Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: K. Suzuki

45 Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction

Authors: Surjyakanta Rana, Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda

Abstract:

Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.

Keywords: Di-amine, graphene, Pd nanoparticle, suzuki coupling

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44 Cellulose Supported Heterogeneous Pd(II) Catalyst for Synthesis of Biaryls

Authors: Talat Baran

Abstract:

The Suzuki C(sp2)-C(sp2) coupling reaction is considered to be one of the best ways for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. There are many studies reporting the catalytic performance of palladium catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions. Natural biopolymer (such as zeolite, carbon, silica, and chitosan) supporting catalysts have been lately attracted interest because of their low-cost, nontoxicity, and eco-friendliness. One of the most important natural biopolymer is cellulose, which is widely considered as an eco-friendly biopolymer due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable nature. In this study, (1) cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized (2) its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES techniques (3) to investigate the performance of the catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions by using microwave irradiation technique (4) reusability of the catalyst was done under optimum conditions. This cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst exhibited high selectivity and efficiency in Suzuki coupling reactions under mild conditions (50°C). High TON and TOF values were recorded for the catalyst. Also, the reusability tests showed the catalysts could be used for several times in consequence of reusability tests.

Keywords: palladium, cellulose, Schiff base, reusability

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43 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Schiff Base Supported Pd(II) Catalyst and Its Application in Suzuki Coupling Reactions

Authors: Talat Baran

Abstract:

Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reactions are powerful ways for synthesis of biaryls compounds and so far different palladium sources as have been used in catalyst systems. However, the high cost of the ligands using as support materials for palladium ion and so researchers have explored alternative low-cost support materials such as silica, cellule and zeolite. A natural polymer chitosan is suitable for support material because of it unique properties such as eco-friendly, renewable, abundant, low cost, biodegradable and it has free reactive -NH2 and –OH groups. Especially, pendant amino groups of chitosan can easily react with carbonyl groups of aldehyde or ketone by Schiff base formation and thus palladium ions can coordinate with imine groups of Schiff base. This purpose, in this study, firstly a new chitosan Schiff base supported palladium (II) catalyst was synthesized and its chemical structure was characterized with FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES and magnetic moment techniques. Then catalytic performance of the catalyst was investigated in Suzuki cross coupling reactions under simple and fast microwave heating methods. Also, recycle activity of palladium catalyst was tested under optimum condition and the catalyst showed long life time. At the end of catalytic performance tests of chitosan supported palladium (II) catalysts indicated high turnover numbers, turnover frequency and selectivity with very small loading catalyst

Keywords: catalyst, chitosan, Schiff base, Suzuki coupling

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42 Synthesis of Pd Nanoparticles Confined in Graphene Oxide Framework as Nano Catalyst with Improved Activity and Recyclability in Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

Authors: Thuy Phuong Nhat Tran, Ashutosh Thakur, Toshiaki Taniike

Abstract:

Recently, covalently linked graphene oxide frameworks (GOFs) have attracted considerable attention in gas absorbance and water purification as well-defined microporous materials. In spite of their potential advantages such as a controllable pore dimension, adjustable hydrophobicity, and structural stability, these materials have been scarcely employed in heterogeneous catalysis. Here we demonstrate a novel and facile method to synthesize Pd nanoparticles (NPs) confined in a GOF ([email protected]). The GOF with uniform interlayer space was obtained by the intercalation of diboronic acid between graphene oxide layers. It was found that Pd NPs were generated inside the graphitic gallery spaces of the GOF, and thus, formed Pd NPs were well-dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution. The synthesized [email protected] emerged as an efficient nanocatalyst based on its superior performance (product yield and recyclability) toward Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction in both polar and apolar solvents, which has been hardly observed for previously reported graphene-based Pd nanocatalysts. Furthermore, the rational comparison of the catalytic performance between two kinds of [email protected] (Pd NPs encapsulated in a diboronic ester-intercalated GOF and in a monoboronic ester-intercalated GOF) firmly confirmed the essential role of a rigid framework design in the stabilization of Pd NPs. Based on these results, the covalently assembled GOF was proposed as a promising scaffold for hosting noble metal NPs to construct desired [email protected] nanocatalysts with improved activity and durability.

