Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2426

Search results for: secular states

2426 A Comparative Analysis on the Perspectives of Secular and Non-Secular Male Groups on Female Masturbation

Authors: Marc Angelo C. Balon, Maxine Joy A. Yongoyong

Abstract:

Female masturbation has been an age-old controversy. In fact, it is not widely talked about specifically in the Philippines since the Filipino culture still preserves the space for conservativeness. Although, considering the numerous and emerging studies on female masturbation, this study will focus on the perspectives of secular and non-secular male groups with regard to female masturbation. The objectives of this study is to identify the perceptions of these male groups and their taking on considering women who masturbate as their sexual partner, as a sexual object, and as a life partner and lastly, to have a comparative analysis of the perceptions of these male groups drawing out their sense of meaning on the masturbation of women. The researchers made use of purposive sampling technique and interview guide questionnaire. The secular male group were psychology students while the non-secular male group was drawn from a Catholic Church seminary in Tagaytay City, Cavite. Results showed that the secular male group had scientific perspectives such as exploring the genitals, contradicting moral perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice, while the non-secular male groups had theological perspectives in accordance with the fundamental moral theology, moral perspectives and perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice. Moreover, men who came from the non-secular group highly believe that masturbation is immoral. Otherwise, men who came from the secular group noted that masturbation is primary physiological need.

Keywords: secular, non-secular, masturbation, comparative analysis

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2425 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

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The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular

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2424 Debate, Discontent and National Identity in a Secular State

Authors: Man Bahadur Shahu

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The secularism is a controversial, debatable and misinterpreted issue since its endorsement in the 2007 constitution in Nepal. The unprecedented acts have been seen favoring and disfavoring against the secularism within the public domain—which creates the fallacies and suspicions in the rationalization and modernization process. This paper highlights three important points: first, the secularization suddenly ruptures the silence and institutional decline of religion within the state. Second, state effort on secularism simultaneously fosters the state neutrality and state separation from religious institutions that amplify the recognition of all religious groups through the equal treatment in their festivity, rituals, and practices. Third, no state would completely secular because of their deep-rooted mindset and disposition with their own religious faiths and beliefs that largely enhance intergroup conflict, dispute, riot and turbulence in post-secular period in the name of proselytizing and conversion.

Keywords: conflict, proselytizing, religion, secular

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2423 Secular Ethics from the Viewpoint of Mostafa Malekian (Analyze, Review, and Critique)

Authors: Hamideh Rahmani

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The subject matter of ethics is being changed in modern life, which had been an issue for a long time and aimed to define its moral boundaries in human's intellectual and everyday life. This has led to the introduction of notions based on the separation of religion from ethics in recent decades. It is in conflict with the traditional view, which introduces ethics as raised from religion and religion as the most crucial credit for ethics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the elements of secular ethics from the perspective of Mostafa Malekian, seeking to achieve his notions. After examining the strengths of secular ethics parameters from the viewpoint of Malekian, this research found his ethics in his interpretation of the ideal life which he treats as ethics, got a very strong link with his secularist project known as rationality and spirituality. We will analyze, review, and critique his ethics in the following.

Keywords: secular ethics, Mostafa Malakian, global ethics, rationality, spirituality

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2422 Comparison of Constitutional Systems in Religious and Secular States (Iran and Turkey as Role Models)

Authors: Eman Muhammad Rashwan

Abstract:

The identity of the state in many Middle East countries today, between secularity and religiousness, is an important and controversial question. Specially after the sweeping repels in number of countries that put Islamic parties in power. In this paper two role model states in this respect, are under examination to answer the question of how their identity that was expressed in their constitutions influenced the allocation of power between different state authorities. In the beginning both the criteria used to define the two concepts of secularity and religiousness, and the reason why these two states are particularly chosen for comparison, are explained. The situation in Turkey is firstly indicated. The constitutional system shows that power is divided between parliament, cabinet and the president. The first two authorities have the most significant powers, and generally, the system in Turkey is similar to many other secular states in the world. But when the research moves to the system in Iran, the importance of comparison starts to appear. In this section, the nature of Islamic Shi’a of Iran Republic is discussed, and also its influence on the main and unique authorities of this religious state, which don`t only include the president and council of ministers, but also The Supreme Leader and The Council of Guardians. This paper doesn`t aim to favor a one system over another, and doesn`t discuss the influences of the two systems on the social or economic situation in the two model states. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of excluding, and applying religion in respect to allocation of power in constitutions.

