Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7214

Search results for: oscillating water

7214 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan


A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water, temporal variability, wave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
7213 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu


Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
7212 Evaluation of the Effect of Turbulence Caused by the Oscillation Grid on Oil Spill in Water Column

Authors: Mohammad Ghiasvand, Babak Khorsandi, Morteza Kolahdoozan


Under the influence of waves, oil in the sea is subject to vertical scattering in the water column. Scientists' knowledge of how oil is dispersed in the water column is one of the lowest levels of knowledge among other processes affecting oil in the marine environment, which highlights the need for research and study in this field. Therefore, this study investigates the distribution of oil in the water column in a turbulent environment with zero velocity characteristics. Lack of laboratory results to analyze the distribution of petroleum pollutants in deep water for information Phenomenon physics on the one hand and using them to calibrate numerical models on the other hand led to the development of laboratory models in research. According to the aim of the present study, which is to investigate the distribution of oil in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence caused by the oscillating Grid, after reaching the ideal conditions, the crude oil flow was poured onto the water surface and oil was distributed in deep water due to turbulence was investigated. In this study, all experimental processes have been implemented and used for the first time in Iran, and the study of oil diffusion in the water column was considered one of the key aspects of pollutant diffusion in the oscillating Grid environment. Finally, the required oscillation velocities were taken at depths of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm from the water surface and used in the analysis of oil diffusion due to turbulence parameters. The results showed that with the characteristics of the present system in two static modes and network motion with a frequency of 0.8 Hz, the results of oil diffusion in the four mentioned depths at a frequency of 0.8 Hz compared to the static mode from top to bottom at 26.18, 57 31.5, 37.5 and 50% more. Also, after 2.5 minutes of the oil spill at a frequency of 0.8 Hz, oil distribution at the mentioned depths increased by 49, 61.5, 85, and 146.1%, respectively, compared to the base (static) state.

Keywords: homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, oil distribution, oscillating grid, oil spill

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
7211 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu


This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
7210 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp


In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
7209 Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter with Deep Water Reactance

Authors: William C. Alexander


The oscillating water column (OSC) wave energy converter (WEC) with deep water reactance (DWR) consists of a large hollow sphere filled with seawater at the base, referred to as the ‘stabilizer’, a hollow cylinder at the top of the device, with a said cylinder having a bottom open to the sea and a sealed top save for an orifice which leads to an air turbine, and a long, narrow rod connecting said stabilizer with said cylinder. A small amount of ballast at the bottom of the stabilizer and a small amount of floatation in the cylinder keeps the device upright in the sea. The floatation is set such that the mean water level is nominally halfway up the cylinder. The entire device is loosely moored to the seabed to keep it from drifting away. In the presence of ocean waves, seawater will move up and down within the cylinder, producing the ‘oscillating water column’. This gives rise to air pressure within the cylinder alternating between positive and negative gauge pressure, which in turn causes air to alternately leave and enter the cylinder through said top-cover situated orifice. An air turbine situated within or immediately adjacent to said orifice converts the oscillating airflow into electric power for transport to shore or elsewhere by electric power cable. Said oscillating air pressure produces large up and down forces on the cylinder. Said large forces are opposed through the rod to the large mass of water retained within the stabilizer, which is located deep enough to be mostly free of any wave influence and which provides the deepwater reactance. The cylinder and stabilizer form a spring-mass system which has a vertical (heave) resonant frequency. The diameter of the cylinder largely determines the power rating of the device, while the size (and water mass within) of the stabilizer determines said resonant frequency. Said frequency is chosen to be on the lower end of the wave frequency spectrum to maximize the average power output of the device over a large span of time (such as a year). The upper portion of the device (the cylinder) moves laterally (surge) with the waves. This motion is accommodated with minimal loading on the said rod by having the stabilizer shaped like a sphere, allowing the entire device to rotate about the center of the stabilizer without rotating the seawater within the stabilizer. A full-scale device of this type may have the following dimensions. The cylinder may be 16 meters in diameter and 30 meters high, the stabilizer 25 meters in diameter, and the rod 55 meters long. Simulations predict that this will produce 1,400 kW in waves of 3.5-meter height and 12 second period, with a relatively flat power curve between 5 and 16 second wave periods, as will be suitable for an open-ocean location. This is nominally 10 times higher power than similar-sized WEC spar buoys as reported in the literature, and the device is projected to have only 5% of the mass per unit power of other OWC converters.