Keywords: graphene oxide framework, palladium nanocatalyst, pore confinement, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

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41 An Intelligent Watch-Over System Using an IoT Device, for Elderly People Living by Themselves

Authors: Hideo Suzuki, Yuya Kiyonobu, Kotaro Matsushita, Masaki Hanada, Rie Suzuki, Noriko Niijima, Noriko Uosaki, Tadao Nakamura

Abstract:

People often worry about their elderly family members who are living by themselves or staying alone somewhere. An intelligent watch-over system for such elderly people, using a Raspberry Pi IoT device, has been newly developed to monitor those who live or stay separately from their families and alert them if a problem occurs. The system consists of motion sensors and temperature-humidity combined sensors that are located at seven points within an elderly person's home. The intelligent algorithms of the system detect signs and the possibility of unhealthy situations arising for the elderly relative; e.g., an unusually long bathing time, or a visit to a restroom, too high a room temperature, etc., by using data cached by the sensors above, at seven points within their house. The system gives more consideration to the elderly person's privacy, by using the sensors above, instead of using cameras and microphones placed around the house. The system invented and described here, can send a Twitter direct message to designated family members when an elderly relative is possibly in an unhealthy condition. Thus the system helps decrease family members' anxieties regarding their elderly relatives and increases their sense of security.

Keywords: elderly person, IoT device, Raspberry Pi, watch-over system

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40 Round Addition DFA on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-The-Fly Key Schedule

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki

Abstract:

Round addition differential fault analysis (DFA) using operation bypassing for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key schedule is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN and 64-bit LED, it is shown that only a pair of correct ciphertext and faulty ciphertext can derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key.

Keywords: differential fault analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule

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39 Carbonylative Cross Coupling of 2-Bromopyridine with Different Boronic Acids under Carbon Monoxide Atmosphere

Authors: N. Touj, M. Sauthier, L. Mansour, N. Hamdi

Abstract:

The palladium NHC complexes are one of the most interesting and widely investigated complexes in different catalytic transformations, especially C–C bond. Thus, the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes associated with palladium has been reported as efficient catalysts for the carbonyl coupling under mild and varied conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxic activities of two new families of benzimidazolium salts. Then we studied the use of this class of benzimidazolium salts as a ligand in the carbonylative cross-coupling of 2-bromopyridine with different boronic acids under CO atmosphere to form unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones.

Keywords: NHC-Pd(II) catalysts, carbonylative Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, arylboronic acids, 2-bromopyridine, unsymmetrical arylpyridine ketones

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38 The Study about the New Monitoring System of Signal Equipment of Railways Using Radio Communication

Authors: Masahiko Suzuki, Takashi Kato , Masahiro Kobayashi

Abstract:

In our company, the monitoring system for signal equipment has already implemented. So, we can know the state of signal equipment, sitting in the control room or the maintenance center. But this system was installed over 20 years ago, so it cannot stand the needs such as 'more stable operation', 'broadband data transfer', 'easy construction and easy maintenance'. To satisfy these needs, we studied the monitoring system using radio communication as a new method which can realize the operation in the terrible environment along railroads. In these studies, we have developed the terminals and repeaters based on the ZigBee protocol and have implemented the application using two different radio bands simultaneously. At last, we got the good results from the fundamental examinations using the developed equipment.

Keywords: monitoring, radio communication, 2 bands, ZigBee

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37 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki

Abstract:

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

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36 Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2

Authors: Asım Egitmen, Aysen Demir, Burcu Darendeli, Fatma Ulusal, Bilgehan Güzel

Abstract:

Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.

Keywords: nanoparticle, nanotube, oximes, precursor, supercritical CO2

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35 Contradictive Representation of Women in Postfeminist Japanese Media

Authors: Emiko Suzuki

Abstract:

Although some claim that we are in a post-feminist society, the word “postfeminism” still raises questions to many. In postfeminist media, as a British sociologist Rosalind Gill points out, on the one hand, it seems to promote an empowering image of women who are active, positively sexually motivated, has free will to make market choices, and have surveillance and discipline for their personality and body, yet on the other hand, such beautiful and attractive feminist image imposes stronger surveillance of their mind and body for women. Similar representation, which is that femininity is described in a contradictive way, is seen in Japanese media as well. This study tries to capture how post-feminist Japanese media is, contrary to its ostensible messages, encouraging women to join the obedience to the labor system by affirming the traditional image of attractive women using sexual objectification and promoting values of neoliberalism. The result shows an interesting insight into how Japanese media is creating a conflicting ideal representation of women through repeatedly exposing such images.