Keywords: comparative law, constitutional systems, secular states, religious states

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2421 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

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We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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2420 Shifting Paradigms of Culture: Rise of Secular Sensibility in Indian Literature

Authors: Nidhi Chouhan

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Burgeoning demand of ‘Secularism’ has shaken the pillars of cultural studies in the contemporary literature. The perplexity of the culturally estranged term ‘secular’ gives rise to temporal ideologies across the world. Hence, it is high time to scan this concept in the context of Indian lifestyle which is a blend of assimilated cultures woven in multiple religious fabrics. The infliction of such secular taste is depicted in literary productions like ‘Satanic Verses’ and ‘An Area of Darkness’. The paper conceptually makes a cross-cultural analysis of anti-religious Indian literary texts, assessing its revitalization in current times. Further, this paper studies the increasing popularity of secular sensibility in the contemporary times. The mushrooming elements of secularism such as abstraction, spirituality, liberation, individualism give rise to a seemingly newer idea i.e. ‘Plurality’ making the literature highly hybrid. This approach has been used to study Indian modernity reflected in its literature. Seminal works of stalwarts are used to understand the consequence of this cultural synthesis. Conclusively, this theoretical research inspects the efficiency of secular culture, intertwined with internal coherence and throws light on the plurality of texts in Indian literature.

Keywords: culture, indian, literature, plurality, secular, secularism

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2419 Buddhism and Society: The History and Contribution of Buddhist Education in Taiwan

Authors: Meilee Shen

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Buddhist monks and nuns have changed within the dynamic culture of Taiwan that they find themselves in. The diverse cultures, economic development, and advanced educational levels of the island are all part of this. Buddhist education has become an interesting aspect in the history of Taiwanese Buddhism. In recent years, Buddhists in Taiwan have made significant contributions to both academic and religious studies. This paper will focus on the following questions: What is Buddhist education? How does a Buddhist education change monastic role in Taiwanese Buddhism? Finally, how has Buddhist education benefited Taiwanese society? Research indicates that Buddhist education in Taiwan possesses four features: 1. Master teaching disciple: Buddhist masters teach monastic rules to monastic disciples only. 2. Monastic education: It is mainly focused on Buddhist doctrines and sangha rules. 3. From Buddhist education to secular education: Buddhist studies were introduced into secular educational environments that were the beginning for outsiders to study Buddhism. It also opened a door to recruit young college students to enter the monastery. 4. Academic Buddhist training: Buddhist monks and nuns have begun to study at secular colleges in various programs besides Buddhist studies. In recent years, Buddhist colleges and secular universities’ religious studies programs have begun to admit overseas students due to the low birth-rate in Taiwan. Therefore, the relationship between Buddhism and Taiwanese society is dynamic.

Keywords: Buddhist college and university in Taiwan, Buddhist education, institutionalization in Taiwanese Buddhism, monastic and secular education, Taiwanese Buddhist monks and nuns

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2418 Challenges of Integrating Islamic Education with Contemporary Secular System in Igaland, Kogi State Of Nigeria

Authors: Yunusa Odiba

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Islam, from its root is a divine religion and it does not exercise anything except within the scope of its divinity-its culture, tradition morality, and the like. The damage done to the legacies, traditions, culture, morality, viability, continued existence and relevance of the Islamic religious way of life by the prevalent western secular education system in the Muslim world has become a thing of interest to many scholars especially, the Muslim scholars, hence, advocating the integration of Islamic education with the western circular educational system. The aim is to produce a new generation of dedicated Muslims whose education has prepared them for the challenges of contemporary materialistic circulation alongside real Islamic knowledge. This paper, however, examines the process of integrating Islamic schools with the contemporary western based schools that would under-take the unification which should function as basic organ of Muslim ideological revivalism, cultural retention, identity formation, socio-economic development, and scientific and ecological inventiveness.

