Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1061

Search results for: geometric attack

1061 A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Against Geometrical Attack Based on Hybrid Scheme

Authors: M. Samadzadeh Mahabadi, J. Shanbehzadeh


This paper presents a hybrid digital image-watermarking scheme, which is robust against varieties of attacks and geometric distortions. The image content is represented by important feature points obtained by an image-texture-based adaptive Harris corner detector. These feature points are extracted from LL2 of 2-D discrete wavelet transform which are obtained by using the Harris-Laplacian detector. We calculate the Fourier transform of circular regions around these points. The amplitude of this transform is rotation invariant. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against the geometric distortions and various common image processing operations such as JPEG compression, colour reduction, Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and rotation.

Keywords: digital watermarking, geometric distortions, geometrical attack, Harris Laplace, important feature points, rotation, scale invariant feature

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
1060 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei


With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain, threat intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1059 Islamic Geometric Design: Infinite Point or Creativity through Compass and Digital

Authors: Ridzuan Hussin, Mohd Zaihidee Arshad


The creativity of earlier artists and sculptors in designing geometric is extraordinary provided with only a compass. Indeed, geometric in Islamic art and design are unique and have their own aesthetic values. In order to further understand geometric, self-learning with the approach of hands on would be appropriate. For this study, Islamic themed geometric designed and created, concerning only; i. The Square Repetition Unit and √2, ii. The Hexagonal Repetition Unit and √3 and iii. Double Hexagon. The aim of this research is to evaluate the creativity of Islamic geometric pattern artworks, through Fundamental Arts and Gestalt theory. Data was collected using specific tasks, and this research intends to identify the difference of Islamic geometric between 21 untitled selected geometric artworks (conventional design method), and 25 digital untitled geometric pattern artworks method. The evaluation of creativity, colors, layout, pattern and unity is known to be of utmost importance, although there are differences in the conventional or the digital approach.

Keywords: Islamic geometric design, Gestalt, fundamentals of art, patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
1058 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi


Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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1057 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi


Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
1056 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao


Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: heart attack, artificial neural network, diagnosis, intelligent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1055 Reliable and Energy-Aware Data Forwarding under Sink-Hole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ebrahim Alrashed


Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to attacks from adversaries attempting to disrupt their operations. Sink-hole attacks are a type of attack where an adversary node drops data forwarded through it and hence affecting the reliability and accuracy of the network. Since sensor nodes have limited battery power, it is essential that any solution to the sinkhole attack problem be very energy-aware. In this paper, we present a reliable and energy efficient scheme to forward data from source nodes to the base station while under sink-hole attack. The scheme also detects sink-hole attack nodes and avoid paths that includes them.

Keywords: energy-aware routing, reliability, sink-hole attack, WSN

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1054 Discursively Examination of 8th Grade Students’ Geometric Thinking Levels

Authors: Ferdağ Çulhan, Emine Gaye Çontay


Geometric thinking levels created by Van Hiele are used to determine students' progress in geometric thinking. Many studies have been conducted on geometric thinking levels and they have taken their place in teaching curricula over time. It is thought that geometric thinking levels, which have become so important in teaching, can be examined in depth. In order to make an in-depth analysis, it was decided that the most appropriate management was discourse analysis. In this study, the focus is on examining the geometric thinking levels of 8th grade students from a discursive point of view. Sfard (2008)'s "Commognitive" theory will be used to conduct discursive analysis. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" created by Patkin (2014) and translated into Turkish for this research will be used in the research. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" contains questions from the sub-learning domain of triangles and quadrilaterals, circles and geometric objects. It has a wider scope than many "Van Hiele Questionnaires". “Global Van Hiele Questionnaire” will be applied to 8th grade students. Then, the geometric thinking levels of the students will be determined and interviews will be held with two students from each of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels. The interviews will be recorded and the students' discourses will be examined. By evaluating the relations between the students' geometric thinking levels and their discourses, it will be examined how much their discourse reflects their level of thinking. In this way, it is thought that students' geometric thinking processes can be better understood.