Keywords: postfeminism, Japanese media, sexual objectification, embodiment

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34 Alternative Splicing of an Arabidopsis Gene, At2g24600, Encoding Ankyrin-Repeat Protein

Authors: H. Sakamoto, S. Kurosawa, M. Suzuki, S. Oguri

Abstract:

In Arabidopsis, several genes encoding proteins with ankyrin repeats and trans-membrane domains (AtANKTM) have been identified as mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. It has been known that the expression of an AtANKTM gene, At2g24600, is induced in response to abiotic stress and that there are four splicing variants derived from this locus. In this study, by RT-PCR and sequencing analysis, an unknown splicing variant of the At2g24600 transcript was identified. Based on differences in the predicted amino acid sequences, the five splicing variants are divided into three groups. The three predicted proteins are highly homologous, yet have different numbers of ankyrin repeats and trans-membrane domains. It is generally considered that ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interaction and that the number of trans-membrane domains affects membrane topology of proteins. The protein variants derived from the At2g24600 locus may have different molecular functions each other.

Keywords: alternative splicing, ankyrin repeats, trans-membrane domains, arabidopsis

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33 Asymmetric Synthesis of Catalponol Using Chiral Iridium Catalyst

Authors: Takeyuki Suzuki, Ismiyarto, Da-Yang Zhou, Kaori Asano, Hiroaki Sasai

Abstract:

The development of catalytic asymmetric reaction is important for the synthesis of natural products. To construct the multiple stereogenic centers, the desymmetrization of meso compounds is powerful strategy for the synthesis of chiral molecules. Oxidative desymmetrization of meso diols using chiral iridium catalyst provides a chiral hydroxyl ketone. The reaction is practical and an environmentally benign method which does not require the use of stoichiometric amount of heavy metals. This time we report here catalytic asymmetric synthesis of catalponol based on tandem coupling of meso-diols and an aldehyde. The tandem reaction includes oxidative desymmetrization of meso-diols, aldol condensation with an aldehyde. The reaction of meso-diol, benzaldehyde in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Ir complex and CsOH in tetrahydrofuran afforded the desired benzylidene ketone in 82% yield with 96% ee (enantiomeric excess). Next, we applied this benzylidene ketone derivative to the synthesis of catalponol. The corresponding benzylidene ketone was obtained in 87% yield with 99% ee. Finally, catalponol was synthesized by the regio- and stereo-selective reduction of dienone moiety in good yield.

Keywords: catalponol, desymmetrization, iridium, oxidation

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32 Studies on Bioaccumulation of 51Cr by Ulva sp. and Ruppia maritima

Authors: Clarissa L. de Araujo, Kátia N. Suzuki, Wilson T. V. Machado, Luis F. Bellido, Alfredo V.B. Bellido

Abstract:

This study aims at contributing to the characterization of the process of biological incorporation of chromium by two benthonic species, the macroalgae Ulva sp. and the aquatic macrophyte Ruppia maritima, to subsidize future activities of monitoring the contamination of aquatic biota. This study is based on laboratory experiments to characterize the incorporation kinetics of the radiotracer 51Cr in two oxidation states (III and VI), under different salinities (7, 15, and 21 ‰). Samples of two benthonic species were collected on the margins of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acclimated in the laboratory and subsequently subjected to experiments. In tests with 51Cr (III and IV), it was observed that accumulation of the metal in Ulva sp. has inverse relationship with salinity, while for R. maritima, the maximum accumulation occurs in salinity 21‰. In experiments with Cr(III), increases in the uptake of ion by both species were verified. The activity of Cr(III) was up to 19 times greater than the Cr(VI). As regards the potential for accumulation of metals, a better sensitivity of Ulva sp. for any chromium tri or hexavalent forms was verified, while for the Cr(VI) it will require low salinities and longer exposure (>24h). For R. maritima, the results showed the uptake of Cr(VI) increase along with time (>20h), because this species is more resistant for the hexavalent form and useful for any salinity as well.

