Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Y. T. Kuan

31 Integration and Translation: The Comparison of Religious Rituals of Caodaism in Vietnam and Yi-Kuan-Tao

Authors: Lim Pey Huan


In the second half of the 19th century, Vietnam has long been influenced by Han culture, so there are many similarities in religion and folk beliefs. Even after the acceptance process of the Catholic Church introduced from Europe is quite similar. Therefore, in the spiritual life of Vietnamese civil society, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, and folk beliefs can be said to be the main trend, but in the twentieth century, two indigenous new religions were born: Caodai and He Hao Jiao, both of which are produced and developed in the south, each of which has millions of believers and become important Vietnamese religions. Their political participation has a major impact on the development of the Republic of Vietnam, and their fate is also in the north and south. Significant changes have taken place after reunification. Caodai was later approved by the colonial authorities and became the third largest religion in Vietnam. The teachings of Caodai teach the ideas of the major religions of the world. The classics used in the teachings also contain important theories of various religions, with particular emphasis on the comprehensiveness of the three sects of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The obvious manifestation lies in the interpretation of the important proposition of 'opening the three religions and returning to the five branches.' The full name of Caodaism is 'Da Dao San Qi Pu Du Gao Tai Jiao'. This name coincides with the 'Longhua Club' and the 'San Qi Mo Jie' idea and the consistent central idea. The emerging road of Caodai advocates to lead the sentient beings back to their original missions; the sentient beings will be centered on people, and the nature of the talks is nothing more than the original mission and standard. There are many opinions about the introduction of Caodaism into southern Vietnam. Caodai believers believe that Caodaism is an emerging new religion in Vietnam. If we further explore the teachings and religious rituals of Caodai, it is not difficult to find that many Chinese sects have been introduced to Vietnam. Some of the colors can be discussed from the spread and influence of Congenital Road in Vietnam. This article will present the author's analysis of the actual process of tutoring in Vietnam's Caodai, and then compare it with the consistent religious experience, trying to explore the Yi-Kuan-Tao and consistent Yi-Kuan-Tao rituals, religious organization, religious teachings, religious life care, and Funeral rituals and other comparative studies.

Keywords: Vietnam, Caodaism, Yi-Kuan-Tao, religious rituals

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30 The Impact of Psychiatric Symptoms on Return to Work after Occupational Injury

Authors: Kuan-Han Lin, Kuan-Yin Lin, Ka-Chun Siu


The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptom or depressive symptoms on return to work (RTW) after occupational injury. The original articles of clinical trials and observational studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO between January 1980 and November 2016 were retrieved. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified by the search criteria for full-text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to use either intervention or observational study design to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and RTW. A modified checklist designed by Downs & Black and Crombie was used to assess the methodological quality of included study. A total of 58 articles were identified from the electronic databases after duplicate removed. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were critically reviewed. The rates of RTW in the included studies were reported to be 6% to 63.6% among workers after occupational injuries. This review found that post-traumatic stress symptom and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with RTW. Although the impact of psychiatric symptoms on RTW after occupational injury remains poorly understood, this review brought up the important information that injured workers with psychiatric symptoms had poor RTW outcome. Future work should address the effective management of psychiatric factors affecting RTW among workers.

Keywords: depressive symptom, occupational injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, return to work

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29 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin


This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining, transformation matrix, rotation angles

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28 A New Mathematical Model of Human Olfaction

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


It is known that in humans, the adaptation to a given odor occurs within a quite short span of time (typically one minute) after the odor is presented to the brain. Different models of human olfaction have been developed by scientists but none of these models consider the diffusion phenomenon in olfaction. A novel microscopic model of the human olfaction is presented in this paper. We develop this model by incorporating the transient diffusivity. In fact, the mathematical model is written based on diffusion of the odorant within the mucus layer. By the use of the model developed in this paper, it becomes possible to provide quantification of the objective strength of odor.

Keywords: diffusion, microscopic model, mucus layer, olfaction

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27 Research on Comfort Degree Design and Practical Design of Wearing Type Headphones

Authors: Kuan-Wu Lin, Tsu-Wu Hu


In recent years, product design has already begun to comfort and humanize, and for different user needs to design products, In particular, closer relationship with the people of the products, Such as headphones and other consumer electronics products. In this study, will for general comfort design principles and field survey results through the use of a headset, including adolescents, young and middle-aged groups such as three users, Further identify the general design principles belong to the headset comfortable design. The study results will include the significance of headphones design and differences between product design principles, Provide the basis for future product design.