Keywords: mathematical discourses, commognitive framework, geometric thinking levels, van hiele

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1053 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long


Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1052 Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Attack and Automatic Detection Technology Research

Authors: Tao Feng, Wei-Wei Zhang, Chang-Ming Ding


Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most popular WEB Attacking methods at present, and also one of the most risky web attacks. Because of the population of JavaScript, the scene of the cross site scripting attack is also gradually expanded. However, since the web application developers tend to only focus on functional testing and lack the awareness of the XSS, which has made the on-line web projects exist many XSS vulnerabilities. In this paper, different various techniques of XSS attack are analyzed, and a method automatically to detect it is proposed. It is easy to check the results of vulnerability detection when running it as a plug-in.

Keywords: XSS, no target attack platform, automatic detection,XSS detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1051 Geometric Continuity in the Form of Iranian Domes, Study of Prominent Safavid and Sasanian Domes

Authors: Nima Valibeig, Haniyeh Mohammadi, Neda Sadat Abdelahi


Persian domes follow different forms depending on the materials used to construct and other factors. One of the factors that shape the form of a dome is the geometric proportion used in the drawing and construction of the dome. Some commonly used proportions are revealed by analysing the shapes and geometric ratio of the monuments’ domes. The proportions are achieved by the proficiency of the skilled architects of the buildings. These proportions can be used to reconstruct damaged parts of the historical monuments. Most of the research on domes is about the historical or stability features of domes, and less attention is made to the geometric system in domes. Therefore, in this study, we study the explicit and implicit geometric proportions in Iranian dome structures for the first time. The study is done based on a literature review and field survey. This research reveals that the permanent geometric rules are perfectly used in the design and construction of the prominent domes.

Keywords: geometry in architecture, architectural proportions, prominent domes, iranian golden ratio, geometric proportion

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1050 Cryptographic Attack on Lucas Based Cryptosystems Using Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Tze Jin Wong, Lee Feng Koo, Pang Hung Yiu


Lenstra’s attack uses Chinese remainder theorem as a tool and requires a faulty signature to be successful. This paper reports on the security responses of fourth and sixth order Lucas based (LUC4,6) cryptosystem under the Lenstra’s attack as compared to the other two Lucas based cryptosystems such as LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. All the Lucas based cryptosystems were exposed mathematically to the Lenstra’s attack using Chinese Remainder Theorem and Dickson polynomial. Result shows that the possibility for successful Lenstra’s attack is less against LUC4,6 cryptosystem than LUC3 and LUC cryptosystems. Current study concludes that LUC4,6 cryptosystem is more secure than LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems in sustaining against Lenstra’s attack.

Keywords: Lucas sequence, Dickson polynomial, faulty signature, corresponding signature, congruence

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1049 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Abhijit Chatterjee, Aishwaryaprajna


Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem.

Keywords: geometric programming problem, multivariate optimisation technique, posynomial, spatial interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1048 A Game of Information in Defense/Attack Strategies: Case of Poisson Attacks

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept of Poisson attacks in the case of defense/attack strategies where attacks are assumed to be continuous. We suggest a game model in which the attacker will combine both criteria of a sufficient confidence level of a successful attack and a reasonably small size of the estimation error in order to launch an attack. Here, estimation error arises from assessing the system failure upon attack using aggregate data at the system level. The corresponding error is referred to as aggregation error. On the other hand, the defender will attempt to deter attack by making one or both criteria inapplicable. The defender will build his/her strategy by both strengthening the targeted system and increasing the size of error. We will formulate the defender problem based on appropriate optimization models. The attacker will opt for a Bayesian updating in assessing the impact on the improvement made by the defender. Then, the attacker will evaluate the feasibility of the attack before making the decision of whether or not to launch it. We will provide illustrations to better explain the process.

