coupling the ground impedance is calculated for early time behaviour and for low frequency range.

Keywords: power engineering, radiated electromagnetic fields, lightning-induced voltages, lightning electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
9659 Impact of Iron Doping on Induction Heating during Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Hua Tan, David Salamon

Abstract:

In this study, γ-Al2O3 powders doped with various amounts of iron were sintered via SPS process. Two heating modes – auto and manual mode were applied to observe the role of electrical induction on heating. Temperature, electric current, and pulse pattern were experimented with grade iron γ-Al2O3 powders. Phase transformation of γ to α -Al2O3 serves as a direct indicator of internal temperature, independently on measured outside temperature. That pulsing in SPS is also able to induce internal heating due to its strong electromagnetic field when dopants are conductive metals (e.g., iron) is proofed during SPS. Density and microstructure were investigated to explain the mechanism of induction heating. In addition, the role of electric pulsing and strong electromagnetic field on internal heating (induction heating) were compared and discussed. Internal heating by iron doping within electrically nonconductive samples is able to decrease sintering temperature and save energy, furthermore it is one explanation for unique features of this material fabrication technology.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, induction heating, alumina, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
9658 Potential Distribution and Electric Field Analysis around a Polluted Outdoor Polymeric Insulator with Broken Sheds

Authors: Adel Kara, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Hocine Terrab

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of electric field distribution along of 72 kV polymeric outdoor insulators with broken sheds. Different cases of damaged insulators are modeled and both of clean and polluted cases. By 3D finite element analysis using the software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. The obtained results of potential and the electrical field distribution around insulators by 3D simulation proved that finite element computations is useful tool for studying insulation electrical field distribution.

Keywords: electric field distributions, insulator, broken sheds, potential distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
9657 One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Nonlinear Instability Behavior of an Electrified Viscoelastic Liquid Jet

Authors: Fang Li, Xie-Yuan Yin, Xie-Zhen Yin

Abstract:

Instability and breakup of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets are involved in various applications such as inkjet printing, fuel atomization, the pharmaceutical industry, electrospraying, and electrospinning. Studying on the instability of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets is of theoretical and practical significance. We built a one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model to study the nonlinear instability behavior of a perfecting conducting, slightly viscoelastic liquid jet under a radial electric field. The model is solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. It is found that under a radial electric field a viscoelastic liquid jet still evolves into a beads-on-string structure with a thin filament connecting two adjacent droplets as in the absence of an electric field. A radial electric field exhibits limited influence on the decay of the filament thickness in the nonlinear evolution process of a viscoelastic jet, in contrast to its great enhancing effect on the linear instability of the jet. On the other hand, a radial electric field can induce axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. Particularly, the magnitude of the first normal stress difference near the midpoint of the filament can be greatly decreased by a radial electric field. Decreasing the extensional stress by a radial electric field may found applications in spraying, spinning, liquid bridges and others. In addition, the effect of a radial electric field on the formation of satellite droplets is investigated on the parametric plane of the dimensionless wave number and the electrical Bond number. It is found that satellite droplets may be formed for a larger axial wave number at a larger radial electric field. The present study helps us gain insight into the nonlinear instability characteristics of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets.

Keywords: non linear instability, one-dimensional models, radial electric fields, viscoelastic liquid jets

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
9656 A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.

Keywords: econophysics, electric field, financial system, Gauss law, global financial crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
9655 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
9654 Electric Field Analysis of XLPE, Cross-Linked Polyethylene Covered Aerial Line and Insulator Lashing

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Dai-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

Both sparse lashing and dense lashing are applied to secure overhead XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) covered power lines on ceramic insulators or HDPE polymer insulators. The distribution of electric field in and among the lashing wires, the XLPE power lines and insulators in normal clean condition and when conducting materials such as salt, metal particles, dust, smoke or acidic smog are present is studied in this paper. The ANSYS Maxwell commercial software is used in this study for electric field analysis. Although the simulation analysis is performed assuming ideal conditions due to the constraints of the simulation software, the result may not be the same as in real situation but still be of sufficient practical values.

Keywords: electric field intensity, insulator, XLPE covered aerial line, empty

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
9653 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
9652 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Electric Field in a Natural Rubber Glove during Microwave Heating

Authors: U. Narumitbowonkul, P. Keangin, P. Rattanadecho

Abstract:

Both numerical and experimental investigation of the temperature distribution and electric field in a natural rubber glove (NRG) during microwave heating are studied. A three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The influences of position, heating time and rotation angle of NRG on temperature distribution and electric field are presented in details. The coupled equations of electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer are solved using the finite element method (FEM). The numerical model is validated with an experimental study at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The results show that the numerical results closely match the experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that the temperature distribution and electric field increases with increasing heating time. The hot spot zone appears in NRG at the tip of middle finger while the maximum temperature occurs in case of rotation angle of NRG = 60 degree. This investigation provides the essential aspects for a fundamental understanding of heat transport of NRG using microwave energy in industry.

