Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1448

Search results for: bilateral balance

1448 The Effects of Kicking Leg Preference on the Bilateral Balance Ability Asymmetries in Collegian Football Players

Authors: Mehmet Yildiz, Mehmet Kale


The primary aim of the present study was to identify the bilateral balance asymmetries when comparing the dominant (DL) vs. the non-dominant leg (NDL) in the collegian soccer players. The secondary aim was to compare the inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) when differentiating by kicking preference (right-dominant vs. left-dominant). 34 right-dominant leg (RightDL) (age:21.12±1.85, height:174.50±5.18, weight:69.42±6.86) and 23 left-dominant leg (LeftDL), (age:21.70±2.03, height:176.2±6.27, weight:68.73±5.96) collegian football players were tested for bilateral static and dynamic balance. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation on a single leg. Single leg static and dynamic balance scores and inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Student t tests were used for the comparison of dominant and nondominant leg balance scores and RightDL and LeftDL football players’ inter-limb asymmetry index of the balance scores. The results showed that there were significant differences in the dynamic balance scores in favour of the nondominant leg, (DL:738±211 vs. NDL:606±226, p < 0.01). Also, it has been seen that LeftDL players have significantly higher inter-limb asymmetry index when compared with rightDL players for both static (rightDL:-7.07±94.91 vs. leftDL:-183.19±354.05, p < 0.01) and dynamic (rightDL: 1.73±49.65 vs. leftDL:27.08±23.34, p < 0.05) balance scores. In conclusion, bilateral dynamic balance asymmetries may be affected using single leg predominantly in the mobilization workouts. Because of having higher inter-limb asymmetry index, left-dominant leg players may be screened and trained to minimize balance asymmetry.

Keywords: bilateral balance, asymmetries, dominant leg, leg preference

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1447 Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing

Authors: Yu Zhang, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama


We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.

Keywords: bilateral filter, binarized-weight bilateral filter, image smoothing, image denoising, pixel sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1446 Finite Element Analysis of the Lumbar Spine after Unilateral and Bilateral Laminotomies and Laminectomy

Authors: Chih-Hsien Chen, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Yen-Nien Chen, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li


Laminotomy is a spinal decompression surgery compatible with a minimally invasive approach. However, the unilateral laminotomy for bilateral side decompression leads to more perioperative complications than the bilateral laminotomy. Although the unilateral laminotomy removes the least bone tissue among the spinal decompression surgeries, the difference of spinal stability between unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy on the lumbar spine by finite element (FE) simulation. A three-dimensional FE model of the lumbar spine (L1–L5) was constructed with the vertebral body, discs, and ligaments, as well as the sacrum was constructed. Three different surgical methods, namely unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy, at L3–L4 and L4–L5 were considered. Partial pedicle and entire ligamentum flavum were removed to simulate bilateral decompression in laminotomy. The entire lamina and spinal processes from the lower L3 to upper L5 were detached in the laminectomy model. Then, four kinds of loadings, namely flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation, were applied on the lumbar with various decompression conditions. The results indicated that the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy both increased the range of motion (ROM) compared with intact lumbar, while the laminectomy increased more ROM than both laminotomy did. The difference of ROM between the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy was very minor. Furthermore, bilateral laminotomy demonstrated similar poster element stress with unilateral laminotomy. Unilateral and bilateral laminotomy are equally suggested to bilateral decompression of lumbar spine with minimally invasive technique because limited effect was aroused due to more bone remove in the bilateral laminotomy on the lumbar stability. Furthermore, laminectomy is the last option for lumbar decompression.

Keywords: minimally invasive technique, lumbar decompression, laminotomy, laminectomy, finite element method

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1445 Modeling Spillover Effects of Pakistan-India Bilateral Trade upon Sustainability of Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Taimoor Hussain Alvi, Syed Toqueer Akhter


The focus of this research is to identify Pak-India bilateral trade spillover effects upon Pakistan’s Growth rate. Cross-country spillover growth Effects have been linked with openness and access to markets. In this research, we intend to see the short run and long run effects of Pak-India Bilateral Trade Openness upon economic growth in Pakistan. Trade Openness has been measured as the sum of bilateral exports and imports between the two countries. Increased emphasis on the condition and environment of financial markets is laid in light of globalization and trade liberalization. This research paper makes use of the Univariate Autoregressive Distributed Lagged Model to analyze the effects of bilateral trade variables upon the growth pattern of Pakistan in the short run and long run. Key findings of the study empirically support the notion that increased bilateral trade will be beneficial for Pakistan in the short run because of cost advantage and knowledge spillover in terms of increased technical and managerial ability from multinational firms. However, contrary to extensive literature, increased bilateral trade measures will affect Pakistan’s growth rate negatively in the long run because of the industrial size differential and increased integration of Indian economy with the world.