Keywords: attacker, defender, game theory, information

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
1047 11-Round Impossible Differential Attack on Midori64

Authors: Zhan Chen, Wenquan Bi


This paper focuses on examining the strength of Midori against impossible differential attack. The Midori family of light weight block cipher orienting to energy-efficiency is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. Using a 6-round property, the authors implement an 11-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 by extending two rounds on the top and three rounds on the bottom. There is enough key space to consider pre-whitening keys in this attack. An impossible differential path that minimises the key bits involved is used to reduce computational complexity. Several additional observations such as partial abort technique are used to further reduce data and time complexities. This attack has data complexity of 2 ⁶⁹·² chosen plaintexts, requires 2 ¹⁴·⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2 ⁹⁴·⁷ 11- round Midori64 encryptions.

Keywords: cryptanalysis, impossible differential, light weight block cipher, Midori

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1046 External Sulphate Attack: Advanced Testing and Performance Specifications

Authors: G. Massaad, E. Roziere, A. Loukili, L. Izoret


Based on the monitoring of mass, hydrostatic weighing, and the amount of leached OH- we deduced the nature of leached and precipitated minerals, the amount of lost aggregates and the evolution of porosity and cracking during the sulphate attack. Using these information, we are able to draw the volume / mass changes brought by mineralogical variations and cracking of the cement matrix. Then we defined a new performance indicator, the averaged density, capable to resume along the test of sulphate attack the occurred physicochemical variation occurred in the cementitious matrix and then highlight.

Keywords: monitoring strategy, performance indicator, sulphate attack, mechanism of degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1045 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush


Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

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1044 Achieving Better Security by Using Nonlinear Cellular Automata as a Cryptographic Primitive

Authors: Swapan Maiti, Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury


Nonlinear functions are essential in different cryptoprimitives as they play an important role on the security of the cipher designs. Rule 30 was identified as a powerful nonlinear function for cryptographic applications. However, an attack (MS attack) was mounted against Rule 30 Cellular Automata (CA). Nonlinear rules as well as maximum period CA increase randomness property. In this work, nonlinear rules of maximum period nonlinear hybrid CA (M-NHCA) are studied and it is shown to be a better crypto-primitive than Rule 30 CA. It has also been analysed that the M-NHCA with single nonlinearity injection proposed in the literature is vulnerable against MS attack, whereas M-NHCA with multiple nonlinearity injections provide maximum length cycle as well as better cryptographic primitives and they are also secure against MS attack.

Keywords: cellular automata, maximum period nonlinear CA, Meier and Staffelbach attack, nonlinear functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1043 Modeling Intelligent Threats: Case of Continuous Attacks on a Specific Target

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez


In this paper, we treat a model that falls in the area of protecting targeted systems from intelligent threats including terrorism. We introduce the concept of system survivability, in the context of continuous attacks, as the probability that a system under attack will continue operation up to some fixed time t. We define a constant attack rate (CAR) process as an attack on a targeted system that follows an exponential distribution. We consider the superposition of several CAR processes. From the attacker side, we determine the optimal attack strategy that minimizes the system survivability. We also determine the optimal strengthening strategy that maximizes the system survivability under limited defensive resources. We use operations research techniques to identify optimal strategies of each antagonist. Our results may be used as interesting starting points to develop realistic protection strategies against intentional attacks.

Keywords: CAR processes, defense/attack strategies, exponential failure, survivability

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1042 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor


The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1041 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

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1040 An Aspiring Solution to the Man in the Middle Bootstrap Vulnerability

Authors: Mouad Zouina, Benaceur Outtaj


The proposed work falls within the context of improving data security for m-commerce systems. In this context we have placed under the light some flaws encountered in HTTPS the most used m-commerce protocol, particularly the man in the middle attack, shortly MITM. The man in the middle attack is an active listening attack. The idea of this attack is to target the handshake phase of the HTTPS protocol which is the transition from a non-secure connection to a secure connection in our case HTTP to HTTPS. This paper proposes a solution to fix those flaws based on the upgrade of HSTS standard handshake sequence using the DNSSEC standard.

