Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin

118 Analysis of the Scattered Fields by Dielectric Sphere Inside Different Dielectric Mediums: The Case of the Source and Observation Point Is Reciprocal

Authors: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin, Nezahat Günenç Tuncel, A. Hami̇t Serbest

Abstract:

The electromagnetic scattering from a canonical structure is an important issue in electromagnetic theory. In this study, the electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric sphere with oblique incidence is investigated. The incident field is considered as a plane wave with H polarized. The scattered and transmitted field expressions with unknown coefficients are written. The unknown coefficients are obtained by using exact boundary conditions. Then, the sphere is considered as having frequency dependent dielectric permittivity. The frequency dependence is shown by Cole-Cole model. The far scattered field expressions are found respect to different incidence angles in the 1-8 GHz frequency range. The observation point is the angular distance of pi from an incident wave. While an incident wave comes with a certain angle, observation point turns from 0 to 360 degrees. According to this, scattered field amplitude is maximum at the location of the incident wave, scattered field amplitude is minimum at the across incident wave. Also, the scattered fields are plotted versus frequency to show frequency-dependence explicitly. Graphics are shown for some incident angles compared with the Harrington's solution. Thus, the results are obtained faster and more reliable with reciprocal rotation. It is expected that when there is another sphere with different properties in the outer sphere, the presence and location of the sphere will be detected faster. In addition, this study leads to use for biomedical applications in the future.

Keywords: scattering, dielectric sphere, oblique incidence, reciprocal rotation

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117 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood

Authors: Tugba Yilmaz Aydin, Ergun Guntekin, Murat Aydin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.

Keywords: cedar wood, elastic constants, heat treatment, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
116 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibilities and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen

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In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) were used to replace wheat flour in cookie formulation at three different levels (10%, 20% and 30% w/w). For this purpose PFs produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in freeze dryer. Control sample included no PFs. The total phenolic contents of the cookies supplemented with PFs were higher than that of control and gradually increased in total phenolic contents of cookies with increasing PF supplementation levels. Phenolic content makes also significant contribution on nutritional excellence of the developed cookies. Pre-treatment with metabisulfite (MS) had a positive effect on free, bound and total phenolics of cookies which are supplemented with various levels of MS-PF. This is due to a protective effect of metabisulfite pretreatment for phenolic compounds in the pumpkin flour. Phenolic antioxidants may act and absorb in a different way in humans and thus their antioxidant and health effects will be changed accordingly. In the present study phenolics’ bioavailability of cookies was investigated in order to assess PF as sources of accessible phenolics. The content of bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies supplemented with PFs had higher than those of control sample. Cookies enriched with 30% MS-PF had the highest bioaccessible phenolics (597.86 mg GAE 100g-1) and phenolic bioaccessibility (41.71%). MS application in PF production caused a significant increase in phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH), antioxidant activities of cookies with PFs higher than that of control cookie. It was also observed that the cookies supplemented with MS-PF had significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of cookies including PF. In presented study, antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies were also determined. The cookies with PFs had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidative bioaccessibilities than control ones. Increasing PFs levels enhanced antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies. As a result, PFs addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of cookie by causing increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibilities.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, dietary fiber, pumpkin, freeze drying, cookie

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
115 The Relation Between Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neopterin in the Paraquat-Induced Lung Toxicity

Authors: M. Toygar, I. Aydin, M. Agilli, F. N. Aydin, M. Oztosun, H. Gul, E. Macit, Y. Karslioglu, T. Topal, B. Uysal, M. Honca

Abstract:

Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known quaternary nitrogen herbicide. The major target organ in PQ poisoning is the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage by interferon g and other cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the utility of neopterin as a diagnostic marker in PQ-induced lung toxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham and PQ), administered intraperitoneally 1 mL saline and PQ (15 mg/kg/mL) respectively. Blood samples and lungs were collected for analyses. Lung injury and fibrosis were seen in the PQ group. Serum total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lung transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) levels were significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p< 0.001). In addition, in the PQ group, serum neopterin and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p 1/4 0.001). Serum neopterin levels were correlated with LDH activities, lung MDA, lung TGF-1 levels, and the degree of lung injury. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress, reduction of antioxidant capacity, and inflammation play a crucial role in the PQ-induced lung injury. Elevated serum neopterin levels may be a prognostic parameter to determine extends of PQ-induced lung toxicity. Further studies may be performed to clarify the role of neopterin by different doses of PQ.