Keywords: bilateral trade openness, spillover, comparative advantage, univariate

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1444 The Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

Authors: Tugbay Inan


Competitive balance is known to have an important effect in determining the result of football matches. The degree of competitiveness is referred as competitive balance in football. Sports economics are the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as media effect, home advantage, revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. The purpose of present study was to measure the competitive balance in the football league of Turkey. In this study, by using long term competitive balance analysis, some facing problems and precautions were discussed through the seasons (1987-2014) in Turkish Football Super League (TSL). Within the practice of this study, The way that competitive balance level followed was determined in the history of super league (27 years). Based on this purpose, C5 Competitive Balance Index (C5CBI) and a Herfindahl index of competitive balance (HICB) were used. Finally, it is seen that in Super League, competitive balance factor took place time to time, however in total, a view apart from competitive balance is obviously seen.

Keywords: competitive balance, turkish football, c5 competitive balance index, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

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1443 Dark and Bright Envelopes for Dehazing Images

Authors: Zihan Yu, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama


We present a method for de-hazing images. A dark envelope image is derived with the bilateral minimum filter and a bright envelope is derived with the bilateral maximum filter. The ambient light and transmission of the scene are estimated from these two envelope images. An image without haze is reconstructed from the estimated ambient light and transmission.

Keywords: image dehazing, bilateral minimum filter, bilateral maximum filter, local contrast

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
1442 Influence of Bilateral and Unilateral Flatfoot on Pelvic Alignment

Authors: Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Enas Elsayed Abutaleb


Background: The changes in foot posture possibly generate changes in the pelvic alignment, although, there is lack of evidence about the effects of bilateral and unilateral flatfoot on possible changes in pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flatfoot on the sagittal and frontal planes of pelvic postures. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects, aged 18–40 years, were assigned into three groups. 20 healthy subjects, 19 subjects with bilateral flexible second-degree flat foot, and 17 subjects with unilateral flexible second-degree flat foot. 3D assessment of the pelvis using the formetric-II device was used to evaluate pelvic alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes by measuring pelvic inclination and pelvic tilt angles. Results: ANOVA test with LSD test were used for statistical analysis. Both Unilateral and bilateral second degree flatfoot produced significant (P < 0.05) pelvic anteversion in comparison to the healthy subjects (P < 0.05), but the bilateral flatfoot subjects seemed to have more anteversion than the unilateral subjects. Unilateral flatfoot caused a significant (P<0.05) lateral pelvic tilt in the direction of the affected side in comparison to the healthy and bilateral flatfoot subjects. Conclusion: The bilateral and unilateral second degree flatfoot changed pelvic alignment. Both of them led to increases of pelvic anteversion while the unilateral one caused lateral pelvic tilt toward the affected side. Thus, foot posture should be considered when assessing patients with pelvic misalignment and disorders.

Keywords: bilateral flatfoot, unilateral flatfoot, pelvic alignment, foot posture

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1441 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan, Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: balance, coordination, intellectual disability, motor skills, sport

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1440 The Study of the Perspectives on Economic Development in Bilateral Investment Treaties

