Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5362

Search results for: interquartile range

5362 A Blind Three-Dimensional Meshes Watermarking Using the Interquartile Range

Authors: Emad E. Abdallah, Alaa E. Abdallah, Bajes Y. Alskarnah


We introduce a robust three-dimensional watermarking algorithm for copyright protection and indexing. The basic idea behind our technique is to measure the interquartile range or the spread of the 3D model vertices. The algorithm starts by converting all the vertices to spherical coordinate followed by partitioning them into small groups. The proposed algorithm is slightly altering the interquartile range distribution of the small groups based on predefined watermark. The experimental results on several 3D meshes prove perceptual invisibility and the robustness of the proposed technique against the most common attacks including compression, noise, smoothing, scaling, rotation as well as combinations of these attacks.

Keywords: watermarking, three-dimensional models, perceptual invisibility, interquartile range, 3D attacks

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5361 Positive Effect of Manipulated Virtual Kinematic Intervention in Individuals with Traumatic Stiff Shoulder: Pilot Study

Authors: Isabella Schwartz, Ori Safran, Naama Karniel, Michal Abel, Adina Berko, Martin Seyres, Tamir Tsoar, Sigal Portnoy


Virtual Reality allows to manipulate the patient’s perception, thereby providing a motivational addition to real-time biofeedback exercises. We aimed to test the effect of manipulated virtual kinematic intervention on measures of active and passive Range of Motion (ROM), pain, and disability level in individuals with traumatic stiff shoulder. In a double-blinded study, patients with stiff shoulder following proximal humerus fracture and non-operative treatment were randomly divided into a non-manipulated feedback group (NM-group; N=6) and a manipulated feedback group (M-group; N=7). The shoulder ROM, pain, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were tested at baseline and after the 6 sessions, during which the subjects performed shoulder flexion and abduction in front of a graphic visualization of the shoulder angle. The biofeedback provided to the NM-group was the actual shoulder angle and the feedback provided to the M-group was manipulated so that 10° were constantly subtracted from the actual angle detected by the motion capture system. The M-group showed greater improvement in the active flexion ROM, with median and interquartile range of 197.1 (140.5-425.0) compared to 142.5 (139.1-151.3) for the NM-group (p=.046). Also, the M-group showed greater improvement in the DASH scores, with median and interquartile range of 67.7 (52.8-86.2) compared to 89.7 (83.8-98.3) for the NM-group (p=.022). Manipulated intervention is beneficial in individuals with traumatic stiff shoulder and should be further tested for other populations with orthopedic injuries.

Keywords: virtual reality, biofeedback, shoulder pain, range of motion

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5360 Development of Family Quality of Life Scale for a Family Which Has a Person with Disability: Results of a Delphi Study

Authors: Thirakorn Maneerat, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Jiraporn Khiewyoo


Family quality of life of families who have persons with disabilities is a core concern in government services and community health promotion to deal with the multidimensionality of today’s health and societal issues. The number of families who have persons with disabilities in Thailand is gradually increasing. However, facilitation and evaluation of such family quality of life are limited by the lack of feasible tools. As a consequence, service provided for the families is not optimally facilitated and evaluated. This paper is part of a larger project which is aimed to develop a scale for measuring of family quality of life of families who have persons with developmental disabilities in Thailand, presenting the results of a three-round Delphi method involving 11 experts. The study was obtained during December 2013 to May 2014. The first round consisted of open-ended questionnaire and content analysis of the answers. The second round comprised a 5-point Likert scale structured questionnaire based on the first round analysis, with required the experts to identify the most relevant studied tool aspects. Their feedbacks levels of agreements were statistic analysis using the median, interquartile range and quartile deviation. The included criteria for items acceptance were greater than 3.50 of the median, lesser than 1.50 of interquartile range, and 0.65 or less of a quartile deviation. Finally, the proposed questionnaire was structured and validated by the experts in the third round. The results found that across all three rounds, the experts achieved 100% agreement on the five factors regarding to quality of life of a family who have person with disability were considered. These five factors with 38 items were included: 1) 10 items of family interactions; 2) 9 items of child rearing; 3) 7 items of physical and material resources; 4) 5 items of social-emotional status; and 7 items of disability-related services and welfare. Next step of the study was examined the construct validity by using factor analysis methods.