Keywords: m-commerce, HTTPS, HSTS, DNSSEC, MITM bootstrap vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1039 A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks

Authors: Naghmeh Moradpoor Sheykhkanloo


Structured Query Language Injection (SQLI) attack is a code injection technique in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a web browser. Losing data, disclosing confidential information or even changing the value of data are the severe damages that SQLI attack can cause on a given database. SQLI attack has also been rated as the number-one attack among top ten web application threats on Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). OWASP is an open community dedicated to enabling organisations to consider, develop, obtain, function, and preserve applications that can be trusted. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern recognition neural network model for detection and classification of SQLI attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different SQLI attack categories, and an NN model in order to: 1) detect either a given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the type of SQLI attack for each malicious URL. The model is first trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: neural networks, pattern recognition, SQL injection attacks, SQL injection attack classification, SQL injection attack detection

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1038 Geometric Design to Improve the Temperature

Authors: H. Ghodbane, A. A. Taleb, O. Kraa


This paper presents geometric design of induction heating system. The objective of this design is to improve the temperature distribution in the load. The study of such a device requires the use of models or modeling representation, physical, mathematical, and numerical. This modeling is the basis of the understanding, the design, and optimization of these systems. The optimization technique is to find values of variables that maximize or minimize the objective function.

Keywords: optimization, modeling, geometric design system, temperature increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
1037 Geometric Simplification Method of Building Energy Model Based on Building Performance Simulation

Authors: Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang


In the design stage of a new building, the energy model of this building is often required for the analysis of the performance on energy efficiency. In practice, a certain degree of geometric simplification should be done in the establishment of building energy models, since the detailed geometric features of a real building are hard to be described perfectly in most energy simulation engine, such as ESP-r, eQuest or EnergyPlus. Actually, the detailed description is not necessary when the result with extremely high accuracy is not demanded. Therefore, this paper analyzed the relationship between the error of the simulation result from building energy models and the geometric simplification of the models. Finally, the following two parameters are selected as the indices to characterize the geometric feature of in building energy simulation: the southward projected area and total side surface area of the building, Based on the parameterization method, the simplification from an arbitrary column building to a typical shape (a cuboid) building can be made for energy modeling. The result in this study indicates that this simplification would only lead to the error that is less than 7% for those buildings with the ratio of southward projection length to total perimeter of the bottom of 0.25~0.35, which can cover most situations.

Keywords: building energy model, simulation, geometric simplification, design, regression

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1036 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

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1035 The Impact of Undisturbed Flow Speed on the Correlation of Aerodynamic Coefficients as a Function of the Angle of Attack for the Gyroplane Body

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Skiba, Miroslaw Wendeker


This paper discusses the results of aerodynamic investigation of the Tajfun gyroplane body designed by a Polish company, Aviation Artur Trendak. This gyroplane has been studied as a 1:8 scale model. Scaling objects for aerodynamic investigation is an inherent procedure in any kind of designing. If scaling, the criteria of similarity need to be satisfied. The basic criteria of similarity are geometric, kinematic and dynamic. Despite the results of aerodynamic research are often reduced to aerodynamic coefficients, one should pay attention to how values of coefficients behave if certain criteria are to be satisfied. To satisfy the dynamic criterion, for example, the Reynolds number should be focused on. This is the correlation of inertial to viscous forces. With the multiplied flow speed by the specific dimension as a numerator (with a constant kinematic viscosity coefficient), flow speed in a wind tunnel research should be increased as many times as an object is decreased. The aerodynamic coefficients specified in this research depend on the real forces that act on an object, its specific dimension, medium speed and variations in its density. Rapid prototyping with a 3D printer was applied to create the research object. The research was performed with a T-1 low-speed wind tunnel (its diameter of the measurement volume is 1.5 m) and a six-element aerodynamic internal scales, WDP1, at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw. This T-1 wind tunnel is low-speed continuous operation with open space measurement. The research covered a number of the selected speeds of undisturbed flow, i.e. V = 20, 30 and 40 m/s, corresponding to the Reynolds numbers (as referred to 1 m) Re = 1.31∙106, 1.96∙106, 2.62∙106 for the angles of attack ranging -15° ≤ α ≤ 20°. Our research resulted in basic aerodynamic characteristics and observing the impact of undisturbed flow speed on the correlation of aerodynamic coefficients as a function of the angle of attack of the gyroplane body. If the speed of undisturbed flow in the wind tunnel changes, the aerodynamic coefficients are significantly impacted. At speed from 20 m/s to 30 m/s, drag coefficient, Cx, changes by 2.4% up to 9.9%, whereas lift coefficient, Cz, changes by -25.5% up to 15.7% if the angle of attack of 0° excluded or by -25.5% up to 236.9% if the angle of attack of 0° included. Within the same speed range, the coefficient of a pitching moment, Cmy, changes by -21.1% up to 7.3% if the angles of attack -15° and -10° excluded or by -142.8% up to 618.4% if the angle of attack -15° and -10° included. These discrepancies in the coefficients of aerodynamic forces definitely need to consider while designing the aircraft. For example, if load of certain aircraft surfaces is calculated, additional correction factors definitely need to be applied. This study allows us to estimate the discrepancies in the aerodynamic forces while scaling the aircraft. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: aerodynamics, criteria of similarity, gyroplane, research tunnel