Keywords: wearing type headphones , comfort degree design, general design principles, product design

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26 Somatosensory Detection Wristbands Applied Research of Baby

Authors: Chang Ting, Wu Chun Kuan


Wireless sensing technology is increasingly developed, in order to avoid caregiver neglect children in poor physiological condition, so there are more and more products into the wireless sensor-related technologies, in order to reduce the risk of infants. In view of this, the study will focus on Somatosensory detection wristbands Applied Research of Baby, and to explore through observation and literature, to find design criteria which conform baby products, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of existing products. This study will focus on 0-2 years of infant research and product design, to provide 2-3 new design concepts and products to identify weaknesses through the use of the actual product, further provide future baby wristbands design reference.

Keywords: infants, observation, design criteria, wireless sensing

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25 A Study of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation Systems Arising in Differential Game Models of Changing Society

Authors: Weihua Ruan, Kuan-Chou Chen


This paper is concerned with a system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations coupled with an autonomous dynamical system. The mathematical system arises in the differential game formulation of political economy models as an infinite-horizon continuous-time differential game with discounted instantaneous payoff rates and continuously and discretely varying state variables. The existence of a weak solution of the PDE system is proven and a computational scheme of approximate solution is developed for a class of such systems. A model of democratization is mathematically analyzed as an illustration of application.

Keywords: Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, infinite-horizon differential games, continuous and discrete state variables, political-economy models

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24 Modification of Fick’s First Law by Introducing the Time Delay

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


Fick's first law relates the diffusive flux to the concentration field, by postulating that the flux goes from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, with a magnitude that is proportional to the concentration gradient (spatial derivative). It is clear that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous and should be some time delay in this propagation. But Fick’s first law doesn’t consider this delay which results in some errors especially when there is a considerable time delay in the process. In this paper, we introduce a time delay to Fick’s first law. By this modification, we consider that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous. In order to verify this claim an application sample in fluid diffusion is discussed and the results of modified Fick’s first law, Fick’s first law and the experimental results are compared. The results of this comparison stand for the accuracy of the modified model. The modified model can be used in any application where the time delay has considerable value and neglecting its effect reflects in undesirable results.

Keywords: Fick's first law, flux, diffusion, time delay, modified Fick’s first law

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23 Developing a Systems Dynamics Model for Security Management

Authors: Kuan-Chou Chen


This paper will demonstrate a simulation model of an information security system by using the systems dynamic approach. The relationships in the system model are designed to be simple and functional and do not necessarily represent any particular information security environments. The purpose of the paper aims to develop a generic system dynamic information security system model with implications on information security research. The interrelated and interdependent relationships of five primary sectors in the system dynamic model will be presented in this paper. The integrated information security systems model will include (1) information security characteristics, (2) users, (3) technology, (4) business functions, and (5) policy and management. Environments, attacks, government and social culture will be defined as the external sector. The interactions within each of these sectors will be depicted by system loop map as well. The proposed system dynamic model will not only provide a conceptual framework for information security analysts and designers but also allow information security managers to remove the incongruity between the management of risk incidents and the management of knowledge and further support information security managers and decision makers the foundation for managerial actions and policy decisions.

Keywords: system thinking, information security systems, security management, simulation

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22 The Non-Linear Analysis of Brain Response to Visual Stimuli

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


Brain activity can be measured by acquiring and analyzing EEG signals from an individual. In fact, the human brain response to external and internal stimuli is mapped in his EEG signals. During years some methods such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, etc. have been used to analyze the EEG signals in order to find the effect of stimuli, especially external stimuli. But each of these methods has some weak points in analysis of EEG signals. For instance, Fourier transform and wavelet transform methods are linear signal analysis methods which are not good to be used for analysis of EEG signals as nonlinear signals. In this research we analyze the brain response to visual stimuli by extracting information in the form of various measures from EEG signals using a software developed by our research group. The used measures are Jeffrey’s measure, Fractal dimension and Hurst exponent. The results of these analyses are useful not only for fundamental understanding of brain response to visual stimuli but provide us with very good recommendations for clinical purposes.