Keywords: challenges, integrating, Islamic education, secular system, Igalaland

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2417 Enhancing National Integrity through Teaching Secular Perspectives in Medieval Indian History Curricula: A Secular Paradigms

Authors: Deepak Deshpande, Vikas Minchekar

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Day by day in modern India communal forces became stronger and stronger. Each and every caste group trying to show their strength through massive marches. Such kind of marches or ralliesruinous national integrity in India. To test this assumption present investigation has been carried out. This research was undertaken by using survey techniques. The study has been carried out in two phases. In the first stage, the students’ attitudes were collected while in the second phase the views of the members of the historical association were collected. The social dominance orientation scale and sources of social dominance inventory have been administered on 200 college students belonging to Maratha caste. Analyzed data revealed ahigh level of social dominance in Maratha caste students. Approximately, 80 percent students have reported that they have learned such dominance from the medieval history. The other sources disappear very less prominent. These results and present Indian social situation have been communicated with the members of the historical association of India. The majority members of this association agreed with this reality. The consensus also received on that Maratha caste person experiencing dominance due to the misinterpretation of the King Shivaji Empire; synchronize by politicians. The survey monkey app was used through electronic mail to collect the views on ‘The attitude towards the modification of curricula questionnaire’. The maximum number of members of the historical association agreed to employ to teach the medieval Indian history accordingly the secular perspectives.

Keywords: social dominance orientation, secular perceptive, national integrity, Maratha caste and medieval Indian history

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2416 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

Abstract:

The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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2415 Secularism and Political Inclusion: Turkey in the 2000s

Authors: Edgar Sar

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For more than a decade, secularism’s compatibility with religion has been called into question. Particularly, secular states’ exclusionary practices were raised to prove that secularism is not necessary for democracy. Meanwhile, with the debut of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2002, Turkish state’s approach to religion has gradually changed. It is argued in that presentation that this change has led Turkey to a process of de-secularization, which refers to a considerable regress in state’s inclusionary and pluralist credentials. In this regard, this study both reflects on the relationship between secularism and democracy within the context of Turkish experience and analyses the consequences of the process of de-secularization of state in Turkey. To analyze Turkish state’s changing approach to religion and measure the de-secularization of the state, the connection between state and religion will be examined in three levels: ends, institutions, and law and policies. The presentation will indicate that Turkish state’s connection with religion in all three levels significantly weakened its secular credentials, which at the same time risked state’s commitment to neutrality, freedom of conscience and equality. In this regard, the change in Turkish state’s approach to religion throughout the 2000s, which this study refers to as the process of the de-secularization of the state, also brought about a process of de-democratization for Turkey.

Keywords: AKP, political inclusion, secularism, Turkey

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2414 Re-Orienting Fashion: Fashionable Modern Muslim Women beyond Western Modernity