Keywords: electric field, finite element method, microwave energy, natural rubber glove

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
9651 Deformation of Particle-Laden Droplet in Viscous Liquid under DC Electric Fields

Authors: Khobaib Khobaib, Alexander Mikkelsen, Zbigniew Rozynek

Abstract:

Electric fields have proven useful for inducing droplet deformation and to structure particles adsorbed at droplet interfaces. In this experimental research, direct current electric fields were applied to deform particle-covered droplets made out of silicone oil and immersed in castor oil. The viscosity of the drop and surrounding fluid were changed by external heating. We designed an experimental system in such a way that electric field-induced electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows were asymmetric and only present on one side of the drop, i.e., the droplet adjoined a washer and adhered to one of the electrodes constituting the sample cell. The study investigated the influence of viscosity on the steady-state deformation magnitude of particle-laden droplets, droplet compression, and relaxation, as well as particle arrangements at drop interfaces. Initially, before the application of an electric field, we changed the viscosity of the fluids by heating the sample cell at different temperatures. The viscosity of the fluids was varied by changing the temperature of the fluids from 25 to 50°C. Under the application of a uniform electric field of strength 290 Vmm⁻¹, electric stress was induced at the drop interface, yielding drop deformation. In our study, we found that by lowering the fluid viscosity, the velocity of the EHD flows was increased, which also increases the deformation of the drop.

Keywords: drop deformation and relaxation, electric field, electrohydrodynamic flow, particle assembly, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
9650 Numerical Analysis of 3D Electromagnetic Fields in Annular Induction Plasma

Authors: Abderazak Guettaf

Abstract:

The mathematical models of the physical phenomena interacting in inductive plasma were described by the physics equations of the continuous mediums. A 3D model based on magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation is used. The finished volume method is applied to electromagnetic equation, to obtain the field distribution inside the plasma. The numerical results of the method developed on a basic model designed starting from a real three-dimensional model were exposed. From the mathematical model 3D spreading assumptions and boundary conditions, we evaluated the electric field in the load and we have developed a numerical code made under the MATLAB environment, all verifying the effectiveness and validity of this code.

Keywords: electric field, 3D magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation, finished volumes, annular plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
9649 Levels of Students’ Understandings of Electric Field Due to a Continuous Charged Distribution: A Case Study of a Uniformly Charged Insulating Rod

Authors: Thanida Sujarittham, Narumon Emarat, Jintawat Tanamatayarat, Kwan Arayathanitkul, Suchai Nopparatjamjomras

Abstract:

Electric field is an important fundamental concept in electrostatics. In high-school, generally Thai students have already learned about definition of electric field, electric field due to a point charge, and superposition of electric fields due to multiple-point charges. Those are the prerequisite basic knowledge students holding before entrancing universities. In the first-year university level, students will be quickly revised those basic knowledge and will be then introduced to a more complicated topic—electric field due to continuous charged distributions. We initially found that our freshman students, who were from the Faculty of Science and enrolled in the introductory physic course (SCPY 158), often seriously struggled with the basic physics concepts—superposition of electric fields and inverse square law and mathematics being relevant to this topic. These also then resulted on students’ understanding of advanced topics within the course such as Gauss's law, electric potential difference, and capacitance. Therefore, it is very important to determine students' understanding of electric field due to continuous charged distributions. The open-ended question about sketching net electric field vectors from a uniformly charged insulating rod was administered to 260 freshman science students as pre- and post-tests. All of their responses were analyzed and classified into five levels of understandings. To get deep understanding of each level, 30 students were interviewed toward their individual responses. The pre-test result found was that about 90% of students had incorrect understanding. Even after completing the lectures, there were only 26.5% of them could provide correct responses. Up to 50% had confusions and irrelevant ideas. The result implies that teaching methods in Thai high schools may be problematic. In addition for our benefit, these students’ alternative conceptions identified could be used as a guideline for developing the instructional method currently used in the course especially for teaching electrostatics.

Keywords: alternative conceptions, electric field of continuous charged distributions, inverse square law, levels of student understandings, superposition principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
9648 Rising of Single and Double Bubbles during Boiling and Effect of Electric Field in This Process

Authors: Masoud Gholam Ale Mohammad, Mojtaba Hafezi Birgani

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes in the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single and double bubbles, electric field, boiling, rising

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
9647 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics

Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, R. Valdmanis, A. Kolmickovs

Abstract:

Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3 % and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10 % increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10 %

Keywords: biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
9646 The Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance in Rectangular Quantum Wires with Infinitely High Potential under the Influence of a Laser Radiation

Authors: Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The Hall Coefficient (HC) and the Magnetoresistance (MR) have been studied in two-dimensional systems. The HC and the MR in Rectangular Quantum Wire (RQW) subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field in the presence of a Strong Electromagnetic Wave (EMW) characterized by electric field are studied in this work. Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with optical phonons, we obtain the analytic expressions for the HC and the MR with a dependence on magnetic field, EMW frequency, temperatures of systems and the length characteristic parameters of RQW. These expressions are different from those obtained for bulk semiconductors and cylindrical quantum wires. The analytical results are applied to GaAs/GaAs/Al. For this material, MR depends on the ratio of the EMW frequency to the cyclotron frequency. Indeed, MR reaches a minimum at the ratio 5/4, and when this ratio increases, it tends towards a saturation value. The HC can take negative or positive values. Each curve has one maximum and one minimum. When magnetic field increases, the HC is negative, achieves a minimum value and then increases suddenly to a maximum with a positive value. This phenomenon differs from the one observed in cylindrical quantum wire, which does not have maximum and minimum values.

Keywords: hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
9645 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: carbon nano structures, magnetic field, raman spectroscopy, spectro-microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 198