Keywords: paraquat, inflammation, oxidative stress, neopterin, lung toxicity

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114 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

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113 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen

Abstract:

Pumpkin flour (PF) has a long shelf life and can be used as a nutritive, functional (antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, etc.) and coloring agent in many food items, especially in bakery products, sausages, instant noodles, pasta and flour mixes. Pre-treatment before drying is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of a final powdered product. Pretreatment, such as soaking in a bisulfite solution, provides that total carotenoids in raw materials rich in carotenoids, especially pumpkins, are retained in the dried product. This is due to the beneficial effect of antioxidant additives in the protection of carotenoids in the dehydrated plant foods. The oxygen present in the medium is removed by the radical SO₂, and thus the carotene degradation caused by the molecular oxygen is inhibited by the presence of SO₂. In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in a freeze dryer. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour were determined. In addition to this, the compound of bioavailable phenolic substances which is obtained by PF has also been investigated using in vitro methods. As a result of researches made in recent years, it has been determined that all nutrients taken with foodstuffs are not bioavailable. Bioavailability changes depending on physical properties, chemical compounds, and capacities of individual digestion of foods. Therefore in this study; bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility were also determined. The phenolics of the samples with metabisulfite application were higher than those of the samples without metabisulfite pre-treatment. Soaking in metabisulfite solution might have a protective effect for phenolic compounds. Phenolics bioaccessibility of pumpkin flours was investigated in order to assess pumpkin flour as sources of accessible phenolics. The higher bioaccessible phenolics (384.19 mg of GAE 100g⁻¹ DW) and phenolic bioaccessibility values (33.65 mL 100 mL⁻¹) were observed in the pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment. Metabisulfite application caused an increase in bioaccessible phenolics of pumpkin flour. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, DPPH, and FRAP) results, both free and bound phenolics of pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment had higher antioxidant activity than those of the sample without metabisulfite pre-treatment. The samples subjected to MS pre-treatment exhibited higher antioxidant activities than those of the samples without MS pre-treatment, this possibly due to higher phenolic contents of the samples with metabisulfite applications. As a result, metabisulfite application caused an increase in phenolic contents, bioaccessible phenolics, phenolic bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour. It can be said that pumpkin flour can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products, dairy products (yoghurt, ice-cream), soups, sauces, infant formulae, confectionery, etc.

Keywords: pumpkin flour, bioaccessible phenolics, phenolic bioaccessibility, antioxidant activity

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112 Producing TPU/Propolis Nanofibrous Membrane as Wound Dressing

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Wound dressings have strategically and economic importance considering increase of chronic wounds in the world. In this study, TPU nanofibrous membranes containing propolis as wound dressing are produced by two different methods. Firstly, TPU solution and propolis extract were mixed and this solution was electrospun. The other method is that TPU/propolis blend was centrifugally spun. Properties of nanofibrous membranes obtained by these methods were compared. While realizing the experiments, both systems were optimized to produce nanofibers with nearly same average fiber diameter.

Keywords: nanofiber, wound dressing, electrospinning, centrifugal spinning

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111 Evaluating and Examining Pictures of Children of Five Years Old

Authors: Emine Yılmaz Bolat

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Early childhood is a very important period in terms of identifying and developing early skills and abilities. It is likely that the child's development will be in the same direction in the future. This study was conducted with 26 children for the purpose of examining pictures of children of five years old. In the survey, children were asked to draw a picture with pastel dyes. The drawings were collected and evaluated by the researcher. At the end of the research, it was found that the children used the yellow color (N = 17, 16,34%) and the least gray color (N = 1, 0,96%). When the features of children's pictures are examined, the children's paintings have been found to have hierarchy, transparency, completion, the use of vivid colors, and the presence of vertical and horizontal painting lines.

Keywords: early childhood, kindergarten, pictures of children, features of pictures

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110 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu

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The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Growth Hormone Gene, Holstein , Polymorphism, RFLP

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109 The Norm, Singular Value and Condition Number Analysis for the Hadamard Matrices

Authors: Emine Tuğba Akyüz

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In this study, the analysis of Hadamard matrices, which is a special type of matrix, was made under three headings: norms, singular values, condition number. Six norm types was applied to Hadamard matrices and the relationship between the results and the size of the matrix has been studied. As a result of the investigation when 2-norm was used on the problem Hx =f, the equation ‖x‖_2= ‖f‖_2/√n was shown (H is n-dimensional Hadamard matrix). Related with this, the relationship between the the singular value of H and 2-norm and eigenvalues was shown. Then, the evaluation of condition number for Hx =f was made.