Keywords: tool development, family quality of life scale, person with disability, Delphi study

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5359 Pricing the Risk Associated to Weather of Variable Renewable Energy Generation

Authors: Jorge M. Uribe


We propose a methodology for setting the price of an insurance contract targeted to manage the risk associated with weather conditions that affect variable renewable energy generation. The methodology relies on conditional quantile regressions to estimate the weather risk of a solar panel. It is illustrated using real daily radiation and weather data for three cities in Spain (Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid) from February 2/2004 to January 22/2019. We also adapt the concepts of value at risk and expected short fall from finance to this context, to provide a complete panorama of what we label as weather risk. The methodology is easy to implement and can be used by insurance companies to price a contract with the aforementioned characteristics when data about similar projects and accurate cash flow projections are lacking. Our methodology assigns a higher price to an insurance product with the stated characteristics in Madrid, compared to Valencia and Barcelona. This is consistent with Madrid showing the largest interquartile range of operational deficits and it is unrelated to the average value deficit, which illustrates the importance of our proposal.

Keywords: insurance, weather, vre, risk

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5358 Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs in South African Patients from Kwazulu-Natal: Effects of Pharmacogenetic Variation on Rifampicin and Isoniazid Concentrations

Authors: Anushka Naidoo, Veron Ramsuran, Maxwell Chirehwa, Paolo Denti, Kogieleum Naidoo, Helen McIlleron, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Ravesh Singh, Sinaye Ngcapu, Nesri Padayatachi


Background: Despite efforts to introduce new drugs and shorter drug regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the standard first-line treatment has not changed in over 50 years. Rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide are critical components of the current standard treatment regimens. Some studies suggest that microbiologic failure and acquired drug resistance are primarily driven by low drug concentrations that result from pharmacokinetic (PK) variability independent of adherence to treatment. Wide between-patient pharmacokinetic variability for rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide has been reported in prior studies. There may be several reasons for this variability. However, genetic variability in genes coding for drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes have been shown to be a contributing factor for variable tuberculosis drug exposures. Objective: We describe the pharmacokinetics of first-line TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide and assess the effect of genetic variability in relevant selected drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin. Methods: We conducted the randomized-controlled Improving retreatment success TB trial in Durban, South Africa. The drug regimen included rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. Drug concentrations were measured in plasma, and concentration-time data were analysed using nonlinear-mixed-effects models to quantify the effects of relevant covariates and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of drug metabolizing and transporter genes on rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide exposure. A total of 25 SNP’s: four NAT2 (used to determine acetylator status), four SLCO1B1, three Pregnane X receptor (NR1), six ABCB1 and eight UGT1A, were selected for analysis in this study. Genotypes were determined for each of the SNP’s using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™. Results: Among fifty-eight patients studied; 41 (70.7%) were male, 97% black African, 42 (72.4%) HIV co-infected and 40 (95%) on efavirenz-based ART. Median weight, fat-free mass (FFM), and age at baseline were 56.9 kg (interquartile range, IQR: 51.1-65.2), 46.8 kg (IQR: 42.5-50.3) and 37 years (IQR: 31-42), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and pyrazinamide was best described using one-compartment models with first-order absorption and elimination, while for isoniazid two-compartment disposition was used. The median (interquartile range: IQR) AUC (h·mg/L) and Cmax (mg/L) for rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were; 25.62 (23.01-28.53) and 4.85 (4.36-5.40), 10.62 (9.20-12.25) and 2.79 (2.61-2.97), 345.74 (312.03-383.10) and 28.06 (25.01-31.52), respectively. Eighteen percent of patients were classified as rapid acetylators, and 34% and 43% as slow and intermediate acetylators, respectively. Rapid and intermediate acetylator status based on NAT 2 genotype resulted in 2.3 and 1.6 times higher isoniazid clearance than slow acetylators. We found no effects of the SLCO1B1 genotypes on rifampicin pharmacokinetics. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were low overall in our patients. Isoniazid clearance was high overall and as expected higher in rapid and intermediate acetylators resulting in lower drug exposures. In contrast to reports from previous South African or Ugandan studies, we did not find any effects of the SLCO1B1 or other genotypes tested on rifampicin PK. However, our findings are in keeping with more recent studies from Malawi and India emphasizing the need for geographically diverse and adequately powered studies. The clinical relevance of the low tuberculosis drug concentrations warrants further investigation.

