Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Huan Li

23 APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs

Authors: Zhijie Ma, Qinglin Zhao, Hongning Dai, Huan Zhang


This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11e, throughput guarantee, priority, WLANs

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22 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Investigation in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids

Authors: Lee Derk Huan, Nur Irmawati


This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids. In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling system.

Keywords: numerical investigation, spray cooling, heat transfer, nanofluids

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21 An Efficient Algorithm for Global Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Duc Dong Do, Ngoc Ha Tran, Thanh Hai Dang, Cao Cuong Dang, Xuan Huan Hoang


Global aligning two protein-protein interaction networks is an essentially important task in bioinformatics/computational biology field of study. It is a challenging and widely studied research topic in recent years. Accurately aligned networks allow us to identify functional modules of proteins and/ororthologous proteins from which unknown functions of a protein can be inferred. We here introduce a novel efficient heuristic global network alignment algorithm called FASTAn, including two phases: the first to construct an initial alignment and the second to improve such alignment by exerting a local optimization repeated procedure. The experimental results demonstrated that FASTAn outperformed the state-of-the-art global network alignment algorithm namely SPINAL in terms of both commonly used objective scores and the run-time.

Keywords: FASTAn, Heuristic algorithm, biological network alignment, protein-protein interaction networks

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20 Designing of Household Dishes to Help Food Waste Prevention Strategies

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Shang-Huan Wu


In recent years, environmental awareness has increased, environmental issues caused by meat-eating have been extended to promote reducing food surplus and waste advocates. We lose more than 3 million tons of food on average on a daily basis. Private households represent the largest food-waste faction. The main purpose of this study is to design and develop household dishes by using edible food surplus. The questionnaires were conducted to find the majority of food surplus from households, including carrot peel, pumpkin, fish skin, and soy dregs—this study designed and developed the household dishes by using the leftovers. We briefly discuss the contributions of the dishes. Mapping the household dishes deepens the promotion of household food waste prevention strategies. This study also linked the results with a set of policy, education, and restaurant business options

Keywords: food waste, food surplus, household dishes design, food waste prevention strategies

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19 Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Lung-Yu Sung, Huan-Jyun Ciou


Durability of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells was evaluated in both steady state and accelerated decay modes. Steady state mode was carried out at constant current of 800mA / cm2 for 2500 hours using air as cathode feed and pure hydrogen as anode feed. The degradation of the cell voltage was 0.015V after such 2500 hrs operation. The degradation rate was therefore calculated to be 6uV / hr. Accelerated mode was carried out by switching the voltage of the single cell between OCV and 0.2V. The durations held at OCV and 0.2V were 20 and 40 seconds, respectively, meaning one minute per cycle. No obvious change in performance of the MEA was observed after 10000 cycles of such operation.

Keywords: durability, lifetime, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane fuel cells

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18 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan


Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

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17 Neural Network Based Decision Trees Using Machine Learning for Alzheimer's Diagnosis

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, S. Meenakshi Sundaram


Alzheimer’s disease is one of the prevalent kind of ailment, expected for impudent reconciliation or an effectual therapy is to be accredited hitherto. Probable detonation of patients in the upcoming years, and consequently an enormous deal of apprehension in early discovery of the disorder, this will conceivably chaperon to enhanced healing outcomes. Complex impetuosity of the brain is an observant symbolic of the disease and a unique recognition of genetic sign of the disease. Machine learning alongside deep learning and decision tree reinforces the aptitude to absorb characteristics from multi-dimensional data’s and thus simplifies automatic classification of Alzheimer’s disease. Susceptible testing was prophesied and realized in training the prospect of Alzheimer’s disease classification built on machine learning advances. It was shrewd that the decision trees trained with deep neural network fashioned the excellent results parallel to related pattern classification.

Keywords: Alzheimer's diagnosis, decision trees, deep neural network, machine learning, pattern classification

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16 Product Form Bionic Design Based on Eye Tracking Data: A Case Study of Desk Lamp

Authors: Huan Lin, Liwen Pang


In order to reduce the ambiguity and uncertainty of product form bionic design, a product form bionic design method based on eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracking experiment is designed to calculate the average time ranking of the specific parts of the bionic shape that the subjects are looking at. Key bionic shape is explored through the experiment and then applied to a desk lamp bionic design. During the design case, FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierachy Process) and SD (Semantic Differential) method are firstly used to identify consumer emotional perception model toward desk lamp before product design. Through investigating different desk lamp design elements and consumer views, the form design factors on the desk lamp product are reflected and all design schemes are sequenced after caculation. Desk lamp form bionic design method is combined the key bionic shape extracted from eye-tracking experiment and priority of desk lamp design schemes. This study provides an objective and rational method to product form bionic design.