Keywords: chromium, Cr-51, macroalgae, macrophyte, uptake

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31 Communication About Health and Fitness in Media and Its Hidden Message About Objectification

Authors: Emiko Suzuki

Abstract:

Although fitness is defined as the body’s ability to respond to the demand of physical activity without undue fatigue in health science, in media oftentimes physical activity is presented as means to an attractive body rather than a fit and healthy one. Of all types of media, Instagram is becoming an increasingly persuasive source of information and advice on health and fitness, where individuals conceptualize what health and fitness mean for them. However, this user-generated and unregulated platform can be problematic, as it can communicate misleading information about health and fitness and possibly leading individuals to psychological problems such as eating disorders. In fact, previous research has shown that some messages that were posted with a tag that related to inspire others to do fitness, in fact, encouraged distancing the self from the internal needs of the body. For this reason, this present study aims to explore how health and fitness are communicated on Instagram by analyzing images and texts. A content analysis of images that were labeled with particular hashtags was performed, followed by a thematic analysis of texts from the same set of images. The result shows an interesting insight about messages about how health and fitness are communicated from companies through media, then digested and further shared among communities on Instagram. The study explores how the use of visual focused way of communicating health and fitness can lead to the dehumanization of human bodies.

Keywords: Instagram, fitness, dehumanization, body image, embodiment

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30 Converting Scheduling Time into Calendar Date Considering Non-Interruptible Construction Tasks

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Suzuki Koji

Abstract:

In this paper we developed a new algorithm to convert the project scheduling time into calendar date in order to handle non-interruptible activities not to be split by non-working days (such as weekend and holidays). In a construction project some activities might require not to be interrupted even on non-working days, or to be finished on the end day of business days. For example, concrete placing work might be required to be completed by the end day of weekdays i.e. Friday, and curing in the weekend. This research provides an algorithm that imposes time constraint for start and finish times of non-interruptible activities. The algorithm converts working days, which is obtained by Critical Path Method (CPM), to calendar date with consideration of the start date of a project. After determining the interruption by non-working days, the start time of a certain activity should be postponed, if there is enough total float value. Otherwise, the duration is shortened by hiring additional resources capacity or/and using overtime work execution. Then, time constraints are imposed to start time and finish time of the activity. The algorithm is developed in Excel Spreadsheet for microcomputer and therefore we can easily get a feasible, calendared construction schedule for such a construction project with some non-interruptible activities.

Keywords: project management, scheduling, critical path method, time constraint, non-interruptible tasks

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29 Chemopreventive Potency of Medicinal and Eatable Plant, Gromwell Seed on in Vitro and in Vivo Carcinogenesis Systems

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

As part of an ongoing our projects to investigate the anti-tumor promoring properties (chemopreventive potency) of Gromwell seed, dry powder materials and its active compounds were carried out through useful test systems. Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi seed) (GS) is a grass crop that has long been used and played a role in traditional medicine as a nourishing food, and for the treatment of various aliments, paticularly cancer. The application of a new screening procedure which utilizes the synergistic effect of short-chain fatty acids and phorbol esters in enable rapid and easy detection of naturally occurring substances(anti-tumor promoters chemo-preventive agents) with inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) activation, using human lymphblastoid cells. In addition, we have now extended these investigations to a new tumorigenesis model in which we initiated the tumors with DMBA intiation and promoted with 1.7 nmol of TPA in two-stage mouse skin test and other models. these results provide a basis for further development of these botanical supplements for human cancer chemoprevention and observations seem that this materials more extensively as one of the trials for the purpose of complementary and alternative medicine.