Keywords: rifampicin, isoniazid pharmacokinetics, genetics, NAT2, SLCO1B1, tuberculosis

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5357 Development and Range Testing of a LoRaWAN System in an Urban Environment

Authors: N. R. Harris, J. Curry


This paper describes the construction and operation of an experimental LoRaWAN network surrounding the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. Following successful installation, an experimental node design is built and characterised, with particular emphasis on radio range. Several configurations are investigated, including different data rates, and varying heights of node. It is concluded that although range can be great (over 8 km in this case), environmental topology is critical. However, shorter range implementations, up to about 2 km in an urban environment, are relatively insensitive although care is still needed. The example node and the relatively simple base station reported demonstrate that LoraWan can be a very low cost and practical solution to Internet of Things type applications for distributed monitoring systems with sensors spread over distances of several km.

Keywords: long-range, wireless, sensor, network

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5356 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini


This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, ultra-capacitor, model predictive control

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5355 A Comparison between the McGrath Video Laryngoscope and the Macintosh Laryngoscopy in Children with Expected Normal Airway

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee


Background: This prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the McGrath VL compared to Macintosh laryngoscopy in children with expected normal airway during endotracheal intubation, by comparing the time to intubation and ease of intubation. Methods: Eighty-four patients, aged 1-10 years undergoing endotracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly assigned to McGrath group (n = 42) or Macintosh group (n = 42). Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5-3.0 mg/kg and sevoflurane 5-8 vol%. Orotracheal intubation was performed 2 minutes after injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg with McGrath VL or Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary outcome was time to intubation. The Cormack and Lehane glottic grade, intubation difficulty score (IDS), and success rate of intubation were assessed. Hemodynamic changes also were recorded. Results: Median time to intubation [interquartile range] was not different between the McGrath group and the Macintosh group (25.0 [22.8-28.3] s vs. 26.0 [24.0-29.0] s, p = 0.301). The incidence of grade I glottic view was significantly higher in theMcGrath group than in the Macintosh group (95% vs. 74%, p = 0.013). Median IDS was lower in the McGrath group than in the Macintosh group (0 [0-0] vs. 0 [0-1], p = 0.018). There were no significant differences in success rate on intubation or hemodynamics between the two groups. Conclusions: McGrath VL provides better laryngeal views and lower IDS, but similar intubation times and success rates compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope in children with the normal airway.

Keywords: intubation, Macintosh laryngoscopy, Mcgrath videolaryngoscopy, pediatrics

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5354 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad


In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

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5353 Monitoring Three-Dimensional Models of Tree and Forest by Using Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry

Authors: S. Y. Cicekli


In this study, tree-dimensional model of tree was created by using terrestrial close range photogrammetry. For this close range photos were taken. Photomodeler Pro 5 software was used for camera calibration and create three-dimensional model of trees. In first test, three-dimensional model of a tree was created, in the second test three-dimensional model of three trees were created. This study aim is creating three-dimensional model of trees and indicate the use of close-range photogrammetry in forestry. At the end of the study, three-dimensional model of tree and three trees were created. This study showed that usability of close-range photogrammetry for monitoring tree and forests three-dimensional model.

Keywords: close- range photogrammetry, forest, tree, three-dimensional model

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5352 Diagnostic Efficacy and Usefulness of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) in Evaluation of Breast Microcalcifications as a Pre-Procedural Study for Stereotactic Biopsy

Authors: Okhee Woo, Hye Seon Shin


Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic power of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in evaluation of breast microcalcifications and usefulness as a pre-procedural study for stereotactic biopsy in comparison with full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) and FFDM plus magnification image (FFDM+MAG). Methods and Materials: An IRB approved retrospective observer performance study on DBT, FFDM, and FFDM+MAG was done. Image quality was rated in 5-point scoring system for lesion clarity (1, very indistinct; 2, indistinct; 3, fair; 4, clear; 5, very clear) and compared by Wilcoxon test. Diagnostic power was compared by diagnostic values and AUC with 95% confidence interval. Additionally, procedural report of biopsy was analysed for patient positioning and adequacy of instruments. Results: DBT showed higher lesion clarity (median 5, interquartile range 4-5) than FFDM (3, 2-4, p-value < 0.0001), and no statistically significant difference to FFDM+MAG (4, 4-5, p-value=0.3345). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of DBT were 86.4% and 92.5%; FFDM 70.4% and 66.7%; FFDM+MAG 93.8% and 89.6%. The AUCs of DBT (0.88) and FFDM+MAG (0.89) were larger than FFDM (0.59, p-values < 0.0001) but there was no statistically significant difference between DBT and FFDM+MAG (p-value=0.878). In 2 cases with DBT, petit needle could be appropriately prepared; and other 3 without DBT, patient repositioning was needed. Conclusion: DBT showed better image quality and diagnostic values than FFDM and equivalent to FFDM+MAG in the evaluation of breast microcalcifications. Evaluation with DBT as a pre-procedural study for breast stereotactic biopsy can lead to more accurate localization and successful biopsy and also waive the need for additional magnification images.