Keywords: visual stimuli, brain response, EEG signal, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

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21 The Analysis of Brain Response to Auditory Stimuli through EEG Signals’ Non-Linear Analysis

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


Brain activity can be measured by acquiring and analyzing EEG signals from an individual. In fact, the human brain response to external and internal stimuli is mapped in his EEG signals. During years some methods such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, etc. have been used to analyze the EEG signals in order to find the effect of stimuli, especially external stimuli. But each of these methods has some weak points in analysis of EEG signals. For instance, Fourier transform and wavelet transform methods are linear signal analysis methods which are not good to be used for analysis of EEG signals as nonlinear signals. In this research we analyze the brain response to auditory stimuli by extracting information in the form of various measures from EEG signals using a software developed by our research group. The used measures are Jeffrey’s measure, Fractal dimension and Hurst exponent. The results of these analyses are useful not only for fundamental understanding of brain response to auditory stimuli but provide us with very good recommendations for clinical purposes.

Keywords: auditory stimuli, brain response, EEG signal, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

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20 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang


This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR

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19 First 1000 Days: Mothers’ Understanding of an Attachment Bond and the Role That It Plays in Early Childhood

Authors: Athena Pedro, Carushca de Beer, Erin Cupido, Tarryn Johnson, Tawana Keneilwe, Crystal Stoffels, Carinne Annfred Lorraine Petersen, Kuan Michael Truskey


The early experiences of children during their first 1000 days of life are the main determining factor of their development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore mothers' understanding of an attachment bond and the role that it plays in early childhood. A qualitative exploratory research design guided this study. Ethics approval was granted by appropriate ethics committees. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews with 15 participants within the Cape Town area, South Africa. Participants completed informed consents and were informed of confidentiality, anonymity, their rights, and voluntary participation. Thematically analysed data revealed that many participants were unaware of the term ‘the first 1000 days of a child’s life’; however, they were aware of the methods to be used for forming an attachment bond with their children. There is a need for more awareness on the subject matter within South Africa.

Keywords: awareness, children, first 1000 days, milestones, South Africa, understanding

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18 Spectral Response Measurements and Materials Analysis of Ageing Solar Photovoltaic Modules

Authors: Fang-Yi Su, Zhen-Xiong Chen, Chi-Rung Li, Yung-Kuan Tseng


The design and reliability of solar photovoltaic modules are essential for the development of solar energy, and people are still trying to further extend the life of PV modules to increase their efficiency to this day. Spectrum response measurement is one of the testing methods that is often used in the calibration and improvement of PV modules, as the different wavelengths of the spectral response can reflect the characteristics of the solar cell layers. In this study, this technology along with material analysis methods was used to gain a more comprehensive insight into the failure mode of PV modules. Spectrum response measurement and material analysis methods such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry were used to analyse non-packaged and packaged monocrystalline silicon solar cells before and after the accelerated ageing test. The results were first compared to each other before investigating the properties and material structure of solar cells under different conditions before and after degradation. The study provided a more in depth understanding of the ageing degradation mechanism of solar cells, the different spectral response results due to variations in degradation material, and their corresponding performance.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic module, degradation, failure mode analysis, solar cell, spectrum response measurement

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17 The Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of DC-Electrodeposited Ni-Mn Alloy Coating with Low Internal Stress

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kuan-Hui Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu


The nickel-manganese (Ni-Mn) alloy coating prepared from DC electrodeposition process in sulphamate bath was studied. The effects of process parameters, such as current density and electrolyte composition, on the cathodic current efficiency, microstructure, internal stress and mechanical properties were investigated. Because of its crucial effect on the application to the electroforming of microelectronic components, the development of low internal stress coating with high leveling power was emphasized. It was found that both the coating’s manganese content and the cathodic current efficiency increased with the raise in current density. In addition, the internal stress of the deposited coating showed compressive nature at low current densities while changed to tensile one at higher current densities. Moreover, the metallographic observation, X-ray diffraction measurement, transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, and polarization curve measurement were conducted. It was found that the Ni-Mn coating consisted of nano-sized columnar grains and the maximum hardness of the coating was associated with (111) preferred orientation in the microstructure. The grain size was refined along with the increase in the manganese content of the coating, which accordingly, raised its hardness and mechanical tensile strength. In summary, the Ni-Mn coating prepared at lower current density of 1-2 A/dm2 had low internal stress, high leveling power, and better corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Ni-Mn coating, DC plating, internal stress, leveling power

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16 Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties Of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF

Authors: Hisashi Imai, Kuan-Yu Chen, Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Hung-Yin Tsai, Junko Umeda


Microstructural and electrical properties of copper-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at 1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at 1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable increment of the electrical conductivity.