Keywords: Bionic design; Form; Eye tracking; FAHP; Desk lamp

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15 Color Fusion of Remote Sensing Images for Imparting Fluvial Geomorphological Features of River Yamuna and Ganga over Doon Valley

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, Rebecca K. Rossi, Yanmin Yuan, Xianpei Li


The fiscal growth of any country hinges on the prudent administration of water resources. The river Yamuna and Ganga are measured as the life line of India as it affords the needs for life to endure. Earth observation over remote sensing images permits the precise description and identification of ingredients on the superficial from space and airborne platforms. Multiple and heterogeneous image sources are accessible for the same geographical section; multispectral, hyperspectral, radar, multitemporal, and multiangular images. In this paper, a taxonomical learning of the fluvial geomorphological features of river Yamuna and Ganga over doon valley using color fusion of multispectral remote sensing images was performed. Experimental results exhibited that the segmentation based colorization technique stranded on pattern recognition, and color mapping fashioned more colorful and truthful colorized images for geomorphological feature extraction.

Keywords: color fusion, geomorphology, fluvial processes, multispectral images, pattern recognition

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14 Ordinary Differentiation Equations (ODE) Reconstruction of High-Dimensional Genetic Networks through Game Theory with Application to Dissecting Tree Salt Tolerance

Authors: Libo Jiang, Huan Li, Rongling Wu


Ordinary differentiation equations (ODE) have proven to be powerful for reconstructing precise and informative gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from dynamic gene expression data. However, joint modeling and analysis of all genes, essential for the systematical characterization of genetic interactions, are challenging due to high dimensionality and a complex pattern of genetic regulation including activation, repression, and antitermination. Here, we address these challenges by unifying variable selection and game theory through ODE. Each gene within a GRN is co-expressed with its partner genes in a way like a game of multiple players, each of which tends to choose an optimal strategy to maximize its “fitness” across the whole network. Based on this unifying theory, we designed and conducted a real experiment to infer salt tolerance-related GRNs for Euphrates poplar, a hero tree that can grow in the saline desert. The pattern and magnitude of interactions between several hub genes within these GRNs were found to determine the capacity of Euphrates poplar to resist to saline stress.

Keywords: gene regulatory network, ordinary differential equation, game theory, LASSO, saline resistance

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13 Large-Scale Photovoltaic Generation System Connected to HVDC Grid with Centralized High Voltage and High Power DC/DC Converter

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Shanshan Meng, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation system connected to HVDC grid has many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid. DC connection can solve many problems that AC connection faces, such as the grid-connection and power transmission, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a centralized DC/DC converter which uses Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid voltage. Meanwhile, it adopts input current sharing control strategy to realize input current and output voltage balance. A ±30kV/1MW system is modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and a downscaled ±10kV/200kW DC/DC converter platform is built to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, cascaded dc/dc converter, galvanic isolation, high-voltage, direct current (HVDC)

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12 Support Vector Machine Based Retinal Therapeutic for Glaucoma Using Machine Learning Algorithm

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Yang Yung, Tracy Lin Huan


Glaucoma is a group of visual maladies represented by the scheduled optic nerve neuropathy; means to the increasing dwindling in vision ground, resulting in loss of sight. In this paper, a novel support vector machine based retinal therapeutic for glaucoma using machine learning algorithm is conservative. The algorithm has fitting pragmatism; subsequently sustained on correlation clustering mode, it visualizes perfect computations in the multi-dimensional space. Support vector clustering turns out to be comparable to the scale-space advance that investigates the cluster organization by means of a kernel density estimation of the likelihood distribution, where cluster midpoints are idiosyncratic by the neighborhood maxima of the concreteness. The predicted planning has 91% attainment rate on data set deterrent on a consolidation of 500 realistic images of resolute and glaucoma retina; therefore, the computational benefit of depending on the cluster overlapping system pedestal on machine learning algorithm has complete performance in glaucoma therapeutic.