Keywords: DBT, breast cancer, stereotactic biopsy, mammography

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5351 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub


This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

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5350 Time to CT in Major Trauma in Coffs Harbour Health Campus - The Australian Rural Centre Experience

Authors: Thampi Rawther, Jack Cecire, Andrew Sutherland


Introduction: CT facilitates the diagnosis of potentially life-threatening injuries and facilitates early management. There is evidence that reduced CT acquisition time reduces mortality and length of hospital stay. Currently, there are variable recommendations for ideal timing. Indeed, the NHS standard contract for a major trauma service and STAG both recommend immediate access to CT within a maximum time of 60min and appropriate reporting within 60min of the scan. At Coffs Harbour Health Campus (CHHC), a CT radiographer is on site between 8am-11pm. Aim: To investigate the average time to CT at CHHC and assess for any significant relationship between time to CT and injury severity score (ISS) or time of triage. Method: All major trauma calls between Jan 2021-Oct 2021 were audited (N=87). Patients were excluded if they went from ED to the theatre. Time to CT is defined as the time between triage to the timestamp on the first CT image. Median and interquartile range was used as a measure of central tendency as the data was not normally distributed, and Chi-square test was used to determine association. Results: The median time to CT is 51.5min (IQR 40-74). We found no relationship between time to CT and ISS (P=0.18) and time of triage to time to CT (P=0.35). We compared this to other centres such as John Hunter Hospital and Gold Coast Hospital. We found that the median CT acquisition times were 76min (IQR 52-115) and 43min, respectively. Conclusion: This shows an avenue for improvement given 35% of CT’s were >30min. Furthermore, being proactive and aware of time to CT as an important factor to trauma management can be another avenue for improvement. Based on this, we will re-audit in 12-24months to assess if any improvement has been made.

Keywords: imaging, rural surgery, trauma surgery, improvement

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5349 Oral Sex Practice among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesian Urban Settings

Authors: I Putu Yuda Hananta, Inke Kusumastuti


The latest Indonesian Biology and Behavior Surveillance (IBBS) conducted by Indonesian Ministry of Health reported a large proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in oral sex in their recent sexual history. While it is considered as a pleasuring and safe, oral sex might facilitate the transmission of various sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens. This study was aimed to investigate the oral sex practice among MSM in Indonesian urban settings to help delineate demographic and behavior determinants of such practice. In 2014, 501 MSM in 8 clinic-based and outreach STI services were recruited in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Denpasar, Indonesia. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about their demographics and sexual history. Median age (interquartile range) of the respondents was 27 (24-30) years; most completed senior high school (54.3%), worked in informal jobs (57.9%), and single (60.9%); and 32.3% reported receiving money in exchange for sex. Oral sex was practiced by most respondents: insertive only (10.0%), receptive only (6.0%), and both (82.4%). A separate multivariable analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the determinants for receptive and insertive oral sex. Factors associated with receptive oral sex were having more than 10 sex partner(s) in the preceding 6 months vs 1 partner, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI]=3.40 [1.22-9.42], p=0.03; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs no history, aOR=4.37 [1.76-10.82], p=0.01. Factors associated with insertive oral sex were receiving money for sex vs. not receiving, aOR=2.98 [1.10-8.04], p=0.02; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs. no history, aOR=2.10 [0.51-8.74], p<0.001. Only a few respondents reported consistent condom use (11.6% and 12.0% for receptive and insertive oral sex, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that while oral sex is a common practice among MSM, the consistency of condom use in oral sex is very low. In addition, certain sex behavior (number of sex partners, sex work and history of anal sex) were associated with oral sex, and this might need to be addressed during health promotion efforts on STI prevention through oral-genital contact.