Keywords: powder metallurgy Cu-Cr alloy powder, vapor-grown carbon fiber, electrical conductivity

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15 Regular or Irregular: An Investigation of Medicine Consumption Pattern with Poisson Mixture Model

Authors: Lichung Jen, Yi Chun Liu, Kuan-Wei Lee


Fruitful data has been accumulated in database nowadays and is commonly used as support for decision-making. In the healthcare industry, hospital, for instance, ordering pharmacy inventory is one of the key decision. With large drug inventory, the current cost increases and its expiration dates might lead to future issue, such as drug disposal and recycle. In contrast, underestimating demand of the pharmacy inventory, particularly standing drugs, affects the medical treatment and possibly hospital reputation. Prescription behaviour of hospital physicians is one of the critical factor influencing this decision, particularly irregular prescription behaviour. If a drug’s usage amount in the month is irregular and less than the regular usage, it may cause the trend of subsequent stockpiling. On the contrary, if a drug has been prescribed often than expected, it may result in insufficient inventory. We proposed a hierarchical Bayesian mixture model with two components to identify physicians’ regular/irregular prescription patterns with probabilities. Heterogeneity of hospital is considered in our proposed hierarchical Bayes model. The result suggested that modeling the prescription patterns of physician is beneficial for estimating the order quantity of medication and pharmacy inventory management of the hospital. Managerial implication and future research are discussed.

Keywords: hierarchical Bayesian model, poission mixture model, medicines prescription behavior, irregular behavior

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14 Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom

Authors: Kuan-Jen Lai, Fang-Yi Lin, Shang-Rong Huang, Yun-Zheng Zeng, Po-Chieh Hsu, Jay Wu


The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mammography, normalized glandular dose, glandularity

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13 Deep Feature Augmentation with Generative Adversarial Networks for Class Imbalance Learning in Medical Images

Authors: Rongbo Shen, Jianhua Yao, Kezhou Yan, Kuan Tian, Cheng Jiang, Ke Zhou


This study proposes a generative adversarial networks (GAN) framework to perform synthetic sampling in feature space, i.e., feature augmentation, to address the class imbalance problem in medical image analysis. A feature extraction network is first trained to convert images into feature space. Then the GAN framework incorporates adversarial learning to train a feature generator for the minority class through playing a minimax game with a discriminator. The feature generator then generates features for minority class from arbitrary latent distributions to balance the data between the majority class and the minority class. Additionally, a data cleaning technique, i.e., Tomek link, is employed to clean up undesirable conflicting features introduced from the feature augmentation and thus establish well-defined class clusters for the training. The experiment section evaluates the proposed method on two medical image analysis tasks, i.e., mass classification on mammogram and cancer metastasis classification on histopathological images. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method obtains superior or comparable performance over the state-of-the-art counterparts. Compared to all counterparts, our proposed method improves more than 1.5 percentage of accuracy.

Keywords: class imbalance, synthetic sampling, feature augmentation, generative adversarial networks, data cleaning

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12 Test-Retest Agreement, Random Measurement Error and Practice Effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs for Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Kuan-Wei Chen, Chien-Wei Chen, Tai-Ling Chang, Nan-Cheng Chen, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Gong-Hong Lin


Background and Purposes: Deficits in sustained attention are common in patients with schizophrenia. Such impairment can limit patients to effectively execute daily activities and affect the efficacy of rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest agreement, random measurement error, and practice effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP) (a commonly used sustained attention test) in patients with schizophrenia. The results can provide empirical evidence for clinicians and researchers to apply a sustained attention test with sound psychometric properties in schizophrenia patients. Methods: We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia to be assessed twice with 1 week interval using CPT-IP. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to examine the test-retest agreement. The percentage of minimal detectable change (MDC%) was used to examine the random measurement error. Moreover, the standardized response mean (SRM) was used to examine the practice effect. Results: A total of 56 patients participated in this study. Our results showed that the ICC was 0.82, MDC% was 47.4%, and SRMs were 0.36 for the CPT-IP. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CPT-IP has acceptable test-retests agreement, substantial random measurement error, and small practice effect in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, to avoid overestimating patients’ changes in sustained attention, we suggest that clinicians interpret the change scores of CPT-IP conservatively in their routine repeated assessments.