Keywords: condition number, Hadamard matrix, norm, singular value

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108 Spatial Evaluations of Haskoy: The Emperial Village

Authors: Yasemin Filiz-Kuruel, Emine Koseoglu

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This study aims to evaluate Haskoy district of Beyoglu town of Istanbul. Haskoy is located in Halic region, between Kasimpasa district and Kagithane district. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) set up his tent here. Therefore, the area gets its name as Haskoy, 'imperial village' that means a village which is special for Sultan. Today, there are shipyard and ateliers in variable sizes in Haskoy. In this study, the legibility of Haskoy streets is investigated comparatively. As a research method, semantic differential scale is used. The photos of the streets, which contain specific criteria, are chosen. The questionnaire is directed to first and third grade architecture students. The spatial evaluation of Haskoy streets is done through the survey.

Keywords: Haskoy, legibility, semantic differential scale, urban streets

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107 Assessment the Quality of Telecommunication Services by Fuzzy Inferences System

Authors: Oktay Nusratov, Ramin Rzaev, Aydin Goyushov

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Fuzzy inference method based approach to the forming of modular intellectual system of assessment the quality of communication services is proposed. Developed under this approach the basic fuzzy estimation model takes into account the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union in respect of the operation of packet switching networks based on IP-protocol. To implement the main features and functions of the fuzzy control system of quality telecommunication services it is used multilayer feedforward neural network.

Keywords: quality of communication, IP-telephony, fuzzy set, fuzzy implication, neural network

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106 The Flora of Bozdağ, Sizma–Konya, Turkey and Its Environs

Authors: Esra Ipekci, Murad Aydin Sanda

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The flora of Bozdağ (Konya) and its surroundings were investigated between 2003 and 2005 years; 700 herbarium specimens belonging to 482 taxa, 257 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Asteraceae 67 (14.0%), Fabaceae 60 (12.6%), Lamiaceae 57 (11.9%), Brassicaceae 34 (7.1%), Poaceae 30 (6.3%), Rosaceae 24 (5.0%), Caryophyllaceae 23 (4.8%), Liliaceae 19 (4.0%), Boraginaceae 17 (3.6%), Apiaceae 13 (2.7%). The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the B4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Mediterranean 72 (14.9%), Irano-Turanian 91 (18.9%), Euro-Siberian 21 (4.3%). The phytogeographic regions of 273 (56.6%) taxa are either multi regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 79 (16.3%).

Keywords: Sizma, Bozdağ, Flora, Konya, Turkey

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105 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira

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With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.

Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumption

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104 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

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In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR

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103 Implementation of a Web-Based Wireless ECG Measuring and Recording System

Authors: Onder Yakut, Serdar Solak, Emine Dogru Bolat

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Measuring the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an essential process for the diagnosis of the heart diseases. The ECG signal has the information of the degree of how much the heart performs its functions. In medical diagnosis and treatment systems, Decision Support Systems processing the ECG signal are being developed for the use of clinicians while medical examination. In this study, a modular wireless ECG (WECG) measuring and recording system using a single board computer and e-Health sensor platform is developed. In this designed modular system, after the ECG signal is taken from the body surface by the electrodes first, it is filtered and converted to digital form. Then, it is recorded to the health database using Wi-Fi communication technology. The real time access of the ECG data is provided through the internet utilizing the developed web interface.

Keywords: ECG, e-health sensor shield, Raspberry Pi, wiFi technology

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102 HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier

Authors: Onder Yakut, Oguzhan Timus, Emine Dogru Bolat

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Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.

Keywords: arrhythmic beat detection, ECG, HRV, kNN classifier

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101 Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Validation of a Warm Bulge Test System

Authors: Emine Feyza Şükür, Mevlüt Türköz, Murat Dilmeç, Hüseyin Selçuk Halkacı

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In this study, a warm bulge test system was designed, built and experimentally validated to perform warm bulge tests with all necessary systems. In addition, performance of each sub-system is validated through repeated production and/or test runs as well as through part quality measurements. Validation and performance tests were performed to characterize the repeatability of the system. As a result of these tests, the desired temperature distribution on the sheet metal was obtained by the heating systems and the good repeatability of the bulge tests was obtained. Consequently, this study is expected to provide other researchers and manufacturer with a set of design and process guidelines to develop similar systems.