Keywords: machine learning algorithm, correlation clustering mode, cluster overlapping system, glaucoma, kernel density estimation, retinal therapeutic

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11 Micropillar-Assisted Electric Field Enhancement for High-Efficiency Inactivation of Bacteria

Authors: Sanam Pudasaini, A. T. K. Perera, Ahmed Syed Shaheer Uddin, Sum Huan Ng, Chun Yang


Development of high-efficiency and environment friendly bacterial inactivation methods is of great importance for preventing waterborne diseases which are one of the leading causes of death in the world. Traditional bacterial inactivation methods (e.g., ultraviolet radiation and chlorination) have several limitations such as longer treatment time, formation of toxic byproducts, bacterial regrowth, etc. Recently, an electroporation-based inactivation method was introduced as a substitute. Here, an electroporation-based continuous flow microfluidic device equipped with an array of micropillars is developed, and the device achieved high bacterial inactivation performance ( > 99.9%) within a short exposure time ( < 1 s). More than 99.9% reduction of Escherichia coli bacteria was obtained for the flow rate of 1 mL/hr, and no regrowth of bacteria was observed. Images from scanning electron microscope confirmed the formation of electroporation-induced nano-pore within the cell membrane. Through numerical simulation, it has been shown that sufficiently large electric field strength (3 kV/cm), required for bacterial electroporation, were generated using PDMS micropillars for an applied voltage of 300 V. Further, in this method of inactivation, there is no involvement of chemicals and the formation of harmful by-products is also minimum.

Keywords: electroporation, high-efficiency, inactivation, microfluidics, micropillar

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10 Nostalgic Tourism in Macau: The Bidirectional Causal Relationship between Destination Image and Experiential Value

Authors: Aliana Leong, T. C. Huan


The purpose of Nostalgic themed tourism product is becoming popular in many countries. This study intends to investigate the role of nostalgia in destination image, experiential value and their effect on subsequent behavioral intention. The survey used stratified sampling method to include respondents from all the nearby Asian regions. The sampling is based on the data of inbound tourists provided by the Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of government of Macau. The questionnaire consisted of five sections of 5 point Likert scale questions: (1) nostalgia, (2) destination image both before and after experience, (3) expected value, (4) experiential value, and (5) future visit intention. Data was analysed with structural equation modelling. The result indicates that nostalgia plays an important part in forming destination image and experiential value before individual had a chance to experience the destination. The destination image and experiential value share a bidirectional causal relationship that eventually contributes to future visit intention. The study also discovered that while experiential value is more effective in generating destination image, the later contribute more to future visit intention. The research design measures destination image and experiential value before and after respondents had experience the destination. The distinction between destination image and expected/experiential value can be examined because the longitudinal design of research method. It also allows this study to observe how nostalgia translates to future visit intention.

Keywords: nostalgia, destination image, experiential value, future visit intention

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9 New Modification Negative Stiffness Device with Constant Force-Displacement Characteristic for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Huan Li, Jianchun Li, Yancheng Li, Yang Yu


As a seismic protection method of civil and engineering structures, weakening and damping is effective during the elastic region, while it somehow leads to the early yielding of the entire structure accompanying with large excursions and permanent deformations. Adaptive negative stiffness device is attractive for realizing yielding property without changing the stiffness of the primary structure. In this paper, a new modification negative stiffness device (MNSD) with constant force-displacement characteristic is proposed by combining a magnetic negative stiffness spring, a piecewise linear positive spring and a passive damper with a certain adaptive stiffness device. The proposed passive control MNSD preserves no effect under small excitation. When the displacement amplitude increases beyond the pre-defined yielding point, the force-displacement characteristics of the system with MNSD will keep constant. The seismic protection effect of the MNSD is evaluated by employing it to a single-degree-of-freedom system under sinusoidal excitation, and real earthquake waves. By comparative analysis, the system with MNSD performs better on reducing acceleration and displacement response under different displacement amplitudes than the scenario without it and the scenario with unmodified certain adaptive stiffness device.