Keywords: schizophrenia, sustained attention, CPT-IP, reliability

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11 An Assessment of the Anthropometric Characteristics of Malaysian Cricket Batsmen

Authors: Muhammad Zia ul Haq, Ong Kuan Boon, Jeffrey Low Fook Lee, Bendri Bin Dasril, Amna Iqbal, Muhammad Saleem


This study is bond of two purpose, first is to establish the anthropometric profile of Malaysian cricket batsmen and second, to find the variances among the anthropometric characteristics of ten under-16 years, eight under-19 years and eight senior teams batsmen. The anthropometric variables were measured as 8 skinfolds, 12 circumferences, 06 lengths and 05 breadths, stature, sitting height, arm span, body mass, hand grip strength and leg strength. The batsmen of under-19 and under-16 found similar in skinfolds, sum of skinfolds, circumferences and breadth measurements but significantly lesser than the senior team batsmen. Senior and Under-19 batsmen were almost found similar in segmental lengths, heights and arm span but significantly higher than the under-16 batsmen. Breadth measurements the under-19 found higher than the senior and u-16 batsmen. The hand grips strength of the senior batsmen significantly high than the uder-19 and under-16 players and both groups were similar and no significant difference were found in leg strength of all three groups batsmen. Leg strength were found significant correlation with wrist, hip, thigh, and calf girth and handgrip strength. The hand grip strength were found correlated with all variables except biceps, mid-thigh skinfold, segmental length, humerus breadth. It is concluded from the present study that the girth segments and hand grip strength are the predictors of good performance in cricket batting.

Keywords: cricket batting, batsmen, anthropometry, body segments, hand grip strength

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10 Social Construction of Sustainability and Quality of Life Indicators for Urban Passenger Transportation

Authors: Tzay-An Shiau, Kuan-Lin Ho


This study developed sustainability and quality of life indicators for urban passenger transportation by using Social Construction of Technology (SCOT). The initial indicators were proposed by referring to literatures and were summarized by using impact-based framework. Subsequently, the stakeholders were defined according to their interest, power and then classified into scientific, operational, policy making, policy monitoring and nonprofessional frames. The scientific frame consisted of nine scholars in transportation field. Ten representatives from Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation (TRTC), Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) and bus operators were grouped into the operational frame. The policy making frame comprised of ten representatives from Department of Transportation, Taipei City Government (DOT, TCG), Department of Railways and Highways, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (DORH, MOTC), Directorate General of Highways, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (DGOH, MOTC) and Institute of Transportation, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (IOT, MOTC). The policy monitoring frame consisted of 15 representatives from Taipei City Councilor, legislator and reporter. The nonprofessional frame comprised of 72 Taipei citizens. The stakeholders were asked to evaluate the relative importance of indicators using Delphi survey method. Social construction of 14 transport sustainability indicators and 12 transport quality of life indicators were obtained.

Keywords: sustainability, quality of life, Social Construction of Technology (SCOT), stakeholder

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9 Application of Ultrasonic Assisted Machining Technique for Glass-Ceramic Milling

Authors: S. Y. Lin, C. H. Kuan, C. H. She, W. T. Wang


In this study, ultrasonic assisted machining (UAM) technique is applied in side-surface milling experiment for glass-ceramic workpiece material. The tungsten carbide cutting-tool with diamond coating is used in conjunction with two kinds of cooling/lubrication mediums such as water-soluble (WS) cutting fluid and minimum quantity lubricant (MQL). Full factorial process parameter combinations on the milling experiments are planned to investigate the effect of process parameters on cutting performance. From the experimental results, it tries to search for the better process parameter combination which the edge-indentation and the surface roughness are acceptable. In the machining experiments, ultrasonic oscillator was used to excite a cutting-tool along the radial direction producing a very small amplitude of vibration frequency of 20KHz to assist the machining process. After processing, toolmaker microscope was used to detect the side-surface morphology, edge-indentation and cutting tool wear under different combination of cutting parameters, and analysis and discussion were also conducted for experimental results. The results show that the main leading parameters to edge-indentation of glass ceramic are cutting depth and feed rate. In order to reduce edge-indentation, it needs to use lower cutting depth and feed rate. Water-soluble cutting fluid provides a better cooling effect in the primary cutting area; it may effectively reduce the edge-indentation and improve the surface morphology of the glass ceramic. The use of ultrasonic assisted technique can effectively enhance the surface finish cleanness and reduce cutting tool wear and edge-indentation.