Authors: Amany Abdelrazek

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Fashion is considered the main feature of modern and postmodern capitalist and consumerist society. Consumer historians maintain that fashion, namely, a sector of people embracing a prevailing clothing style for a short period, started during the Middle Ages but gained popularity later. It symbolised the transition from a medieval society with its solid fixed religious values into a modern society with its secular consumer dynamic culture. Renaissance society was a modern secular society concerning its preoccupation with daily life and changing circumstances. Yet, the late 18th-century industrial revolution revolutionised thought and ideology in Europe. The Industrial Revolution reinforced the Western belief in rationality and strengthened the position of science. In such a rational Western society, modernity, with its new ideas, came to challenge the whole idea of old fixed norms, reflecting the modern secular, rational culture and renouncing the medieval pious consumer. In modern society, supported by the industrial revolution and mass production, fashion encouraged broader sectors of society to integrate into fashion reserved for the aristocracy and royal courts. Moreover, the fashion project emphasizes the human body and its beauty, contradicting Judeo-Christian culture, which tends to abhor and criticize interest in sensuality and hedonism. In mainstream Western discourse, fashionable dress differentiates between emancipated stylish consumerist secular modern female and the assumed oppressed traditional modest religious female. Opposing this discourse, I look at the controversy over what has been called "Islamic fashion" that started during the 1980s and continued to gain popularity in contemporary Egyptian society. I discuss the challenges of being a fashionable and Muslim practicing female in light of two prominent models for female "Islamic fashion" in postcolonial Egypt; Jasmin Mohshen, the first hijabi model in Egypt and Manal Rostom, the first Muslim woman to represent the Nike campaign in the Middle East. The research employs fashion and postcolonial theories to rethink current Muslim women's position on women's emancipation, Western modernity and practising faith in postcolonial Egypt. The paper argues that Muslim women's current innovative and fashionable dress can work as a counter-discourse to the Orientalist and exclusive representation of non-Western Muslim culture as an inherently inert timeless culture. Furthermore, "Islamic" fashionable dress as an aesthetic medium for expressing ideas and convictions in contemporary Egypt interrogates the claim of universal secular modernity and Western fashion theorists' reluctance to consider Islamic fashion as fashion.

Keywords: fashion, muslim women, modernity, secularism

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2413 Socio Economic Impact and Status of the Islamic Perspective of Veil

Authors: Shagufta Jahangir, Nadeemullah, Yaqoob, Raisa Jahangir

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The Persian language word ‘Purdah’ and in Arabic ‘Hajab’ is used for veil. Veil has been used by women for being escaped from men. In one way or the other veil has been continuously used in ancient as well as modern civilizations by women. Developed nations have blamed the use of veil an obstacle in the process of development. Therefore, modern nations have struggled to get rid of the use of veil. They argue that it is a sign of slavery for women and it is an obstacle in the path of development. The modern secular Muslims considered veil as the biggest obstacle for social and economic development. It makes a woman helpless, as being zanjir in her feet. It has become an obstacle in the process of development for women. It is also considered as a tool for segregation among men and women. The so called Muslims of the modern era are trying to introduce changes in religion by imitation the modern nations of the world. In particular ways for Muslim woman use of veil in Islam is must. It is a right provided her by religion. It provides her strength. In the Holy Quran word ‘Hajab’ is used 5 times. Islam is against domination and forceful practice of veil, as a part of teaching of Islam it is being adopted by women as a protection. This article aims at: (1) historical background of veil (2) Its existence in civilizations, (3) Meaning and interpretation of veil in Islamic context, (4) Economic impact of it on women (5) Discussion on its practice in Islamic (eastern) and other (European) circles and conclusions followed by concerted bibliography.

Keywords: veil, economic development, civilizations, obstacle, secular Muslims, segregation

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2412 'Sit Down, Breathe, and Feel What?' Bringing a Contemplative Intervention into a Public Urban Middle School

Authors: Lunthita M. Duthely, John T. Avella, John Ganapati Coleman

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For as many as one in three adolescents living in the United States, the adolescent years is a period of low well-being and mental health challenges—from depressive symptoms to mild to moderate psychological diagnoses. Longitudinal population health studies demonstrated that these challenges persist in young adulthood, and beyond. The positive psychology (PS) approach is a more preventative approach to well-being, which contrasts the traditional, deficits approach to curing mental illness. The research among adult populations formed the basis for PS studies among adolescents. The empirical evidence for the effectiveness of PS interventions exists for both adult and youth populations. Positive Psychology interventions target individuals’ strengths, such as hope and optimism, and positive emotions, such as gratitude. Positive psychology interventions such as increasing gratitude, proved effective in many outcomes among youth, including psychological, social, and academically-related outcomes. Although gratitude-inducing studies have been conducted for the past decade in the United States, few studies have been conducted among samples of urban youth, particularly youth of diverse cultural backgrounds. For nearly two decades, the secular practice of meditation has been tested among adults and more recently among youth, focused mostly among clinical samples. The field of Contemplative Sciences explores practices such as Hatha Yoga, Tai Chi, and Meditation, as preventative practices among children and adolescents. A more recent initiative is to explore Contemplative Practices in the school environment. Contemplative Practices yield a variety of positive outcomes, including academic, social, psychological, physiological, and neurological changes among children and adolescents. Again, few studies were conducted among adolescents of diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to test a gratitude-meditation intervention among middle school students attending a public charter school, located in an urban region of Metropolitan Miami. The objective of this presentation is to summarize the challenges and success of bringing a positive psychology and meditation intervention into an urban middle school. Also, the most recent findings on positive psychology and meditation interventions conducted in school environments will be presented as well.