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha


In the post cold war era the foreign direct investments have come to be considered as one of the most critical factors for economic development of a country particularly for the capital scarce countries like the developing and the under developed countries. The rush for foreign direct investments have led to intense competition between the countries treaties to attract foreign investments by entering into alluring Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). The Bilateral Investment Treaties are the intergovernmental legal framework for the promotion of private investments from one country to other. With more than 3000 BITs, the web of such BITs are the most dominant development of International Law in the post cold war era. The essence of all these BITs are bilateral cooperation for economic development and thus it is actually the theme of economic development around which the International Law had developed most dominantly in the post cold war era. Within the framework of two generally accepted premises that foreign direct investments are critical for economic development and the bilateral investment treaties are critical for promotion of foreign direct investments, the research paper seeks to explore the perspectives and paradigms on economic development as embodied in various Bilateral Investment Treaties. It seeks to address how and in what manners the perspectives on economic development as embodied in bilateral investment varies between the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. It goes without saying that economic development is a very broad, complex and operationally intricate concept. In the paradigm of International Law it becomes much more complex and intricate. Understanding the concept of economic development from the perspectives of Bilateral Investment Treaties is a novel idea with far reaching significance. Such a perspective on economic development would help in enriching the contemporary International Law perspectives and paradigms on economic development.

Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, economic development, international Law, perspectives

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1439 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila


Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy, so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. Five male healthy (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177 cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8 kg ± 6.6) participated in this study. Results found that The implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: centre of mass, static balance, dynamic balance, extrapolated centre of mass

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1438 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar


This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

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1437 Protection of Chinese Enterprises’ Overseas Investments Under Bilateral Investment Treaties Under the Belt and Road Initiative

Authors: Bo Sun, Ni Zhong


Bilateral investment treaties have played a role in the construction of the Belt and Road, providing institutional protection for Chinese companies' overseas investments. However, such treaties between China and countries along the Belt and Road were signed in the 1980s and 1990s, and their provisions are outdated and insufficiently detailed to provide adequate legal protection for Chinese investors when they initiate investment arbitration against host countries. By studying cases involving China in international investment arbitration, this paper suggests that China should pay attention to further clarifying the identity of "investors", the scope of disputes that can be submitted to arbitration, and the concept of "indirect expropriation" when updating bilateral investment treaties in the future, in order to reduce the risk of losing cases for Chinese investors.

Keywords: belt and road, bilateral investment agreement, investment arbitration, indirect expropriation

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1436 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo


Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure

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1435 Prosthesis Design for Bilateral Hip Disarticulation Management

Authors: Mauricio Plaza, Willian Aperador


Hip disarticulation is an amputation through the hip joint capsule, removing the entire lower extremity, with a closure of the remaining musculature over the exposed acetabulum. Tumors of the distal and proximal femur were treated by total femur resection; a hip disarticulation sometimes is a performance for massive trauma with crush injuries to the lower extremity. This article discusses the design a system for rehabilitation of a patient with bilateral hip disarticulations. The prosthetics designed allowed the patient to do natural gait suspended between parallel articulate crutches with the body weight support between the crutches. The care of this patient was a challenge due to bilateral amputations at such a high level and the special needs of a patient mobility.

Keywords: amputation, prosthesis, mobility, hemipelvectomy

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1434 Biomechanical Evaluation for Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression: Unilateral Versus Bilateral Approaches

Authors: Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Hsien Chen, Chih-Han Chang