Keywords: negative stiffness, adaptive stiffness, weakening and yielding, constant force-displacement characteristic

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8 A Quasi Z-Source Based Full Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converter as a Power Module for PV System Connected to HVDC Grid

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Guoen Cao, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) power system is to be developed in the direction of large-scale, clustering. Large-scale PV generation systems connected to HVDC grid have many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system, has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a Quasi Z-Source(QZS) based Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology as a basis power module and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid. The topology has both traditional voltage source and current source advantages, it permit the H-bridge short through and open circuit, which adopt utility duty cycle control and achieved input current and output voltage balancing through input current sharing control strategy. A ±10kV/200kW system model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: PV Generation System, Cascaded DC/DC converter, HVDC, Quasi Z Source Converter

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7 Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

Authors: I-Huan Chiu, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Meito Kajino, Miho Katsuragawa, Shunsaku Nagasawa, Atsushi Shinohara, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryota Tomaru, Shin Watanabe, Goro Yabu


In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical observation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the non-destructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

Keywords: DSSD, muon, muonic X-ray, imaging, non-destructive analysis

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6 Application of Particle Swarm Optimization to Thermal Sensor Placement for Smart Grid

Authors: Hung-Shuo Wu, Huan-Chieh Chiu, Xiang-Yao Zheng, Yu-Cheng Yang, Chien-Hao Wang, Jen-Cheng Wang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang


Dynamic Thermal Rating (DTR) provides crucial information by estimating the ampacity of transmission lines to improve power dispatching efficiency. To perform the DTR, it is necessary to install on-line thermal sensors to monitor conductor temperature and weather variables. A simple and intuitive strategy is to allocate a thermal sensor to every span of transmission lines, but the cost of sensors might be too high to bear. To deal with the cost issue, a thermal sensor placement problem must be solved. This research proposes and implements a hybrid algorithm which combines proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The proposed hybrid algorithm solves a multi-objective optimization problem that concludes the minimum number of sensors and the minimum error on conductor temperature, and the optimal sensor placement is determined simultaneously. The data of 345 kV transmission lines and the hourly weather data from the Taiwan Power Company and Central Weather Bureau (CWB), respectively, are used by the proposed method. The simulated results indicate that the number of sensors could be reduced using the optimal placement method proposed by the study and an acceptable error on conductor temperature could be achieved. This study provides power companies with a reliable reference for efficiently monitoring and managing their power grids.

Keywords: dynamic thermal rating, proper orthogonal decomposition, particle swarm optimization, sensor placement, smart grid

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5 Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being

Authors: Huan Zhang, Darius K. S Chan


Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace.

Keywords: perceived supervisory emotional labor, surface acting, well-being

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4 A Damage Level Assessment Model for Extra High Voltage Transmission Towers

Authors: Huan-Chieh Chiu, Hung-Shuo Wu, Chien-Hao Wang, Yu-Cheng Yang, Ching-Ya Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang


Power failure resulting from tower collapse due to violent seismic events might bring enormous and inestimable losses. The Chi-Chi earthquake, for example, strongly struck Taiwan and caused huge damage to the power system on September 21, 1999. Nearly 10% of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission towers were damaged in the earthquake. Therefore, seismic hazards of EHV transmission towers should be monitored and evaluated. The ultimate goal of this study is to establish a damage level assessment model for EHV transmission towers. The data of earthquakes provided by Taiwan Central Weather Bureau serve as a reference and then lay the foundation for earthquake simulations and analyses afterward. Some parameters related to the damage level of each point of an EHV tower are simulated and analyzed by the data from monitoring stations once an earthquake occurs. Through the Fourier transform, the seismic wave is then analyzed and transformed into different wave frequencies, and the data would be shown through a response spectrum. With this method, the seismic frequency which damages EHV towers the most is clearly identified. An estimation model is built to determine the damage level caused by a future seismic event. Finally, instead of relying on visual observation done by inspectors, the proposed model can provide a power company with the damage information of a transmission tower. Using the model, manpower required by visual observation can be reduced, and the accuracy of the damage level estimation can be substantially improved. Such a model is greatly useful for health and construction monitoring because of the advantages of long-term evaluation of structural characteristics and long-term damage detection.