Keywords: behavior, Indonesia, men who have sex with men, oral sex

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5348 Modeling of Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts from off-Road Vehicles in Arid Regions

Authors: Abigail Rosenberg, Jennifer Duan, Michael Poteuck, Chunshui Yu


The Barry M. Goldwater Range, West in southwestern Arizona encompasses 2,808 square kilometers of Sonoran Desert. The hyper-arid range has an annual rainfall of less than 10 cm with an average high temperature of 41 degrees Celsius in July to an average low of 4 degrees Celsius in January. The range shares approximately 60 kilometers of the international border with Mexico. A majority of the range is open for recreational use, primarily off-highway vehicles. Because of its proximity to Mexico, the range is also heavily patrolled by U.S. Customs and Border Protection seeking to intercept and apprehend inadmissible people and illicit goods. Decades of off-roading and Border Patrol activities have negatively impacted this sensitive desert ecosystem. To assist the range program managers, this study is developing a model to identify erosion prone areas and calibrate the model’s parameters using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment modeling tool.

Keywords: arid lands, automated geospatial watershed assessment, erosion modeling, sedimentation modeling, watershed modeling

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5347 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Ahmed Boucherit, Hussein Khalaf, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí


Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: extraction, molybdenum, microwave, solvent

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5346 Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave Radar Human Fall Detection Based on Time-Varying Range-Doppler Features

Authors: Xiang Yu, Chuntao Feng, Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Wenhao Zhou


The existing two-dimensional micro-Doppler features extraction ignores the correlation information between the spatial and temporal dimension features. For the range-Doppler map, the time dimension is introduced, and a frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar human fall detection algorithm based on time-varying range-Doppler features is proposed. Firstly, the range-Doppler sequence maps are generated from the echo signals of the continuous motion of the human body collected by the radar. Then the three-dimensional data cube composed of multiple frames of range-Doppler maps is input into the three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN). The spatial and temporal features of time-varying range-Doppler are extracted by the convolution layer and pool layer at the same time. Finally, the extracted spatial and temporal features are input into the fully connected layer for classification. The experimental results show that the proposed fall detection algorithm has a detection accuracy of 95.66%.

Keywords: FMCW radar, fall detection, 3D CNN, time-varying range-doppler features

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5345 Coherent Ku-Band Radar for Monitoring Ocean Waves

Authors: Richard Mitchell, Robert Mitchell, Thai Duong, Kyungbin Bae, Daegon Kim, Youngsub Lee, Inho Kim, Inho Park, Hyungseok Lee


Although X-band radar is commonly used to measure the properties of ocean waves, the use of a higher frequency has several advantages, such as increased backscatter coefficient, better Doppler sensitivity, lower power, and a smaller package. A low-power Ku-band radar system was developed to demonstrate these advantages. It is fully coherent, and it interleaves short and long pulses to achieve a transmit duty ratio of 25%, which makes the best use of solid-state amplifiers. The range scales are 2 km, 4 km, and 8 km. The minimum range is 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m for the three range scales, and the range resolution is 4 m, 8 m, and 16 m for the three range scales. Measurements of the significant wave height, wavelength, wave period, and wave direction have been made using traditional 3D-FFT methods. Radar and ultrasonic sensor results collected over an extended period of time at a coastal site in South Korea are presented.

Keywords: measurement of ocean wave parameters, Ku-band radar, coherent radar, compact radar

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5344 Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

Authors: Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Michaela Spenerova, Dagmar Pospisilova


Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: children, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anaemia, hepcidin

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5343 Pathogenetic Features of the Plasma Hemostasis in Patients With COVID-19 of Varying Severity and Their Prognostic Significance

Authors: Elena A.Gorodnova, Natalia V. Dolgushina, Olga S. Beznoshchenko, Lybov V. Krechetova, Tatiana Yu. Ivanets, Andrey Yu. Romanov, Irina V. Menzhinskaya, Sergey V. Grachev