Keywords: adolescents, contemplative intervention, gratitude, secular meditation, positive psychology, school engagement, Sri Chinmoy

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2411 Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective

Authors: Abdul Latheef O. Mavukkandy

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Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.

Keywords: Islamization, Islamicization, releventization, human knowledge

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2410 A Secular Advent: A Video-Ethnographic Study of the Preparations for Christmas in Swedish Preschools

Authors: Tunde Puskas, Anita Andersson

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In Swedish early childhood education research, the issues related to religious identifications and practices have often been marginalized or relegated either to the realm of diversity and multiculturalism or to the realm of national traditions. This paper is part of a research project about whether religion is considered as part of Swedish cultural heritage in Swedish preschools. Our aim in this paper is to explore how a Swedish preschool balance between keeping the education non-confessional and at the same time introducing the traditions associated with advent and Christmas. Christmas was chosen because of the religious background of the holiday and because it is a tradition widely celebrated in Swedish preschools. In Swedish education system, the concept of freedom of religion is understood in the sense that education is declared to be non-confessional. Nevertheless, as the major state holidays in Sweden are tied to Lutheran Christian traditions, and according to the curriculum preschool educators, are given the task to pass on a cultural heritage, defined in terms of values, traditions, history, language, and knowledge, it is the preschool teams or individual preschool teachers who determine whether and to what extent religious considerations are/ought to be seen as part of the cultural heritage the preschool passes on. The data consists of ten video taped observations from two preschools. The video data was transcribed and the transcripts were thereafter analysed through content analysis. In the analysis, we draw on the concept of banal religiosity that has helped us to draw attention to the workings of religious considerations that are so familiar that they rarely are noticed as religious and on Ninian Smart’s theory on the dimensions of religion. The analysis shows that what the adults actually do with religion fulfils six of seven dimensions common to religious traditions as outlined by Smart. At the same time, Christmas is performed as a lived tradition within which the commercial and religious rituals intersect and result in a banal, national religiosity.

Keywords: secular advent, banal religiosity, dimensions of religion, rites

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2409 Star Images Constructed Based on Kramer vs. Kramer

Authors: Huailei Wen

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The Kramers vs. Kramers (1979) is a film that comprehensively examines the role and status of women under the traditional secular vision, where women have become subordinate to the patriarchal society and family. Through the construction of the protagonist Joanna's dissatisfaction with the social and ethical status quo, her struggle to subvert the existing status of women, and her return to her own self, the story comprehensively reflects the difficult journey of women, represented by Joanna, to subvert the stereotypes and return to their own selves in the specific historical context of the time, revealing the self-value of Joanna's phenomenon to modern women.

Keywords: star image, feminism, Kramers vs. Kramers, Hollywood

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2408 Ibn Khaldun On the Dualism of the Islamic Mind from The Muqaddimah