Unilateral laminotomy and bilateral laminotomies were successful decompressions methods for managing spinal stenosis that numerous studies have reported. Thus, unilateral laminotomy was rated technically much more demanding than bilateral laminotomies, whereas the bilateral laminotomies were associated with a positive benefit to reduce more complications. There were including incidental durotomy, increased radicular deficit, and epidural hematoma. However, no relative biomechanical analysis for evaluating spinal instability treated with unilateral and bilateral laminotomies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different decompressions methods by experimental and finite element analysis. Three porcine lumbar spines were biomechanically evaluated for their range of motion, and the results were compared following unilateral or bilateral laminotomies. The experimental protocol included flexion and extension in the following procedures: intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies (L2–L5). The specimens in this study were tested in flexion (8 Nm) and extension (6 Nm) of pure moment. Spinal segment kinematic data was captured by using the motion tracking system. A 3D finite element lumbar spine model (L1-S1) containing vertebral body, discs, and ligaments were constructed. This model was used to simulate the situation of treating unilateral and bilateral laminotomies at L3-L4 and L4-L5. The bottom surface of S1 vertebral body was fully geometrically constrained in this study. A 10 Nm pure moment also applied on the top surface of L1 vertebral body to drive lumbar doing different motion, such as flexion and extension. The experimental results showed that in the flexion, the ROMs (±standard deviation) of L3–L4 were 1.35±0.23, 1.34±0.67, and 1.66±0.07 degrees of the intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies, respectively. The ROMs of L4–L5 were 4.35±0.29, 4.06±0.87, and 4.2±0.32 degrees, respectively. No statistical significance was observed in these three groups (P>0.05). In the extension, the ROMs of L3–L4 were 0.89±0.16, 1.69±0.08, and 1.73±0.13 degrees, respectively. In the L4-L5, the ROMs were 1.4±0.12, 2.44±0.26, and 2.5±0.29 degrees, respectively. Significant differences were observed among all trials, except between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. At the simulation results portion, the similar results were discovered with the experiment. No significant differences were found at L4-L5 both flexion and extension in each group. Only 0.02 and 0.04 degrees variation were observed during flexion and extension between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. In conclusions, the present results by finite element analysis and experimental reveal that no significant differences were observed during flexion and extension between unilateral and bilateral laminotomies in short-term follow-up. From a biomechanical point of view, bilateral laminotomies seem to exhibit a similar stability as unilateral laminotomy. In clinical practice, the bilateral laminotomies are likely to reduce technical difficulties and prevent perioperative complications; this study proved this benefit through biomechanical analysis. The results may provide some recommendations for surgeons to make the final decision.

Keywords: unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomies, spinal stenosis, finite element analysis

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1433 Lower Limb Oedema in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Authors: Mihai-Ionut Firescu, Mark A. P. Carson


We present a case of inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) associated with bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In adult patients with BWS presenting with bilateral lower limb oedema, specific aetiological factors should be considered. These include cardiomyopathy and intraabdominal tumours. Congenital malformations of the IVC, through causing relative venous stasis, can lead to lower limb oedema either directly or indirectly by favouring lower limb venous thromboembolism; however, they are yet to be reported as an associated feature of BWS. Given its life-threatening potential, the prompt initiation of treatment for bilateral DVT is paramount. In BWS patients, however, this can prove more complicated. Due to overgrowth, the above-average birth weight can continue throughout childhood. In this case, the patient’s weight reached 170 kg, impacting on anticoagulation choice, as direct oral anticoagulants have a limited evidence base in patients with a body mass above 120 kg. Furthermore, the presence of IVCA leads to a long-term increased venous thrombosis risk. Therefore, patients with IVCA and bilateral DVT warrant specialist consideration and may benefit from multidisciplinary team management, with hematology and vascular surgery input. Conclusion: Here, we showcased a rare cause for bilateral lower limb oedema, respectively bilateral deep venous thrombosis complicating IVCA in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The importance of this case lies in its novelty, as the association between IVC agenesis and BWS has not yet been described. Furthermore, the treatment of DVT in such situations requires special consideration, taking into account the patient’s weight and the presence of a significant, predisposing vascular abnormality.

Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, bilateral deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava agenesis, venous thromboembolism

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1432 Evaluating the Baseline Chatacteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed


The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: static balance, base of support, baseline data, young adults

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1431 Labour Standards and Bilateral Migration Flows in ASEAN

Authors: Rusmawati Said, N. Kar Yee, Asmaddy Haris


This study employs a panel data set of ASEAN member states, 17 European Union (EU) countries, 7 American countries and 11 other Asia Pacific countries (China Mainland and Hong Kong SAR are treated as two separated countries) to investigate the role of labour standards in explaining the pattern of bilateral migration flows in ASEAN. Using pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) this study found mixed results. The result varies on how indicators were used to measure the level of labour standards in the empirical analysis. In one side, better labour standards (represented by number of strikes and weekly average working hours) promote bilateral migration among the selected countries. On the other side, increase in cases of occupational injuries lead to an increase in bilateral migration, reflecting that worsen in working conditions do not influence the workers’ decision from moving. The finding from this study become important to policy maker as the issues of massive low skilled workers have a significant impact to the role of labour standard in shaping the migration flows.