COVID-19 patients in a hypercoagulable state are at high risk for thrombotic events. Changes in plasma hemostasis in COVID-19 dependent on severity, both during acute phase and recovery period are: hyperfibrinogenemia; Prothrombin time (Pt) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) elongation; decrease in prothrombin by Quick; Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and thrombin time (Tt) elongation; increase in D-dimer, antigen of the Willebrand factor (vWF:Ag), ristocetin-cofactor activity of the Willebrand factor (vWF:RCo), plasminogen (PLG) and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI); decreased factor XIII antigen (F.XIII). It is important to note that despite ongoing anticoagulant therapy, hypercoagulation persisted over recovery period, point to thrombosis risk. Presence of high-risk genetic or acquired thrombophilia is an additional risk factor for severe COVID-19. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out using tables "Microsoft Excel" and the package of statistical program "Statistica V10" (USA). With an abnormal distribution of data, medians with an interquartile range (Me(Q25-Q75)) were determined, nonparametric statistical methods were used to assess differences in groups (Kruskall-Wallis test - to compare data in 3 groups). Main findings in patients with moderate* and severe** COVID-19 during acute phase are: vWF:Ag (N=42-176%, *250,7 (193,7-379,2), **328,5 (255,4-365,5), p<0,0001), vWF:RCo (N=48-240%, *227,6 (133,9-358,5), **260 (203,3-316,6), p<0,0001) - increases; PLG (N=70-120%, *91,0 (77,0-105,0), **101,0 (91,0-109,0), p=0,0333) and PS (N=55-146%, *52,1 (42,7-65,8), **47,8 (41,9-53,9), p<0,0001) -decreases; during recovery - Tt (N=15-25 sec., *23,6 (22,0-26,7), **23,7 (21,6-27,9), p=0,0004) – lengthens; PLG (N=70-120%, *96,0 (83,0-104,0), **95,0 (79,0-105,0), p=0,0555), AT III (N=83-125%, *83,4 (80,2-101,0), **86,1 (76,8-94,0), p=0,0494) and PS (*84,7 (65,4-104,1), **70,1 (49,7-88,9), p=0,0004) - decrease. The work was carried out within the framework of the state task №121020500102-4

Keywords: hemostasis system, COVID-19, hypercoagulation, risk of thrombotic complications

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5342 Description of Geotechnical Properties of Jabal Omar

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Osama Abdelgadir El-Bushra


Geological and engineering characteristics of intact rock and the discontinuity surfaces was used to describe and classify rock mass into zones based on mechanical and physical properties. Many conditions terms that affect the rock mas; such as Rock strength, Rock Quality Designation (RQD) value, joint spacing, and condition of joint, water condition with block size, joint roughness, separation, joint hardness, friction angle and weathering were used to classify the rock mass into: Good quality (class II) (RMR values range between 75% and 56%), Good to fair quality (class II to III) (RMR values range between 70% and 55%), Fair quality (class III) (RMR values range between 60% and 50%) and Fair to poor quality (Class III to IV) (RMR values, range between (50% and 35%).

Keywords: rock strength, RQD, joints, weathering

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5341 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang


In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

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5340 Temperature Measurements of Corona Discharge in the SF6-N2 Gas Mixture

Authors: A. Lemzadmi


Rotational and vibrational temperatures of the SF6-N2 gas mixture are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 2-14 bars. The spectra obtained of the light emission of the corona discharge were recorded with different values of pressure, voltage and current together with the variation of the position of the tip electrode. The emission of N2 is very dominant for different gas concentration and the second positive system 2S+ is the most important. The convolution method is used for the determination of the temperature. The Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 450-650°K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 1800-2200°K.

Keywords: rotational temperatures, corona discharges, SF6-N2 gas mixture, vibrational temperatures

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5339 Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida

Authors: Kunwar D. Yadav, Dayanand Sharma


Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).

Keywords: cow dung, Eisenia foetida, textile sludge, vermicompost

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5338 Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges

Authors: Mohsen Zahraei


‎In this paper, ‎the notion of ‎rank-k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials‎ ‎are introduced. ‎Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. ‎Moreover, ‎for ε>0 the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for ε-higher ‎rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. ‎The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.