Authors: Michael Sangervasi

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Today’s Modern political divisions in the Islamic world are centuries old and have been centuries in the making. Fortunately, we have inherited the wisdom of one of the world’s greatest Islamiccultural historians from the Fourteenth Century, Ibn Khaldun. In his axiomatic book, The Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun states the obvious, but in a way, perhaps never done before–by juxtaposing two grand competing worldviews in Islamic culture: the mind of the nomadic Bedouinversus that of the sedentary city-dwellers. According to Ibn Khaldun, Bedouins benefit from a strong sense of tribal solidarity because of the purity and consistency of their blood line, which he says is the secret to royal authority. Consequently, Bedouins benefit from this “group-feeling,” which is necessary for successfully wielding power. However, the sheer difficulty of the Bedouin’s nomadic lifestyle develops a worldview of independence and survival while fostering resentment of an apparently weaker sedentary urban lifestyle. Whereas he contends that sedentary urban populations lack a “group-feeling” because of their geographic proximity to each other, which in turn lends itself to tribal intermixing, leading to a dissipation of their cultural identity and a generalloss of solidarity and political division. However, Ibn Khaldun discusses the necessity of sedentary societies as catalysts of civilization, economic development, development of the arts, a broad multidisciplinary education, wealth, and political prestige. This author shows that Ibn Khaldun’s sage sociological analysis can be used to understand of a variety of Islamicgovernments’ discourses even today. This author provides some stark examples of official government communications which analyze the competing “self-images” of this “dual-mind” in the Islamic world, from the theocracies of Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan, to the more capitalistic Muslim states of the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Qatarversus the more secular Muslims countries in Europe, such as Turkey.

Keywords: islamic culture, politics, bedouin, philosophy

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2407 Images of Spiritism in Brazilian Catholic Discourse (1889-1937)

Authors: Frantisek Kalenda

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With the ultimate triumph of the republican movement in 1889 in Brazil and adoption of constitution promoting religious freedom, formerly dominant Roman Catholic Church entered a long period of struggle to recover its lost position, fighting both liberal and secular character of the new regime and rising competition on the “market of faith”. Spiritism in its originally Brazilian form proved to be one if its key adversaries during the First (1889-1930) and Second Republic (1930-1937), provoking significant attempt within official Church to discredit and destroy the movement. This paper explores this effort through Catholic portrayal of Spiritism in its official media, focusing, on the creation of stereotypes and both theological and “scientific” arguments used against it. Its core is based on primary sources’ analysis, mainly influential A Ordem and Mensageiro da Fé.

Keywords: Catholic Church, media, other, spiritism, stereotype

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2406 Keeping Education Non-Confessional While Teaching Children about Religion

Authors: Tünde Puskás, Anita Andersson

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This study is part of a research project about whether religion is considered as part of Swedish cultural heritage in Swedish preschools. Our aim in this paper is to explore how a Swedish preschool balance between keeping the education non-confessional and at the same time teaching children about a particular tradition, Easter.The paper explores how in a Swedish preschool with a religious profile teachers balance between keeping education non-confessional and teaching about a tradition with religious roots. The point of departure for the theoretical frame of our study is that practical considerations in pedagogical situations are inherently dilemmatic. The dilemmas that are of interest for our study evolve around formalized, intellectual ideologies, such us multiculturalism and secularism that have an impact on everyday practice. Educational dilemmas may also arise in the intersections of the formalized ideology of non-confessionalism, prescribed in policy documents and the common sense understandings of what is included in what is understood as Swedish cultural heritage. In this paper, religion is treated as a human worldview that, similarly to secular ideologies, can be understood as a system of thought. We make use of Ninian Smart's theoretical framework according to which in modern Western world religious and secular ideologies, as human worldviews, can be studied from the same analytical framework. In order to be able to study the distinctive character of human worldviews Smart introduced a multi-dimensional model within which the different dimensions interact with each other in various ways and to different degrees. The data for this paper is drawn from fieldwork carried out in 2015-2016 in the form of video ethnography. The empirical material chosen consists of a video recording of a specific activity during which the preschool group took part in an Easter play performed in the local church. The analysis shows that the policy of non-confessionalism together with the idea that teaching covering religious issues must be purely informational leads in everyday practice to dilemmas about what is considered religious. At the same time what the adults actually do with religion fulfills six of seven dimensions common to religious traditions as outlined by Smart. What we can also conclude from the analysis is that whether it is religion or a cultural tradition that is thought through the performance the children watched in the church depends on how the concept of religion is defined. The analysis shows that the characters of the performance themselves understood religion as the doctrine of Jesus' resurrection from the dead. This narrow understanding of religion enabled them indirectly to teach about the traditions and narratives surrounding Easter while avoiding teaching religion as a belief system.