Keywords: design, test unit, warm bulge test unit, validation test

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100 Investigating the Effect of VR, Time Study and Ergonomics on the Design of Industrial Workstations

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Poorya Ghafoorpoor Yazdi

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This paper presents the review of the studies on the ergonomics, virtual reality, and work measurement (time study) at the industrial workstations because each of these three individual techniques can be used to improve the design of workstations and task position. The objective of this paper is to give an overall literature review that if there is any relation between these three different techniques. Therefore, it is so important to review the scientific studies to find a better and effective way for improving design of workstations. On the other hand, manufacturers found that instead of using one of the approaches, utilizing the combination of these individual techniques are more effective to reduce the cost and production time.

Keywords: ergonomics, time study, virtual reality, workplace

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
99 The Flora of Oyukludag and Its Environs Karaman,Turkey

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Mustafa Küçüködük

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The flora and it’s plants ethnobotanical features of Oyukludag were investigated between 2003 and 2006 years; 780 herbarium specimens belonging to 448 taxa, 292 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Compositae (Asteraceae) 78 (17%), Leguminosae (Fabaceae) 58 (13%), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) 34 (8%), Labiatae (Lamiaceae) 33 (7%), Gramineae (Poaceae) 29 (6%), Caryophyllaceae 19 (4%), Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) 18 (4%), Boraginaceae 17 (4%), Liliaceae 16 (4%). The number of cultivated plants are 17. The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the C4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Iranian-Turanian (18%), Mediterranean (17%) and Euro-Siberian (2%). The phytogeographic regions of 268 (60%) taxa are either multi-regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 56 (12%).

Keywords: flora, Oyukludag, Yellibel, Karaman, Turkey

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98 Modelling Vehicle Fuel Consumption Utilising Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Aburrahman Tanira

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The main source of energy used in this modern age is fossil fuels. There is a myriad of problems that come with the use of fossil fuels, out of which the issues with the greatest impact are its scarcity and the cost it imposes on the planet. Fossil fuels are the only plausible option for many vital functions and processes; the most important of these is transportation. Thus, using this source of energy wisely and as efficiently as possible is a must. The aim of this work was to explore utilising mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques to enhance fuel consumption in passenger cars by focusing on the speed at which cars are driven. An artificial neural network with an error less than 0.05 was developed to be applied practically as to predict the rate of fuel consumption in vehicles.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, neural networks, fuel consumption, fossil fuel

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97 An Empirical Examination on the Relationships between Organizational Justice, Affective Commitment and Absenteeism

Authors: Emine Öğüt, Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt

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Affective commitment is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values. Organizational justice is an antecedent of the organizational commitment and it has the potential to create powerful benefits for organizations and employees alike. When perceived unfairness among employees increases, affective commitment decreases and absenteeism increases accordingly. In this research, relationships between organizational justice perception, affective commitment and absenteeism is analysed. In this regard, a field study has been conducted over the physicians working in the hospitals of the Health Ministry and University Hospitals in the province of Konya. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyse the survey data. The findings of the research shows that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational justice perception and affective commitment while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational justice and absenteeism.

Keywords: organizational justice, affective commitment, absenteeism, healthcare management

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96 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Emine Teke, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sodium dihydrogen phosphate in a mechanical agitation system and also to declare an alternative reactant to produce the boric acid. Reaction temperature, concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio, and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by using linear regression and a statistical program. Dissolution curves were evaluated in order to test the shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase in the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 36.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product) layer.

Keywords: ulexite, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics, boron

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95 Analytical Approximations of the Differential Elastic Scattering Cross-Sections for Slow Electrons and Positrons Transport in Solids: A Comparative Study

Authors: A. Bentabet, A. Aydin, N. Fenineche

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In this work, we try to determine the best analytical approximation of differential cross sections, used generally in Monte Carlo simulation, to study the electron/positron slowing down in solid targets in the energy range up to 10 keV. Actually, our comparative study was carried out on the angular distribution of the scattering angle, the elastic total and the first transport cross sections which are the essential quantities used generally in the electron/positron transport study by using both stochastic and deterministic methods. Indeed, the obtained results using the relativistic partial wave expansion method and the backscattering coefficient experimental data are used as criteria to evaluate the used model.

Keywords: differential cross-section, backscattering coefficient, Rutherford cross-section, Vicanek and Urbassek theory

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94 Nutrient and Trace Element Content in Some Wild Boletus Taxa from Marmara Region (Turkey)

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Öyküm Öztürk

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Element contents were analysed in some wild Boletus taxa [Boletus fechtnerii, Boletus edulis, Boletus dupainii, Boletus calopus, Boletus pulverulentus, Boletus rhodoxanthus] from Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Boletus species. The highest Fe, Ca, Ni, Cd, and Cr concentrations were determined as 4927, 1927, 3.56, 2.69 and 2.63 mg.kg-1 in B. fechtnerii respectively. B. dupainii has highest K, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentrations as 41910, 2757, 476, and 125 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas B. calopus has highest P, Cu, and B concentrations as 4982, 48.6, and 28.3 mg.kg-1 respectively. B. edulis has highest Na and S contents as 1666 and 5544 mg.kg-1 respectively. Although B. pulverulentus has only the highest Al content as 871 mg.kg-1, on the other hand B. rhodoxanthus has highest Mo concentrations as 0.86 mg.kg-1.