Keywords: glass-ceramic, ultrasonic assisted machining, cutting performance, edge-indentation

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8 System Analysis of Quality Assurance in Online Education

Authors: Keh-Wen Carin Chuang, Kuan-Chou Chen


Our society is in a constant state of change. Technology advancements continue to affect our daily lives. How we work, communicate and entertain ourselves has changed dramatically in the past decades. As our society learns to accept and adapt to the many different technological advances that seem to inundate every part of our lives, the education institutions must migrate from traditional methods of instruction to online education in order to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by these technology advancements. There are many benefits that can be gained for university and society from offering online programs by utilizing advanced technologies. But the programs must not be implemented carelessly. The key to providing a quality online program is the issue of perceived quality, which takes into account the viewpoint of all stakeholders involved. To truly ensure the institutional quality, however, a systemic view of all factors contributing to the quality must be analyzed and linked to one another — allowing education administrators to understand how each factor contributes to the perceived quality of online education. The perceived quality of an online program will be positively reinforced only through an organizational-wide effort that focuses on managed administration, augmenting online program branding, skilled faculty, supportive alumni, student satisfaction, and effective delivery systems — each of which is vital to a quality online program. This study focuses on the concept of quality assurance in the start-up, implementation, and sustainability of online education. A case of online MBA program will be analyzed to explore the quality assurance. The difficulties in promoting online education quality is the fact that universities are complex networks of disciplinary, social, economic, and political fiefdoms, both internal and external factors to the institutions. As such, the system analysis, a systems-thinking approach, on the issue of perceived quality is ideal to investigate the factors and how each factor contributes to the perceived quality in the online education domain.

Keywords: systems thinking, quality assurance, online education, MBA program

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7 Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Y. P. Wang, J. K. Chen, C. H. Lee, G. H. Huang, M. C. Wang, S. W. Chen, Y. T. Kuan, H. C. Lin, C. Y. Huang, W. H. Liang, W. C. Lin, H. C. Yu


The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.

Keywords: hi-tech industries, seismic protection, automated stocker system, viscous fluid damper

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6 The Anti-Bladder Cancer Effects Exerted by Hyaluronan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Heteronemin Isolated from Hippospongia Sp.

Authors: Kuan Yin Hsiao, Shyh Ming Kuo, Yi Jhen Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Chuen-Fu Lin, Wei-qing Yang, Han Hsiang Huang


Anti-tumor effects of natural products, like compounds from marine sponges and soft corals, have been investigated for decades. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules, such as Hyaluronan (HA), Chitosan (CHI) and gelatin have been widely studied. Encapsulation of anti-cancer therapies by the biopolymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery system is potentially capable of improving the therapeutic effects and attenuating their toxicity. In the current study, the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. with or without HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation were assessed and evaluated in vitro. Results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of heteronemin toward T24 human bladder cancer cell viability is approximately 0.18 µg/mL. Both plain and HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability (P<0.001) while HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin showed weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 fibroblasts compared with plain heteronemin at the identical concentrations. HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects against migration of T24 human bladder cancer cell than those exerted by plain heteronemin at the same concentrations (P<0.001). The flow cytometric results showed that 0.2 µg/mL HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin induced higher early apoptosis rate than that induced by plain heteronemin at the same concentration. These results show that HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation is able to elevate anti-migratory and apoptosis-inducing effects exerted by heteronemin against bladder cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anti-bladder cancer effects of the compound with or without HA/CHI nanoparticle encapsulation will be further investigated and examined using murine tumor models. The data obtained from this study will extensively evaluate of the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin as well as HA/CHI-encapsulated heteronemin and pave a way to develop potential bladder cancer treatment.

Keywords: heteronemin, nanoparticles, hyaluronan, chitosan, bladder cancer

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5 The Co-Existence of Multidominance and Movement in the Syntax of Chinese Bi-Comparatives