Keywords: labour standard, migration, ASEAN, economics and financial engineering

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1430 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar


Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: balance, body composition, body mass, young adults

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1429 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: adults, balance, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

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1428 Relationship between Dynamic Balance and Explosive Leg Power in Young Female Gymnasts

Authors: A. Aleksic-Veljkovic, K. Herodek, M. Bratic, M. Mitic


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of dynamic balance and countermovement jump in young, female gymnasts. A single-group design was used. Forty-seven young, female gymnasts (Mean±SD; age: 8-12 years, height: 42.88±10.38 cm, mass: 35.59±8.15 kg; body mass index: 17.18±1.62 kg/m2; training hours per week: 15-18 h/week) performed measurements of dynamic balance and countermovement jump with and without arm swing. Significant, but small to medium associations were observed between variables of balance and height of the jump in both protocols of the countermovement jump ranging from r = +0.313 to +0.426. No significant associations were observed between variables of dynamic balance and relative power and peak power of countermovement jump with or without arm swings. The data indicate that dynamic balance and leg power imply that balance and power are independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily in young gymnasts.

Keywords: artistic gymnastics, countermovement jump, jump height, testing

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1427 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann


Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular

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1426 The Amount of Information Processing and Balance Performance in Children: The Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Chin-Chih Chiou, Tai-Yuan Su, Ti-Yu Chen, Wen-Yu Chiu, Chungyu Chen


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction time (RT) or balance performance as the number of stimulus-response choices increases, the amount of information processing of 0-bit and 1-bit conditions based on Hick’s law, using the dual-task design. Eighteen children (age: 9.38 ± 0.27 years old) were recruited as the participants for this study, and asked to assess RT and balance performance separately and simultaneously as following five conditions: simple RT (0-bit decision), choice RT (1-bit decision), single balance control, balance control with simple RT, and balance control with choice RT. Biodex 950-300 balance system and You-Shang response timer were used to record and analyze the postural stability and information processing speed (RT) respectively for the participants. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with HSD post-hoc test and 2 (balance) × 2 (amount of information processing) repeated measures two-way ANOVA were used to test the parameters of balance performance and RT (α = .05). The results showed the overall stability index in the 1-bit decision was lower than in 0-bit decision, and the mean deflection in the 1-bit decision was lower than in single balance performance. Simple RTs were faster than choice RTs both in single task condition and dual task condition. It indicated that the chronometric approach of RT could use to infer the attention requirement of the secondary task. However, this study did not find that the balance performance is interfered for children by the increasing of the amount of information processing.

Keywords: capacity theory, reaction time, Hick’s law, balance

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1425 Improvement of Cross Range Resolution in Through Wall Radar Imaging Using Bilateral Backprojection

Authors: Rashmi Yadawad, Disha Narayanan, Ravi Gautam


Through Wall Radar Imaging is gaining increasing importance now a days in the field of Defense and one of the most important criteria that forms the basis for the image quality obtained is the Cross-Range resolution of the image. In this research paper, the Bilateral Back projection algorithm has been implemented for Through Wall Radar Imaging. The sole purpose is to enhance the resolution in the cross range direction of the obtained Back projection image. Synthetic Data is generated for two targets which are placed at various locations in a room of dimensions 8 m by 6m. Two algorithms namely, simple back projection and Bilateral Back projection have been implemented, images are obtained and the obtained images are compared. Numerical simulations have been coded in MATLAB and experimental results of the two algorithms have been shown. Based on the comparison between the two images, it can be clearly seen that the ringing effect and chess board effect have been heavily reduced in the bilaterally back projected image and hence promising results are obtained giving a relatively sharper image with relatively well defined edges.

Keywords: through wall radar imaging, bilateral back projection, cross range resolution, synthetic data

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1424 The Influence of Using Soft Knee Pads on Static and Dynamic Balance among Male Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Yaser Kazemzadeh, Keyvan Molanoruzy, Mojtaba Izady


The balance is the key component of motor skills to maintain postural control and the execution of complex skills. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of soft knee pads on static and dynamic balance of male athletes. For this aim, thirty young athletes in different sport fields with 3 years professional sport training background and thirty healthy young men nonathletic (age: 24.5 ± 2.9, 24.3 ± 2.4, weight: 77.2 ± 4.3 and 80/9 ± 6/3 and height: 175 ± 2/84, 172 ± 5/44 respectively) as subjects selected. Then, subjects in two manner (without knee and with soft knee pads made of neoprene) execute standard error test (BESS) to assess static balance and star test to assess dynamic balance. For analyze of data, t-tests and one-way ANOVA were significant 05/0 ≥ α statistical analysis. The results showed that the use of soft knee significantly reduced error rate in static balance test (p ≥ 0/05). Also, use a soft knee pads decreased score of athlete group and increased score of nonathletic group in star test (p ≥ 0/05). These findings, indicates that use of knees affects static and dynamic balance in athletes and nonathletic in different manner and may increased athletic performance in sports that rely on static balance and decreased performance in sports that rely on dynamic balance.