Keywords: Boletus, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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93 Overview on the Failure in the Multiphase Mechanical Seal in Centrifugal Pumps

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Ahmed Al. Azizi

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Mechanical seals are essential components in centrifugal pumps since they help in controlling leaking out of the liquid that is pumped under pressure. Unlike the common types of packaging, mechanical seals are highly efficient and they reduce leakage by a great extent. However, all multiphase mechanical seals leak and they are subject to failure. Some of the factors that have been recognized to their failure include excessive heating, open seal faces, as well as environment related factors that trigger failure of the materials used to manufacture seals. The proposed research study will explore the failure of multiphase mechanical seal in centrifugal pumps. The objective of the study includes how to reduce the failure in multiphase mechanical seals and to make them more efficient.

Keywords: mechanical seals, centrifugal pumps, multi phase failure, excessive heating

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92 Detailed Microzonation Studies around Denizli, Turkey

Authors: A. Aydin, E. Akyol, N. Soyatik

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This study has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic microzonation of the city center. For seismic microzonation area of 225 km2 has been selected as the study area. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) and seismic refraction methods have been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at 250 locations and two-dimensional profile at 60 locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 60 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, liquefaction, land use management, seismic refraction

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91 The Epigenetic Background Depended Treatment Planning for Glioblastoma Multiforme

Authors: Rasime Kalkan, Emine Ikbal Atli, Ali Arslantaş, Muhsin Özdemir, Sevilhan Artan

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Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), is the malignant form of brain tumor, the genetic background of the GBM is highly variable. The tumor mass of a GBM is multilayered and every tumor layer shows distinct characteristics with a different cell population. The treatment planning of GBM should be focused on the tumor genetic characteristics. We screened primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a population-based study for MGMT and RARβ methylation and IDH1 mutation correlated them with clinical data and treatment. There was no correlation between MGMT-promoter methylation and overall survival. The overall survival time of the patients with methylated RARβ was statically (OS;p<0,05) significance between the patients who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we showed the status of IDH1 gene associatied with younger age. We demonstrated that the together with MGMT gene the RARβ gene should be used as a potantial treatment decision marker for GBMs.

Keywords: RARβ, primary glioblastoma multiforme, methylation, MGMT

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90 A Hybrid Hopfield Neural Network for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk

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In this paper, a new hybrid Hopfield neural network is proposed for the dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problem. A new heuristic based and easy to implement energy function is designed for the Hopfield neural network, which penalizes the constraints violation and decreases makespan. Moreover, for enhancing the performance, several heuristics are integrated to it that achieve active, and non-delay schedules also, prevent early convergence of the neural network. The suggested algorithm that is designed as a generalization of the previous studies for the flexible and dynamic scheduling problems can be used for solving real scheduling problems. Comparison of the presented hybrid method results with the previous studies results proves its efficiency.

Keywords: dynamic flexible job shop scheduling, neural network, heuristics, constrained optimization

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89 Immunoglobulins and Importance in Ruminants

Authors: M. Akoz, O. B. Citil, I. Aydin

Abstract:

Colostrum secreted by the mammary glands after birth in the early days, a high proportion of fat, protein and ash containing a secretion containing low amounts of casein and lactose. Especially immunoglobulins contain high proportions. Maternal immunoglobulins own immune system to protect the newborn against neonatal disease until development are very important matter. However, colostrum is transferred to the offspring due to placental barrier in ruminants. Immunoglobulins are absorbed through the intestinal epithelium but absorption can vary under the influence of some factors. These factors are among the priority ones taking colostrum first time, amount, concentration, the metabolic status of the newborn. intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins occurs over the first 24 h high. Absorption from the gut after nine hours, 50% after 24 hours was only 11%. On the other hand pup's digestive system degrade the enzymes after 24 hours immunoglobulins. Bovine colostrum in the composition while basic immune IgG, IgA and IgM are also available. Total IgG in colostrum of ruminants, while in other species is a greater amount in blood serum.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, ruminants, colostrum, immune system

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