Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Acanthus ilicifolius

4 Anatomical Adaptations and Mineral Elements Allocation Associated with the Zn Phytostabilization Capability of Acanthus ilicifolius L.

Authors: Shackira Am, Jos T. Puthur

Abstract:

The phytostabilization potential of a halophyte Acanthus ilicifolius L. has been evaluated with special attention to the nutritional as well as anatomical adaptations developed by the plant. Distribution of essential elements influenced by the excess Zn²⁺ ions in the root tissue was studied by FEG-SEM EDX microanalysis. Significant variations were observed in the uptake and allocation of mineral elements like Mg, P, K, S, Na, Si and Al in the root of A. ilicifolius. The increase in S is in correlation with the increased synthesis of glutathione which might be involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins. This in turn might be aiding the plant to tolerate the adverse environmental conditions by stabilizing the excess Zn in the root tissue itself. Moreover it is revealed that most of the Zn were accumulated towards the central region near the vascular tissue. Treatment with ZnSO₄ in A. ilicifolius caused significant increase in the number of glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface as compared to the leaves of control plants. In addition to this, A. ilicifolius when treated with ZnSO₄, exhibited a deeply stained layer of cells immediate to the endodermis, forming more or less a ring like structure around the xylem vessels. Phloem cells in these plants were crushed/reduced in numbers. There were no such deeply stained cells forming a ring around the xylem vessels in the control plants. These adaptive responses make the plant a suitable candidate for the phytostabilization of Zn. In addition the nutritional adjustment of the plant equips them for a better survival under increased concentration of Zn²⁺.

Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, mineral elements, phytostabilization, zinc

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3 Molecular and Phytochemical Fingerprinting of Anti-Cancer Drug Yielding Plants in South India

Authors: Alexis John de Britto

Abstract:

Studies were performed to select the superior genotypes based on intra-specific variations, caused by phytogeographical, climatic and edaphic parameters of three anti cancer drug yielding mangrove plants such as Acanthus ilicifolius L., Calophyllum inophyllum L. and Excoecaria agallocha L. using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers and phytochemical analysis such as preliminary phytochemical tests, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC and antioxidant tests. The plants were collected from five different geographical locations of the East Coast of south India. Genetic heterozygosity, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and Percentage of polymorphism between the populations were calculated using POPGENE software. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA algorithm. AMOVA and correlations between genetic diversity and soil factors were analyzed. Combining the molecular and phytochemical variations superior genotypes were selected. Conservation constraints and methods of efficient exploitation of the species are discussed.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug yielding plants, DNA fingerprinting, phytochemical analysis, selection of superior genotypes

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2 Study on Reusable, Non Adhesive Silicone Male External Catheter: Clinical Proof of Study and Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Venkata Buddharaju, Irene Mccarron, Hazel Alba

Abstract:

Introduction: Male external catheters (MECs) are commonly used to collect and drain urine. MECs are increasingly used in acute care, long-term acute care hospitals, and nursing facilities, and in other patients as an alternative to invasive urinary catheters to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI).MECs are also used to avoid the need for incontinence pads and diapers. Most of the Male External Catheters are held in place by skin adhesive, with the exception of a few, which uses a foam strap clamp around the penile shaft. The adhesive condom catheters typically stay for 24 hours or less. It is also a common practice that extra skin adhesive tape is wrapped around the condom catheter for additional security of the device. The fixed nature of the adhesive will not allow the normal skin expansion of penile size over time. The adhesive can cause skin irritation, redness, erosion, and skin damage. Acanthus condom catheter (ACC) is a patented, specially designed, stretchable silicone catheter without adhesive, adapts to the size and contour of the penis. It is held in place with a single elastic strap that wraps around the lower back and tied to the opposite catheter ring holescriss cross. It can be reused for up to 5 days on the same patient after daily cleaning and washingpotentially reducing cost. Methods: The study was conducted from September 17th to October 8th, 2020. The nursing staff was educated and trained on how to use and reuse the catheter. After identifying five (5) appropriate patients, the catheter was placed and maintained by nursing staff. The data on the ease of use, leak, and skin damage were collected and reported by nurses to the nursing education department of the hospital for analysis. Setting: RML Chicago, long-term acute care hospital, an affiliate of Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, IL USA. Results: The data showed that the catheter was easy to apply, remove, wash and reuse, without skin problems or urine infections. One patient had used for 16 days after wash, reuse, and replacement without any urine leak or skin issues. A minimal leak was observed on two patients. Conclusion: Acanthus condom catheter was easy to use, functioned well with minimal or no leak during use and reuse. The skin was intact in all patients studied. There were no urinary tract infections in any of the studied patients.

Keywords: CAUTI, male external catheter, reusable, skin adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1 Assessing the Utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Hyperspectral Image and Photogrammetry Derived 3D Data for Wetland Species Distribution Quick Mapping

Authors: Qiaosi Li, Frankie Kwan Kit Wong, Tung Fung

Abstract:

Lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) loading with novel sensors offers a low cost approach for data acquisition in complex environment. This study established a framework for applying UAV system in complex environment quick mapping and assessed the performance of UAV-based hyperspectral image and digital surface model (DSM) derived from photogrammetric point clouds for 13 species classification in wetland area Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site, Hong Kong. The study area was part of shallow bay with flat terrain and the major species including reedbed and four mangroves: Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acrostichum auerum and Acanthus ilicifolius. Other species involved in various graminaceous plants, tarbor, shrub and invasive species Mikania micrantha. In particular, invasive species climbed up to the mangrove canopy caused damage and morphology change which might increase species distinguishing difficulty. Hyperspectral images were acquired by Headwall Nano sensor with spectral range from 400nm to 1000nm and 0.06m spatial resolution image. A sequence of multi-view RGB images was captured with 0.02m spatial resolution and 75% overlap. Hyperspectral image was corrected for radiative and geometric distortion while high resolution RGB images were matched to generate maximum dense point clouds. Furtherly, a 5 cm grid digital surface model (DSM) was derived from dense point clouds. Multiple feature reduction methods were compared to identify the efficient method and to explore the significant spectral bands in distinguishing different species. Examined methods including stepwise discriminant analysis (DA), support vector machine (SVM) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation. Subsequently, spectral subsets composed of the first 20 most importance bands extracted by SVM, DA and MNF, and multi-source subsets adding extra DSM to 20 spectrum bands were served as input in maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and SVM classifier to compare the classification result. Classification results showed that feature reduction methods from best to worst are MNF transformation, DA and SVM. MNF transformation accuracy was even higher than all bands input result. Selected bands frequently laid along the green peak, red edge and near infrared. Additionally, DA found that chlorophyll absorption red band and yellow band were also important for species classification. In terms of 3D data, DSM enhanced the discriminant capacity among low plants, arbor and mangrove. Meanwhile, DSM largely reduced misclassification due to the shadow effect and morphological variation of inter-species. In respect to classifier, nonparametric SVM outperformed than MLC for high dimension and multi-source data in this study. SVM classifier tended to produce higher overall accuracy and reduce scattered patches although it costs more time than MLC. The best result was obtained by combining MNF components and DSM in SVM classifier. This study offered a precision species distribution survey solution for inaccessible wetland area with low cost of time and labour. In addition, findings relevant to the positive effect of DSM as well as spectral feature identification indicated that the utility of UAV-borne hyperspectral and photogrammetry deriving 3D data is promising in further research on wetland species such as bio-parameters modelling and biological invasion monitoring.

Keywords: digital surface model (DSM), feature reduction, hyperspectral, photogrammetric point cloud, species mapping, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 153