Authors: Yaqing Hu


This paper puts forward a syntactic analysis involving multidominance and rightward movement in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali gao (John is taller than Mary).' It is argued here that the predicate of comparison is a shared constituent in two small clauses, namely one for the target and one for the standard; and then it moves rightward to form a degree phrase with the comparative morpheme. This proposal comes from four aspects. First, the example above can also be expressed in this way, 'A: Yuehan he Mali, shui gao? (John and Mary, who is taller?) B: Yuehan gao./Yuehan geng gao. (John is taller).' This shows that the gradable adjective is predicated of the target. In addition, according to a constraint on Chinese bi-comparatives, namely the target and the standard must be arguments of the predicate simultaneously, it is not unreasonable to assume that the gradable adjective may also be predicated of the standard. Second, subcomparatives are totally disallowed in Chinese, as in '*zhe-zhang zhuozi bi zhe-zhang yizi kuan chang. (This table is longer than this chair is wide.)' In order to save it from ungrammaticality, the target and the standard should be compared along the same dimension denoted by the gradable adjective. It may follow that in Chinese comparatives, having equal roles in the same eventuality, the target and the standard bear the same thematic relationship with the predicate of comparison. Third, verb-copy can appear in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan qi ma bi Mali qi ma qi de kuai. (John rides horses faster than Mary does.)' The predicate qi seems to form a small clause with both the target and the standard. This might be supporting evidence that both the target and the standard share the predicate of comparison. Fourth, Chinese comparatives do have comparative morphemes, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali geng gao. (John is taller than Mary)', which is semantically equivalent to the first example above. Thus, it follows that one feature of Chinese comparative morphemes is that they can remain overt or covert in the syntax, which will not affect semantics. This further shows that comparative morphemes in bi-comparatives may not be able to saturate the degree argument denoted by the predicate of comparison due to its optionality in the structure. These four aspects present a challenge to the Direct Analysis used in Chinese comparatives since this approach would presume that the target and the standard somehow show independency with the predicate in the syntax. Meanwhile, this study also rejects the previous analysis of multidomiance in bi-comparatives in which the degree phrase comprised of the comparative morpheme and the gradable adjective may be shared by the standard when the comparative morpheme is covert. This syntactic analysis proposed in this study will therefore offer a different perspective of how to treat degree phrase in Chinese comparatives and may offer evidence to argue whether there is degree phrase movement in bi-comparatives as in its English counterparts.

Keywords: Chinese comparatives, degree phrase, movement, multidominance, syntactic analysis

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4 The Impact of the Variation of Sky View Factor on Landscape Degree of Enclosure of Urban Blue and Green Belt

Authors: Yi-Chun Huang, Kuan-Yun Chen, Chuang-Hung Lin


Urban Green Belt and Blue is a part of the city landscape, it is an important constituent element of the urban environment and appearance. The Hsinchu East Gate Moat is situated in the center of the city, which not only has a wealth of historical and cultural resources, but also combines the Green Belt and the Blue Belt qualities at the same time. The Moat runs more than a thousand meters through the vital Green Belt and the Blue Belt in downtown, and each section is presented in different qualities of moat from south to north. The water area and the green belt of surroundings are presented linear and banded spread. The water body and the rich diverse river banks form an urban green belt of rich layers. The watercourse with green belt design lets users have connections with blue belts in different ways; therefore, the integration of Hsinchu East Gate and moat have become one of the unique urban landscapes in Taiwan. The study is based on the fact-finding case of Hsinchu East Gate Moat where situated in northern Taiwan, to research the impact between the SVF variation of the city and spatial sequence of Urban Green Belt and Blue landscape and visual analysis by constituent cross-section, and then comparing the influence of different leaf area index – the variable ecological factors to the degree of enclosure. We proceed to survey the landscape design of open space, to measure existing structural features of the plant canopy which contain the height of plants and branches, the crown diameter, breast-height diameter through access to diagram of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and on-the-spot actual measurement. The north and south districts of blue green belt areas are divided 20 meters into a unit from East Gate Roundabout as the epicenter, and to set up a survey points to measure the SVF above the survey points; then we proceed to quantitative analysis from the data to calculate open landscape degree of enclosure. The results can be reference for the composition of future river landscape and the practical operation for dynamic space planning of blue and green belt landscape.

Keywords: sky view factor, degree of enclosure, spatial sequence, leaf area indices

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3 Characterization of a Lipolytic Enzyme of Pseudomonas nitroreducens Isolated from Mealworm's Gut