Keywords: ‎‎Rank-k numerical range‎, ‎isometry‎, ‎numerical range‎, ‎rectangular matrix polynomials

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5337 Analysis of Airborne Data Using Range Migration Algorithm for the Spotlight Mode of Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: Peter Joseph Basil Morris, Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan, P. Radhakrishna


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data using the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) for the spotlight mode of operation. Unlike in polar format algorithm (PFA), space-variant defocusing and geometric distortion effects are mitigated in RMA since it does not assume that the illuminating wave-fronts are planar. This facilitates the use of RMA for imaging scenarios involving severe differential range curvatures enabling the imaging of larger scenes at fine resolution and at shorter ranges with low center frequencies. The RMA algorithm for the spotlight mode of SAR is analyzed in this paper using the airborne data. Pre-processing operations viz: - range de-skew and motion compensation to a line are performed on the raw data before being fed to the RMA component. Various stages of the RMA viz:- 2D Matched Filtering, Along Track Fourier Transform and Slot Interpolation are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the resolution of the final image. The ability of RMA to compensate for severe differential range curvatures in the two-dimensional spatial frequency domain are also illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: range migration algorithm, spotlight SAR, synthetic aperture radar, matched filtering, slot interpolation

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5336 Range Suitability Model for Livestock Grazing in Taleghan Rangelands

Authors: Hossein Arzani, Masoud Jafari Shalamzari, Z. Arzani


This paper follows FAO model of suitability analysis. Influential factors affecting extensive grazing were determined and converted into a model. Taleghan rangelands were examined for common types of grazing animals as an example. Advantages and limitations were elicited. All range ecosystems’ components affect range suitability but due to the time and money restrictions, the most important and feasible elements were investigated. From which three sub-models including water accessibility, forage production and erosion sensitivity were considered. Suitable areas in four levels of suitability were calculated using GIS. This suitability modeling approach was adopted due to its simplicity and the minimal time that is required for transforming and analyzing the data sets. Managers could be benefited from the model to devise the measures more wisely to cope with the limitations and enhance the rangelands health and condition.

Keywords: range suitability, land-use, extensive grazing, modeling, land evaluation

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5335 Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System

Authors: Foad Saadi


Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Cr-Zn system, forming compositing, amorphous composite, MI edema model

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5334 High Unmet Need and Factors Associated with Utilization of Contraceptive Methods among Women from the Digo Community of Kwale, Kenya

Authors: Mochache Vernon, Mwakusema Omar, Lakhani Amyn, El Busaidy Hajara, Temmerman Marleen, Gichangi Peter


Background: Utilization of contraceptive methods has been associated with improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes. Unfortunately, there has been sub-optimal uptake of contraceptive services in the developing world despite significant resources being dedicated accordingly. It is imperative to granulate factors that could influence uptake and utilization of contraception. Methodology: Between March and December 2015, we conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional study among women of reproductive age (18-45 years) from a pre-dominantly rural coastal Kenyan community. Qualitative approaches involved focus group discussions as well as a series of key-informant interviews. We also administered a sexual and reproductive health survey questionnaire at the household level. Results: We interviewed 745 women from 15 villages in Kwale County. The median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 29 (23-37) while 76% reported being currently in a marital union. Eighty-seven percent and 85% of respondents reported ever attending school and ever giving birth, respectively. Respondents who had ever attended school were more than twice as likely to be using contraceptive methods [Odds Ratio, OR = 2.1, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.4, P = 0.001] while those who had ever given birth were five times as likely to be using these methods [OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 1.7-15.0, P = 0.004]. The odds were similarly high among women who reported attending antenatal care (ANC) [OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.1-14.8, P = 0.04] as well as those who expressly stated that they did not want any more children or wanted to wait longer before getting another child [OR = 6.7, 95% CI: 3.3-13.8, P<0.0001]. Interviewees reported deferring to the ‘wisdom’ of an older maternal figure in the decision-making process. Conclusions: Uptake and utilization of contraceptive methods among Digo women from Kwale, Kenya is positively associated with demand-side factors including educational attainment, previous birth experience, ANC attendance and a negative future fertility desire. Interventions to improve contraceptive services should focus on engaging dominant maternal figures in the community.

Keywords: unmet need, utilization of contraceptive methods, women, Digo community

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5333 Using Mechanical Alloying for Verification of Predicted Glass Forming Composition Range

Authors: F. Saadi, M. Fatahi, M. Heidari


Aim of this work was to determine the approximate glass forming composition range of Ni-Sn system for the alloys produced by mechanical alloying. It was predicted by Miedema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Ni-40Sn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous alloy. In the next stage, some different compositions of Ni-Sn were mechanically alloyed, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by XRD analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Ni-40Sn alloy had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Ni-Sn system, mechanical alloying, Amorphous alloy, Miedema model

Procedia PDF Downloads 357