Keywords: non-confessional education, preschool, religion, tradition

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2405 Psychometric Validation of Czech Version of Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients: The First Part of Research

Authors: Lucie Mrackova, Helena Kisvetrova

Abstract:

Spirituality is an integral part of human life. In a secular environment, spiritual needs are often overlooked, especially in acute nursing care. Spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), which also exists in the Czech version (SNAP-CZ), can be used for objective evaluation. The aim of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ and to find correlations between SNAP-CZ and sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study with tools assessing spiritual needs (SNAP-CZ), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI), pain (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), self-sufficiency (Barthel Index; BI); cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Test; MoCa) and selected socio-demographic data was performed. The psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ were tested using factor analysis, reliability and validity tests, and correlations between the questionnaire and sociodemographic data and clinical variables. Internal consistency was established with Cronbach’s alfa for the overall score, respective domains, and individual items. Reliability was assessed by test-retest by Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data for correlation analysis were processed according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study included 172 trauma patients (the mean age = 40.6 ± 12.1 years) who experienced polytrauma or severe monotrauma. There were a total of 106 (61.6%) male subjects, 140 (81.4%) respondents identified themselves as non-believers. The full-scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.907. The test-retest showed the reliability of the individual domains in the range of 0.924 to 0.960 ICC. Factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (psychosocial needs (alfa = 0.788), spiritual needs (alfa = 0.886) and religious needs (alfa = 0.841)). Correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the domain of psychosocial needs significantly correlated only with gender (r = 0.178, p = 0.020). Males had a statistically significant lower average value in this domain (mean = 12.5) compared to females (mean = 13.8). The domain of spiritual needs significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.199, p = 0.009), social status (r = 0.156, p = 0.043), faith (r = -0.250, p = 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.194, p = 0.011) and depression (r = 0.155, p = 0.044). The domain of religious needs significantly correlated with age (r = 0,208, p = 0,007), education (r = -0,161, p = 0,035), faith (r = -0,575, p < 0,0001) and depression (r = 0,179, p = 0,019). Overall, the whole SNAP scale significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.219, p = 0.004), social status (r = 0.175, p = 0.023), faith (r = -0.334, p <0.0001), anxiety (r = 0.177, p = 0.022) and depression (r = 0.173, p = 0.025). The results of this study corroborate the reliability of the SNAP-CZ and support its future use in the nursing care of trauma patients in a secular society. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by grant nr. IGA_FZV_2020_003.

Keywords: acute nursing care, assessment of spiritual needs, patient, psychometric validation, spirituality

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2404 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

Abstract:

This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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2403 International Conference on Islam and Democracy – Religion and Political Stability in Indonesia

Authors: Mariel Encar H. Uy, Paula Marie G. Pacle

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to present a Single Country Comparative Contextual Description Study of Strong Islamic Influences in Relation to the Politics of Republic of Indonesia. This paper recognizes that even the coalition of secular and moderate Islamic parties protect the minority rights of all the constituents, Islam is still the dominant religion among the other recognized religions in Indonesia (Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism). In this study, it will also detail the involvement on the religions’ beliefs and techniques; participation of political actors, depending on what religion they belong and adhere to; the tensions whenever the government interferes with Islamists and other religions; the government’s solution or public policies implemented to maintain peace and order of Indonesia. This paper will develop a conceptual framework to describe how the Religion and Political Stability is interdependent with each other.