Keywords: oscillating water column, wave energy converter, spar bouy, stabilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
7208 Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3 / Kerosene under Magnetic Field

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Mansori, M. Ahmady, M. Zhaloyi


This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to Kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.

Keywords: copper oscillating heat pipe, Fe2O3, magnetic field, inclination angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
7207 Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis


Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: wave energy converter, oscillating water column, ocean energy, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7206 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Zahra Neffah, Henda Kahalerras


A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
7205 A 2D Numerical Model of Viscous Flow-Cylinder Interaction

Authors: Bang-Fuh Chen, Chih-Chun Chu


The flow induced cylinder vibration or earthquake-induced cylinder motion are moving in an arbitrary direction with time. The phenomenon of flow across cylinder is highly nonlinear and a linear-superposition of flow pattern across separated oscillating direction of cylinder motion is not valid to obtain the flow pattern across a cylinder oscillating in multiple directions. A novel finite difference scheme is developed to simulate the viscous flow across an arbitrary moving circular cylinder and we call this a complete 2D (two-dimensional) flow-cylinder interaction. That is, the cylinder is simultaneously oscillating in x- and y- directions. The time-dependent domain and meshes associated with the moving cylinder are mapped to a fixed computational domain and meshes, which are time independent. The numerical results are validated by several bench mark studies. Several examples are introduced including flow across steam-wise, transverse oscillating cylinder and flow across rotating cylinder and flow across arbitrary moving cylinder. The Morison’s formula can not describe the complex interaction phenomenon between cross flow and oscillating circular cylinder. And the completed 2D computational fluid dynamic analysis should be made to obtain the correct hydrodynamic force acting on the cylinder.

Keywords: 2D cylinder, finite-difference method, flow-cylinder interaction, flow induced vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
7204 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Yongseok Kwon, Woowon Jeong, Eunjin Cho, Sangkug Chung, Kyehan Rhee


Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 um bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the saggital plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytic solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

Keywords: oscillating bubble, particle image velocimetry, microstreaming, vortices,

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
7203 Comparison of Particle Size for ɑ(Alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(Gamma)Fe2O3 on Heat Transfer Performance in an Copper Oscillating Heat Pipe

Authors: Hamid Reza Goshayeshi


The effect of ɑ(alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(gamma)Fe2O3 particles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe was investigated experimentally. Kerosene was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Six size particles with average diameters of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 30 nm ɑFe2O3 and ɤFe2O3 were investigated, respectively. Experimental results show that the ɤFe2O3 particles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance. When the OHP was charged with kerosene and 20 nm ɤ Fe2O3 particles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among six particles investigated in this research.

Keywords: copper oscillating heat pipe, heat transfer, flow, comparison of ɑ(alpha)Fe2O3 and ɤ(gamma)Fe2O3, increase heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7202 Development and Validation of Cylindrical Linear Oscillating Generator

Authors: Sungin Jeong


This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.

Keywords: equivalent magnetic circuit, finite element analysis, hybrid electric vehicle, linear oscillating generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
7201 Experimental Study on Friction Factor of Oscillating Flow Through a Regenerator

Authors: Mohamed Saïd Kahaleras, François Lanzetta, Mohamed Khan, Guillaume Layes, Philippe Nika


This paper presents an experimental work to characterize the dynamic operation of a metal regenerator crossed by dry compressible air alternating flow. Unsteady dynamic measurements concern the pressure, velocity and temperature of the gas at the ends and inside the channels of the regenerator. The regenerators are tested under isothermal conditions and thermal axial temperature gradient.