Keywords: static balance, dynamic balance, soft knee, athletic men, non athletic men

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1423 Bilateral Telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot Using Time Domain Passivity Control

Authors: Aamir Shahzad, Hubert Roth


This paper is presenting the bilateral telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot having communication delay. Passivity Observers has been designed to monitor the net energy at both ports of a two port network and if any or both ports become active making net energy negative, then the passivity controllers dissipate the proper energy to make the overall system passive in the presence of time delay. The environment force is modeled and sent back to human operator so that s/he can feel it and has additional information about the environment in the vicinity of mobile robot. The experimental results have been presented to show the performance and stability of bilateral controller. The results show the whenever the passivity observers observe active behavior then the passivity controller come into action to neutralize the active behavior to make overall system passive.

Keywords: bilateral control, human operator, haptic device, communication network, time domain passivity control, passivity observer, passivity controller, time delay, mobile robot, environment force

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1422 Analysis of Preferences in Decision Making in a Bilateral Negotiation Context: An Experimental Approach from Game Theory

Authors: Laura V. Gonzalez, Juan B. Duarte, Luis A. Palacio


Decision making can be conditioned by factors such as the environments, circumstances, behavioral biases, emotions, beliefs and preferences of the participants. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect ‘amount of information’ and ‘number of options’, on the behavior of competitors under a bilateral negotiation context. For the above, it has been designed an experiment as a classroom game where they negotiate goods, under the condition that none of the players knows exactly the real value of the asset. The game is designed under the concept of zero-sum (non-cooperative game) and focuses on the fact that agents must anticipate the strategies of their opponent to improve their chances of winning in the negotiation. The empirical results show that, contrary to the traditional view of expected utility theory, players prefer to obtain low profits and losses, when faced with a higher expectation of losses, using sub-optimal strategies not in accordance with game theory.

Keywords: bilateral negotiation, classroom game, decision making, game theory

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1421 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

Authors: Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mohammed K. Mohamed, Nawal A. Abu-Shady


Background: Most of patients with vestibular dysfunction suffering from balance disorders, Abnormality in balance increase effort and exertion which affect the independency, so this study might be a guide in managing balance problem and consequently improve walking with less exertion and maximum function. Purpose: to analyze and discuss the effect of transcranial magnetic therapy on balance in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Methods: forty subjects from both sexes were classified to divided randomly into two equal groups; Group I study group: this group received transcranial magnetic therapy, with a selected physical therapy program for improving balance and vestibular disorders (Balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises) and group II (control group): this group received a selected physical therapy program as group I without transcranial magnetic therapy. This treatment procedure will be applied three times weekly for three months. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and II respectively. The Biodex Balance System, Berge balances scale (BBS) and brain MRI were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment. The treatment program for group I included balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises and pulsed magnetic therapy (Parameters used in the program of 20 minutes, Intensity 2 gausses, Frequency 1 Hz). This selected program was done in approximately one hour every other day for three month. The treatment program group II Patients received the same program as group A without transcranial magnetic therapy. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in BBS scores, overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability between both groups. Moreover, the BBS scores increased and overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with before treatment. Interpretation/Conclusion: Adding pulsed magnetic therapy to balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises has no effect on static and dynamic balance in patients with balance problems due to benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.

Keywords: balance, transcranial magnetic therapy, vestibular dysfunction, biomechanic

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1420 Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat

Authors: Dhruveshi B. Rana, Nirav P. Vaghela, Jigar N. Mehta


Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.

Keywords: age, gender, anthropometric, dynamic balance

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1419 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed


The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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