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1034 Providing a Secure Hybrid Method for Graphical Password Authentication to Prevent Shoulder Surfing, Smudge and Brute Force Attack

Authors: Faraji Sepideh


Nowadays, purchase rate of the smart device is increasing and user authentication is one of the important issues in information security. Alphanumeric strong passwords are difficult to memorize and also owners write them down on papers or save them in a computer file. In addition, text password has its own flaws and is vulnerable to attacks. Graphical password can be used as an alternative to alphanumeric password that users choose images as a password. This type of password is easier to use and memorize and also more secure from pervious password types. In this paper we have designed a more secure graphical password system to prevent shoulder surfing, smudge and brute force attack. This scheme is a combination of two types of graphical passwords recognition based and Cued recall based. Evaluation the usability and security of our proposed scheme have been explained in conclusion part.

Keywords: brute force attack, graphical password, shoulder surfing attack, smudge attack

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1033 The Journey of a Malicious HTTP Request

Authors: M. Mansouri, P. Jaklitsch, E. Teiniker


SQL injection on web applications is a very popular kind of attack. There are mechanisms such as intrusion detection systems in order to detect this attack. These strategies often rely on techniques implemented at high layers of the application but do not consider the low level of system calls. The problem of only considering the high level perspective is that an attacker can circumvent the detection tools using certain techniques such as URL encoding. One technique currently used for detecting low-level attacks on privileged processes is the tracing of system calls. System calls act as a single gate to the Operating System (OS) kernel; they allow catching the critical data at an appropriate level of detail. Our basic assumption is that any type of application, be it a system service, utility program or Web application, “speaks” the language of system calls when having a conversation with the OS kernel. At this level we can see the actual attack while it is happening. We conduct an experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of system call analysis for detecting SQL injection. We are able to detect the attack. Therefore we conclude that system calls are not only powerful in detecting low-level attacks but that they also enable us to detect high-level attacks such as SQL injection.

Keywords: Linux system calls, web attack detection, interception, SQL

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1032 Investigation of Airship Motion Sensitivity to Geometric Parameters

Authors: Han Ding, Wang Xiaoliang, Duan Dengping


During the process of airship design, the layout and the geometric shape of the hull and fins are crucial to the motion characteristics of the airship. In this paper, we obtained the quantification motion sensitivity of the airship to geometric parameters through turning circles and horizontal/vertical zigzag maneuvers by the parameterization of airship shape and building the dynamic model using Lagrangian approach and MATLAB Simulink program. In the dynamics simulation program, the affection of geometric parameters to the mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia, product of inertia, added mass and the aerodynamic forces and moments have been considered.

Keywords: airship, Lagrangian approach, turning circles, horizontal/vertical zigzag maneuvers

Procedia PDF Downloads 348