Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Touhami Mokrani

6 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

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5 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

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4 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

Abstract:

A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

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3 Spoken Rhetoric in Arabic Heritage

Authors: Ihab Al-Mokrani

Abstract:

The Arabic heritage has two types of spoken rhetoric: the first type which al-Jaahiz calls “the rhetoric of the sign,” which means body language, and the rhetoric of silence which is of no less importance than the rhetoric of the sign, the speaker’s appearance and movements, etc. The second type is the spoken performance of utterances which bears written rhetoric arts like metaphor, simile, metonymy, etc. Rationale of the study: First: in spite of the factual existence of rhetorical phenomena in the Arabic heritage, there has been no contemporary study handling the spoken rhetoric in the Arabic heritage. Second: Arabic Civilization is originally a spoken one. Comparing the Arabic culture and civilization, from one side, to the Greek, roman or Pharaonic cultures and civilizations, from the other side, shows that the latter cultures and civilizations started and flourished written while the former started among illiterate people who had no interest in writing until recently. That sort of difference on the part of the Arabic culture and civilization created a rhetoric different from rhetoric in the other cultures and civilizations. Third: the spoken nature of the Arabic civilization influenced the Arabic rhetoric in the sense that specific rhetorical arts have been introduced matching that spoken nature. One of these arts is the art of concision which compensates for the absence of writing’s means of preserving the text. In addition, this interprets why many of the definitions of the Arabic rhetoric were defining rhetoric as the art of concision. Also, this interprets the fact that the literary genres known in the Arabic culture were limited by the available narrow space like poetry, anecdotes, and stories, while the literary genres in the Greek culture were of wide space as epics and drama. This is not of any contrast to the fact that some Arabic poetry would exceed 100 lines of poetry as Arabic poetry was based on the line organic unity, which means that every line could stand alone with a full meaning that is not dependent on the rest of the poem; and that last aspect has never happened in any culture other than the Arabic culture.

Keywords: Arabic rhetoric, spoken rhetoric, Arabic heritage, culture

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2 Effect of Two Radial Fins on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Horizontal Annulus

Authors: Anas El Amraoui, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi, Mohammed Touhami Ouazzani

Abstract:

Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, Rac.app and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.

Keywords: natural convection, fins, critical Rayleigh number, heat transfer, fluid flow regime, horizontal annulus

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1 Preparation and Characterization of Phosphate-Nickel-Titanium Composite Coating Obtained by Sol Gel Process for Corrosion Protection

Authors: Khalidou Ba, Abdelkrim Chahine, Mohamed Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

A strong industrial interest is focused on the development of coatings for anticorrosion protection. In this context, phosphate composite materials are expanding strongly due to their chemical characteristics and their interesting physicochemical properties. Sol-gel coatings offer high homogeneity and purity that may lead to obtain coating presenting good adhesion to metal surface. The goal behind this work is to develop efficient coatings for corrosion protection of steel to extend its life. In this context, a sol gel process allowing to obtain thin film coatings on carbon steel with high resistance to corrosion has been developed. The optimization of several experimental parameters such as the hydrolysis time, the temperature, the coating technique, the molar ratio between precursors, the number of layers and the drying mode has been realized in order to obtain a coating showing the best anti-corrosion properties. The effect of these parameters on the microstructure and anticorrosion performance of the films sol gel coating has been investigated using different characterization methods (FTIR, XRD, Raman, XPS, SEM, Profilometer, Salt Spray Test, etc.). An optimized coating presenting good adhesion and very stable anticorrosion properties in salt spray test, which consists of a corrosive attack accelerated by an artificial salt spray consisting of a solution of 5% NaCl, pH neutral, under precise conditions of temperature (35 °C) and pressure has been obtained.

Keywords: sol gel, coating, corrosion, XPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 55