Keywords: diversity of religion in indonesia, secularization in Indonesia, motivations of political actors, voter turnouts based on religion

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2402 Genealogy of a Building: Tarikhaneh

Authors: Mohadeseh Salari Sardari

Abstract:

As Muslims conquered Iran, their first impression was to show their power over others. They needed mosques for their multiple needs like prayer, tax collecting, law-making, hearing of law cases, and most important of all, as a seat of government. Sometimes they did not have time to build mosques and only began to build them after years of ruling. Many religious buildings with pre-Islamic past survived in Iran, most of the fire temples in cities were destroyed or changed radically, but some deserted temples outside of cities survived, and based on these surviving buildings, we can trace changes in fire temples inside cities and discover how they were adapted and expanded to be mosques. In addition, there are some other buildings with doubts about their date of construction. These buildings might be transitional buildings between two different historical eras or might be an old building with a slight change. One of these interesting buildings is Tarikhaneh, a small, simple yet striking building. By tracing Tarikhaneh’s roots in other buildings like fire temples and secular buildings existed before Arab invasion, it can be better understood how the original form of Tatikhaneh was.

Keywords: iranian architecture, early mosques, fire temples, adaptation and reuse

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2401 Spin Coherent States Without Squeezing

Authors: A. Dehghani, S. Shirin

Abstract:

We propose in this article a new configuration of quantum states, |α, β> := |α>×|β>. Which are composed of vector products of two different copies of spin coherent states, |α> and |β>. Some mathematical as well as physical properties of such states are discussed. For instance, it has been shown that the cross products of two coherent vectors remain coherent again. They admit a resolution of the identity through positive definite measures on the complex plane. They represent packets similar to the true coherent states, in other words we would not expect to take spin squeezing in any of the field quadratures Lˆx, Lˆy and Lˆz. Depending on the particular choice of parameters in the above scenarios, they can be converted into the so-called Dicke states which minimize the uncertainty relations of each pair of the angular momentum components.

Keywords: vector (Cross-)products, minimum uncertainty, angular momentum, measurement, Dicke states

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2400 Islamic Finance in Tunisia: Reality and Development

Authors: Amira Kaddour, Hedia Teraoui, Khmayes Bougatef

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the major causes of the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia. Indeed, it’s surprising to note that Zitouna bank established in May 2010 is the first Islamic Tunisian bank although 99% of Tunisians are Muslim and Islam is the religion of the State according to the Constitution. So we rely in our paper on the opinions of number of professors of finance and economics as educated people to prove or reject our hypothesis that the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia can be explained by the ignorance of its main principles and advantages. Ours findings reveal that this branch of finance is still largely unknown, not only from public but also from professionals. The results obtained surprisingly show that this insignificance of Islamic banking cannot be explained by the fact that Tunisia has been governed since its independence by a secular left-wing party. Indeed, only 3% of respondents believe that legislation and regulation in Tunisia represent an obstacle to the development of Islamic finance. Moreover, respondents are not very optimistic about the future role of Islamic financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic insurance (takaful), Islamic law (shariah), usury (riba)

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2399 Religious Insurgency in Nigeria: A Bane to National Unity

Authors: Ayoola Adediran Amos

Abstract:

Nigeria as a secular state that is characterized with various religions namely: Christianity, Islam and African Religion. Each of the religion adherents often claim that their religion is the only means of gaining eternity while others who do not belong to their sect may not be opportuned. Religious doctrine within those religious sects is another source of insurgency which serves as a threat to the unity of Nigeria. Similarly, Boko Haram Religious group has become a threat to the unity of the country in which its root has both political and religious undertones. Primary and secondary sources of collecting data were used. Historical method allowed enquiry into the past events and improvement to the current experience. Both published and unpublished theses were used. Interview was also conducted as part of the secondary sources. It was observed that all aspects of the system in Nigeria were affected with this scourge of religious unrest. i.e. education, political, economic and a host of others. Finally, it was recommended that religious leaders should be given adequate orientation on the needs not to preach against other religious groups. Government of Nigeria should not give priority to one religion at the expense of others.

Keywords: insurgency, national unity, religious, threat

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2398 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel

Abstract:

Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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2397 Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008

Authors: Aminu Mansur

Abstract:

A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.

Keywords: soil temperature, warming trend, environment science, climate and atmospheric sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 216