Keywords: chemoprevention, medicinal plant, mouse, carcinogenesis systems

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28 Effects of Handheld Video Games on Interpersonal Relationships: A Two-Wave Panel Study on Elementary School Students

Authors: Kanae Suzuki

Abstract:

Handheld video games are popular communication tools among Japanese elementary school students today. This study aims to examine the effects of the use of handheld video games on interpersonal relationships of the students in real and virtual worlds. A two-wave panel survey was conducted for students of ten elementary schools at an interval of approximately six months. The survey questionnaire included questions about the average amount of time spent playing a handheld video game during the past one month, the frequency of communication with players during game play, and the interpersonal relationships, such as the number of real and virtual friends the students have. A multiple regression model was constructed for 324 students to examine causal relationships. The results indicated that the more frequently the students communicated with other players while playing games, the number of the real friends tended to increase. In contrast, no significant effect of the total time spent playing games was found on interpersonal relationships. The findings suggested that communication during game play is an important factor for improving interpersonal relationships of this age group.

Keywords: communication, real friend, social adjustment, virtual friend

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27 Human Resource Development Strategy in Automotive Industry (Eco-Car) for ASEAN Hub

Authors: Phichak Phutrakhul

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study concepts and strategies of human resource development in the automotive manufacturers and to articulate the proposals against the government about the human resource development for automotive industry. In the present study, qualitative study was an in-depth interview in which the qualitative data were collected from the executive or the executive of human resource division from five automotive companies - Toyota Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Nissan Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and Suzuki Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Qualitative data analysis was performed by using inter-coder agreement technique. The research findings were as follows: The external factors included the current conditions of the automotive industry, government’s policy related to the automotive industry, technology, labor market and human resource development systems of the country. The internal factors included management, productive management, organizational strategies, leadership, organizational culture and philosophy of human resource development. These factors were affected to the different concept of human resources development -the traditional human resource development and the strategies of human resource development. The organization focuses on human resources as intellectual capital and uses the strategies of human resource development in all development processes. The strategies of human resource development will enhance the ability of human resources in the organization and the country.

Keywords: human resource development strategy, automotive industry, eco-cars, ASEAN

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26 Integrated Thermal Control to Improve Workers' Intellectual Concentration in Office Environment

Authors: Kimi Ueda, Kosuke Sugita, Soma Kawamoto, Hiroshi Shimoda, Hirotake Ishii, Fumiaki Obayashi, Kazuhiro Taniguchi, Ayaka Suzuki

Abstract:

The authors have focused on the thermal difference between office rooms and break rooms, and proposed an integrated thermal control method to improve workers’ intellectual concentration. First, a trial experiment was conducted to verify the effect of temperature difference on workers’ intellectual concentration with using two experimental rooms; a thermally neutral break room and a cooler office room. As the result of the experiment, it was found that the thermal difference had a significant effect on improving their intellectual concentration. Workers, however, often take a short break at their desks without moving to a break room, so that the thermal difference cannot be given to them. So utilization of airflow was proposed as an integrated thermal control method instead of the temperature difference to realize the similar effect. Concretely, they are exposed to airflow when working in order to reduce their effective temperature while it is weakened when taking a break. Another experiment was conducted to confirm the effect of the airflow control on their intellectual concentration. As the result of concentration index and questionnaire survey, their intellectual concentration was significantly improved in the integrated thermal controlled environment. It was also found that most of them felt more comfortable and had higher motivation and higher degree of concentration in the environment.

Keywords: airflow, evaluation experiment, intellectual concentration, thermal difference

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25 Efficient Ni(II)-Containing Layered Triple Hydroxide-Based Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterisation and Their Role in the Heck Reaction

Authors: Gabor Varga, Krisztina Karadi, Zoltan Konya, Akos Kukovecz, Pal Sipos, Istvan Palinko

Abstract:

Nickel can efficiently replace palladium in the Heck, Suzuki and Negishi reactions. This study focuses on the synthesis and catalytic application of Ni(II)-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered triple hydroxides (LTHs). Our goals were to incorporate Ni(II) ions among the layers of LDHs or LTHs, or binding it to their surface or building it into their layers in such a way that their catalytic activities are maintained or even increased. The LDHs and LTHs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as co-solvent. In several cases, post-synthetic modifications (e.g., thermal treatment) were performed. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the composites displayed good crystallinity and were free of byproducts. The success of the syntheses and the post-synthetic modifications was confirmed by relevant characterization methods (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDX and combined IR techniques). Catalytic activities of the produced and well-characterized solids were investigated through the Heck reaction. The composites behaved as efficient, recyclable catalysts in the Heck reaction between 4-bromoanisole and styrene. Through varying the reaction parameters, we were able to obtain acceptable conversions under mild conditions. Our study highlights the possibility of the application of Ni(II)-containing composites as efficient catalysts in coupling reactions.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, layered triple hydroxide, heterogeneous catalysis, heck reaction