Authors: Jung-En Kuan, Whei-Fen Wu


In this study, a symbiotic bacteria from yellow mealworm's (Tenebrio molitor) mid-gut was isolated with characteristics of growth on minimal-tributyrin medium. After a PCR-amplification of its 16s rDNA, the resultant nucleotide sequences were then analyzed by schemes of the phylogeny trees. Accordingly, it was designated as Pseudomonas nitroreducens D-01. Next, by searching the lipolytic enzymes in its protein data bank, one of those potential lipolytic α/β hydrolases was identified, again using PCR-amplification and nucleotide-sequencing methods. To construct an expression of this lipolytic gene in plasmids, the target-gene primers were then designed, carrying the C-terminal his-tag sequences. Using the vector pET21a, a recombinant lipolytic hydrolase D gene with his-tag nucleotides was successfully cloned into it, of which the lipolytic D gene is under a control of the T7 promoter. After transformation of the resultant plasmids into Eescherichia coli BL21 (DE3), an IPTG inducer was used for the induction of the recombinant proteins. The protein products were then purified by metal-ion affinity column, and the purified proteins were found capable of forming a clear zone on tributyrin agar plate. Shortly, its enzyme activities were determined by degradation of p-nitrophenyl ester(s), and the substantial yellow end-product, p-nitrophenol, was measured at O.D.405 nm. Specifically, this lipolytic enzyme efficiently targets p-nitrophenyl butyrate. As well, it shows the most reactive activities at 40°C, pH 8 in potassium phosphate buffer. In thermal stability assays, the activities of this enzyme dramatically drop when the temperature is above 50°C. In metal ion assays, MgCl₂ and NH₄Cl induce the enzyme activities while MnSO₄, NiSO₄, CaCl₂, ZnSO₄, CoCl₂, CuSO₄, FeSO₄, and FeCl₃ reduce its activities. Besides, NaCl has no effects on its enzyme activities. Most organic solvents decrease the activities of this enzyme, such as hexane, methanol, ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. However, its enzyme activities increase when DMSO exists. All the surfactants like Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tween 20, and Brij35 decrease its lipolytic activities. Using Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal methods, the function of the enzyme kinetics were determined such as Km = 0.488 (mM), Vmax = 0.0644 (mM/min), and kcat = 3.01x10³ (s⁻¹), as well the total efficiency of kcat/Km is 6.17 x10³ (mM⁻¹/s⁻¹). Afterwards, based on the phylogenetic analyses, this lipolytic protein is classified to type IV lipase by its homologous conserved region in this lipase family.

Keywords: enzyme, esterase, lipotic hydrolase, type IV

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2 Using Business Simulations and Game-Based Learning for Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation Training

Authors: Carin Chuang, Kuan-Chou Chen


An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is an integrated information system that supports the seamless integration of all the business processes of a company. Implementing an ERP system can increase efficiencies and decrease the costs while helping improve productivity. Many organizations including large, medium and small-sized companies have already adopted an ERP system for decades. Although ERP system can bring competitive advantages to organizations, the lack of proper training approach in ERP implementation is still a major concern. Organizations understand the importance of ERP training to adequately prepare managers and users. The low return on investment, however, for the ERP training makes the training difficult for knowledgeable workers to transfer what is learned in training to the jobs at workplace. Inadequate and inefficient ERP training limits the value realization and success of an ERP system. That is the need to call for a profound change and innovation for ERP training in both workplace at industry and the Information Systems (IS) education in academia. The innovated ERP training approach can improve the users’ knowledge in business processes and hands-on skills in mastering ERP system. It also can be instructed as educational material for IS students in universities. The purpose of the study is to examine the use of ERP simulation games via the ERPsim system to train the IS students in learning ERP implementation. The ERPsim is the business simulation game developed by ERPsim Lab at HEC Montréal, and the game is a real-life SAP (Systems Applications and Products) ERP system. The training uses the ERPsim system as the tool for the Internet-based simulation games and is designed as online student competitions during the class. The competitions involve student teams with the facilitation of instructor and put the students’ business skills to the test via intensive simulation games on a real-world SAP ERP system. The teams run the full business cycle of a manufacturing company while interacting with suppliers, vendors, and customers through sending and receiving orders, delivering products and completing the entire cash-to-cash cycle. To learn a range of business skills, student needs to adopt individual business role and make business decisions around the products and business processes. Based on the training experiences learned from rounds of business simulations, the findings show that learners have reduced risk in making mistakes that help learners build self-confidence in problem-solving. In addition, the learners’ reflections from their mistakes can speculate the root causes of the problems and further improve the efficiency of the training. ERP instructors teaching with the innovative approach report significant improvements in student evaluation, learner motivation, attendance, engagement as well as increased learner technology competency. The findings of the study can provide ERP instructors with guidelines to create an effective learning environment and can be transferred to a variety of other educational fields in which trainers are migrating towards a more active learning approach.

Keywords: business simulations, ERP implementation training, ERPsim, game-based learning, instructional strategy, training innovation

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