Keywords: friction factor, oscillating flow, regenerator, stirling machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
7200 Multi-Criteria Selection and Improvement of Effective Design for Generating Power from Sea Waves

Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy, Omayma A. Nada


Sustainable development is the nominal goal of most countries at present. In general, fossil fuels are the development mainstay of most world countries. Regrettably, the fossil fuel consumption rate is very high, and the world is facing the problem of conventional fuels depletion soon. In addition, there are many problems of environmental pollution resulting from the emission of harmful gases and vapors during fuel burning. Thus, clean, renewable energy became the main concern of most countries for filling the gap between available energy resources and their growing needs. There are many renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and wave energy. Energy can be obtained from the motion of sea waves almost all the time. However, power generation from solar or wind energy is highly restricted to sunny periods or the availability of suitable wind speeds. Moreover, energy produced from sea wave motion is one of the cheapest types of clean energy. In addition, renewable energy usage of sea waves guarantees safe environmental conditions. Cheap electricity can be generated from wave energy using different systems such as oscillating bodies' system, pendulum gate system, ocean wave dragon system and oscillating water column device. In this paper, a multi-criteria model has been developed using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to support the decision of selecting the most effective system for generating power from sea waves. This paper provides a widespread overview of the different design alternatives for sea wave energy converter systems. The considered design alternatives have been evaluated using the developed AHP model. The multi-criteria assessment reveals that the off-shore Oscillating Water Column (OWC) system is the most appropriate system for generating power from sea waves. The OWC system consists of a suitable hollow chamber at the shore which is completely closed except at its base which has an open area for gathering moving sea waves. Sea wave's motion pushes the air up and down passing through a suitable well turbine for generating power. Improving the power generation capability of the OWC system is one of the main objectives of this research. After investigating the effect of some design modifications, it has been concluded that selecting the appropriate settings of some effective design parameters such as the number of layers of Wells turbine fans and the intermediate distance between the fans can result in significant improvements. Moreover, simple dynamic analysis of the Wells turbine is introduced. Furthermore, this paper strives for comparing the theoretical and experimental results of the built experimental prototype.

Keywords: renewable energy, oscillating water column, multi-criteria selection, Wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
7199 Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Fe2O3 under Magnetic Field in an Oscillating Heat Pipe

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Khalouei, S. Azarberamman


This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions. This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions.

Keywords: experimental, oscillating heat pipe, heat transfer, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
7198 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva


This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: oscillating cylinder, secondary streaming, flow regimes, asymptotic and bifurcation analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
7197 Study on Novel Reburning Process for NOx Reduction by Oscillating Injection of Reburn Fuel

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim, Jongho Lee


Reburning technology has been developed to adopt various commercial combustion systems. Fuel lean reburning is an advanced reburning method to reduce NOx economically without using burnout air, however it is not easy to get high NOx reduction efficiency. In the fuel lean reburning system, the localized fuel rich eddies are used to establish partial fuel rich regions so that the NOx can react with hydrocarbon radical restrictively. In this paper, a new advanced reburning method which supplies reburn fuel with oscillatory motion is introduced to increase NOx reduction rate effectively. To clarify whether forced oscillating injection of reburn fuel can effectively reduce NOx emission, experimental tests were conducted in vertical combustion furnace. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a gas burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. The natural gas is used as both main and reburn fuel and total thermal input is about 40kW. The forced oscillating injection of reburn fuel is realized by electronic solenoid valve, so that fuel rich region and fuel lean region is established alternately. In the fuel rich region, NOx is converted to N2 by reburning reaction, however unburned hydrocarbon and CO is oxidized in fuel lean zone and mixing zone at downstream where slightly fuel lean region is formed by mixing of two regions. This paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. All experimental data has been measured at steady state. The NOx reduction rate increases up to 41% by forced oscillating reburn motion. The CO emissions were shown to be kept at very low level. And this paper makes clear that in order to decrease NOx concentration in the exhaust when oscillating reburn fuel injection system is adopted, the control of factors such as frequency and duty ratio is very important.