Keywords: damage level monitoring, drift ratio, fragility curve, smart grid, transmission tower

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3 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao


Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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2 Integration and Translation: The Comparison of Religious Rituals of Caodaism in Vietnam and Yi-Kuan-Tao

Authors: Lim Pey Huan


In the second half of the 19th century, Vietnam has long been influenced by Han culture, so there are many similarities in religion and folk beliefs. Even after the acceptance process of the Catholic Church introduced from Europe is quite similar. Therefore, in the spiritual life of Vietnamese civil society, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, and folk beliefs can be said to be the main trend, but in the twentieth century, two indigenous new religions were born: Caodai and He Hao Jiao, both of which are produced and developed in the south, each of which has millions of believers and become important Vietnamese religions. Their political participation has a major impact on the development of the Republic of Vietnam, and their fate is also in the north and south. Significant changes have taken place after reunification. Caodai was later approved by the colonial authorities and became the third largest religion in Vietnam. The teachings of Caodai teach the ideas of the major religions of the world. The classics used in the teachings also contain important theories of various religions, with particular emphasis on the comprehensiveness of the three sects of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The obvious manifestation lies in the interpretation of the important proposition of 'opening the three religions and returning to the five branches.' The full name of Caodaism is 'Da Dao San Qi Pu Du Gao Tai Jiao'. This name coincides with the 'Longhua Club' and the 'San Qi Mo Jie' idea and the consistent central idea. The emerging road of Caodai advocates to lead the sentient beings back to their original missions; the sentient beings will be centered on people, and the nature of the talks is nothing more than the original mission and standard. There are many opinions about the introduction of Caodaism into southern Vietnam. Caodai believers believe that Caodaism is an emerging new religion in Vietnam. If we further explore the teachings and religious rituals of Caodai, it is not difficult to find that many Chinese sects have been introduced to Vietnam. Some of the colors can be discussed from the spread and influence of Congenital Road in Vietnam. This article will present the author's analysis of the actual process of tutoring in Vietnam's Caodai, and then compare it with the consistent religious experience, trying to explore the Yi-Kuan-Tao and consistent Yi-Kuan-Tao rituals, religious organization, religious teachings, religious life care, and Funeral rituals and other comparative studies.

Keywords: Vietnam, Caodaism, Yi-Kuan-Tao, religious rituals

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1 Patient Satisfaction Measurement Using Face-Q for Non-Incisional Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty with Modified Single-Knot Continuous Buried Suture Technique

Authors: Kwei Huan Liw, Sashi B. Darshan


Background: Double eyelid surgery has become one of the most sought-after aesthetic procedures among Asians. Many surgeons perform surgical blepharoplasty and various other methods of non-incisional blepharoplasty. Face-Q is a validated method of measuring patient satisfaction for facial aesthetic procedures. Here we have analyzed the overall eye satisfaction score, the upper eyelid appraisal score and the adverse effect on eyes score Methods: 274 patients (548 eyes), aged between 18 to 40 years old, were recruited from 2015-2018. Each patient underwent a non-incisional double-eyelid blepharoplasty using a single-knotted continuous buried suture. 3 – 5 stab incisions were made depending on the upper eyelid size. A needle loaded with 7-0 nylon is passed from the lateral most wound through the dermis and the conjunctiva in an alternate fashion into the remaining stab wounds. The suture is then tunneled back laterally in the deeper dermis and knotted securely with the suture end. The knot is then buried within the orbicularis oculi muscle. Each patient was required to fill the Face-Q questionnaire before the procedure and 2 weeks post procedure. The results are described based on the percentage of the maximum achievable score. Patients were reviewed after 12 to 18 months to assess the long-term outcome. Results: The overall eye satisfaction score demonstrated a high level of post-operative satisfaction (97.85%), compared to 27.32% pre-operatively. The appraisal of upper eyelid scores showed drastic improvement in perception post-operatively (95.31%) compared to 21.44% pre-operatively. Adverse effect on eyes score showed a very low post-operative complication rate (0.4%) The long-term follow-up showed 6 cases that had developed asymmetrical folds. Only 1 patient agreed for revision surgery. The other 5 patients were still satisfied with the outcome and were not keen for revision surgery. None of the cases had loosening of knots. Conclusion: Modified single-knot continuous buried suture technique is a simple and non-invasive method to create aesthetically pleasing non-surgical double-eyelids, which has long-term effects. Proper patient selection is crucial and good surgical technique is required to achieve a desirable outcome.

Keywords: blepharoplasty, double-eyelid, face-Q, non-incisional

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