Keywords: NOx, CO, reburning, pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
7196 Triple Diffusive Convection in a Vertically Oscillating Oldroyd-B Liquid

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh


The effect of linear stability analysis of triple diffusive convection in a vertically oscillating viscoelastic liquid of Oldroyd-B type is studied. The correction Rayleigh number is obtained by using perturbation method which gives prospect to control the convection. The eigenvalue is obtained by using perturbation method by adopting Venezian approach. From the study, it is observed that gravity modulation advances the onset of triple diffusive convection.

Keywords: gravity modulation, Oldroyd-b liquid, triple diffusive convection, venezian approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
7195 On the Effects of External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). In this work, we present the effects of the external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of the external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
7194 Performance Validation of Model Predictive Control for Electrical Power Converters of a Grid Integrated Oscillating Water Column

Authors: G. Rajapakse, S. Jayasinghe, A. Fleming


This paper aims to experimentally validate the control strategy used for electrical power converters in grid integrated oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The particular OWC’s unidirectional air turbine-generator output power results in discrete large power pulses. Therefore, the system requires power conditioning prior to integrating to the grid. This is achieved by using a back to back power converter with an energy storage system. A Li-Ion battery energy storage is connected to the dc-link of the back-to-back converter using a bidirectional dc-dc converter. This arrangement decouples the system dynamics and mitigates the mismatch between supply and demand powers. All three electrical power converters used in the arrangement are controlled using finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy. The rectifier controller is to regulate the speed of the turbine at a set rotational speed to uphold the air turbine at a desirable speed range under varying wave conditions. The inverter controller is to maintain the output power to the grid adhering to grid codes. The dc-dc bidirectional converter controller is to set the dc-link voltage at its reference value. The software modeling of the OWC system and FCS-MPC is carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink software using actual data and parameters obtained from a prototype unidirectional air-turbine OWC developed at Australian Maritime College (AMC). The hardware development and experimental validations are being carried out at AMC Electronic laboratory. The designed FCS-MPC for the power converters are separately coded in Code Composer Studio V8 and downloaded into separate Texas Instrument’s TIVA C Series EK-TM4C123GXL Launchpad Evaluation Boards with TM4C123GH6PMI microcontrollers (real-time control processors). Each microcontroller is used to drive 2kW 3-phase STEVAL-IHM028V2 evaluation board with an intelligent power module (STGIPS20C60). The power module consists of a 3-phase inverter bridge with 600V insulated gate bipolar transistors. Delta standard (ASDA-B2 series) servo drive/motor coupled to a 2kW permanent magnet synchronous generator is served as the turbine-generator. This lab-scale setup is used to obtain experimental results. The validation of the FCS-MPC is done by comparing these experimental results to the results obtained by MATLAB/Simulink software results in similar scenarios. The results show that under the proposed control scheme, the regulated variables follow their references accurately. This research confirms that FCS-MPC fits well into the power converter control of the OWC-WEC system with a Li-Ion battery energy storage.

Keywords: dc-dc bidirectional converter, finite control set-model predictive control, Li-ion battery energy storage, oscillating water column, wave energy converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
7193 Fairly Irrigation Water Distribution between Upstream and Downstream Water Users in Water Shortage Periods

Authors: S. M. Hashemy Shahdany


Equitable water delivery becomes one of the main concerns for water authorities in arid regions. Due to water scarcity, providing reliable amount of water is not possible for most of the irrigation districts in arid regions. In this paper, water level difference control is applied to keep the water level errors equal in adjacent reaches. Distant downstream decentralized configurations of the control method are designed and tested under a realistic scenario shows canal operation under water shortage. The simulation results show that the difference controllers share the water level error among all of the users in a fair way. Therefore, water deficit has a similar influence on downstream as well as upstream and water offtakes.

Keywords: equitable water distribution, precise agriculture, sustainable agriculture, water shortage

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
7192 On the Effects of the Frequency and Amplitude of Sinusoidal External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). Periodic forces can be considered as a combinations of sinusoids. In this work, we present the effects of sinusoidal external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of these sinusoidal external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7191 Parameter Selection and Monitoring for Water-Powered Percussive Drilling in Green-Fields Mineral Exploration

Authors: S. J. Addinell, T. Richard, B. Evans


The Deep Exploration Technologies Cooperative Research Centre (DET CRC) is researching and developing a new coiled tubing based greenfields mineral exploration drilling system utilising downhole water powered percussive drill tooling. This new drilling system is aimed at significantly reducing the costs associated with identifying mineral resource deposits beneath deep, barron cover. This system has shown superior rates of penetration in water-rich hard rock formations at depths exceeding 500 meters. Several key challenges exist regarding the deployment and use of these bottom hole assemblies for mineral exploration, and this paper discusses some of the key technical challenges. This paper presents experimental results obtained from the research program during laboratory and field testing of the prototype drilling system. A study of the morphological aspects of the cuttings generated during the percussive drilling process is presented and shows a strong power law relationship for particle size distributions. Several percussive drilling parameters such as RPM, applied fluid pressure and weight on bit have been shown to influence the particle size distributions of the cuttings generated. This has direct influence on other drilling parameters such as flow loop performance, cuttings dewatering, and solids control. Real-time, accurate knowledge of percussive system operating parameters will assist the driller in maximising the efficiency of the drilling process. The applied fluid flow, fluid pressure, and rock properties are known to influence the natural oscillating frequency of the percussive hammer, but this paper also shows that drill bit design, drill bit wear and the applied weight on bit can also influence the oscillation frequency. Due to the changing drilling conditions and therefore changing operating parameters, real-time understanding of the natural operating frequency is paramount to achieving system optimisation. Several techniques to understand the oscillating frequency have been investigated and presented. With a conventional top drive drilling rig, spectral analysis of applied fluid pressure, hydraulic feed force pressure, hold back pressure and drill string vibrations have shown the presence of the operating frequency of the bottom hole tooling. Unfortunately, however, with the implementation of a coiled tubing drilling rig, implementing a positive displacement downhole motor to provide drill bit rotation, these signals are not available for interrogation at the surface and therefore another method must be considered. The investigation and analysis of ground vibrations using geophone sensors, similar to seismic-while-drilling techniques have indicated the presence of the natural oscillating frequency of the percussive hammer. This method is shown to provide a robust technique for the determination of the downhole percussive oscillation frequency when used with a coiled tubing drill rig.

Keywords: cuttings characterization, drilling optimization, oscillation frequency, percussive drilling, spectral analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
7190 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi


As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

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7189 Importance of Determining the Water Needs of Crops in the Management of Water Resources in the Province of Djelfa

Authors: Imessaoudene Y., Mouhouche B., Sengouga A., Kadir M.


The objective of this work is to determine the virtual water of main crops grown in the province of Djelfa and water use efficiency (W.U.E.), Which is essential to approach the application and better integration with the offer in the region. In the case of agricultural production, virtual water is the volume of water evapo-transpired by crops. It depends on particular on the expertise of its producers and its global production area, warm and dry climates induce higher consumption. At the scale of the province, the determination of the quantities of virtual water is done by calculating the unit water requirements related to water irrigated hectare and total rainfall over the crop using the Cropwat 8.0 F.A.O. software. Quantifying the volume of agricultural virtual water of crops practiced in the study area demonstrates the quantitative importance of these volumes of water in terms of available water resources in the province, so the advantages which can be the concept of virtual water as an analysis tool and decision support for the management and distribution of water in scarcity situation.

Keywords: virtual water, water use efficiency, water requirements, Djelfa

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7188 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela


At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

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7187 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy


As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

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7186 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac


India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

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7185 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng


Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

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