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24 A Novel Gene Encoding Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, SHG1, Is Indispensable for Seed Germination under Moderate Salt Stress

Authors: H. Sakamoto, J. Tochimoto, S. Kurosawa, M. Suzuki, S. Oguri

Abstract:

Salt stress adversely affects plant growth at various stages of development including seed germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth and finally reproduction. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to salt stress. Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated SHG1 (salt hypersensitive germination 1), whose disruption leads to reduced germination rate under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. The SGH1-disrupted Arabidopsis mutant died at the cotyledon stage when sown on salt-containing medium, although wild type plants could form true leaves under the same conditions. On the other hand, this mutant showed similar phenotypes to wild type plants when sown on medium without salt and transferred to salt-containing medium at the vegetative stage. These results suggested that SHG1 played indispensable role in the seed germination and seedling establishment under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 may be involved in the release of seed dormancy.

Keywords: germination, ankyrin repeat, arabidopsis, salt tolerance

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23 Screening of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Using Paper-Based Lateral Flow Device

Authors: Pattarachaya Preechakasedkit, Kota Osada, Koji Suzuki, Daniel Citterio, Orawon Chailapakul

Abstract:

A paper-based lateral flow device for screening thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is reported. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using two mouse monoclonal TSH antibodies (anti-hTSH 5403 and 5404) as immobilized and labeled antibodies for capturing TSH samples. Test (anti-hTSH 5403) and control (goat anti-Mouse IgG) lines were fabricated on nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) using ballpoint pen printed with a speed of 3 cm/s and thickness setting of 1. The novel gold nanoparticles europium complex ([email protected]) was used as fluorescence label compared to conventional AuNPs label. The results obtained with this device can be visually assessed by the naked eyes and under UV hand lamps, and quantitative analysis can be performed using the ImageJ program. The limit of detection (LOD) under UV hand lamps (0.1 µIU/mL) provided 50-fold greater sensitivity than AuNPs (5 µIU/mL), which is suitable for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism screening within 30 min. A linear relationship between the red intensity and the logarithmic concentrations of TSH was observed with a good correlation (R²=0.992). Furthermore, the device can be effectively applied for screening TSH in the spiked human serum with recovery range of 96.80-104.45% and RSD of 2.18-3.63%. Therefore, the developed device is an alternative method for TSH screening which provides a lot of advantages including low cost, short time analysis, ease of use, disposability, portability, and on-site measurement.

Keywords: thyroid stimulating hormone, paper-based lateral flow, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

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22 Cheiloscopy: A Study on Predominant Lip Print Patterns among the Gujarati Population

Authors: Pooja Ahuja, Tejal Bhutani, M. S. Dahiya

Abstract:

Cheiloscopy, the study of lip prints, is a tool in forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of individuals based on lips patterns. The objective of this study is to determine predominant lip print pattern found among the Gujarati population, to evaluate whether any sex difference exists and to study the permanence of the pattern over six months duration. The study comprised of 100 healthy individuals (50 males and 50 females), in the age group of 18 to 25 years of Gujarati population of the Gandhinagar region of the Gujarat state, India. By using Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification, Lip prints were then divided into four quadrants and also classified on the basis of peripheral shape of the lips. Materials used to record the lip prints were dark brown colored lipstick, cellophane tape, and white bond paper. Lipstick was applied uniformly, and lip prints were taken on the glued portion of cellophane tape and then stuck on to a white bond paper. These lip prints were analyzed with magnifying lens and virtually with stereo microscope. On the analysis of the subject population, results showed Branched pattern Type II (29.57 percentage) to be most predominant in the Gujarati population. Branched pattern Type II (35.60 percentage) and long vertical Type I (28.28 percentage) were most prevalent in males and females respectively and large full lips were most predominantly present in both the sexes. The study concludes that lip prints in any form can be an effective tool for identification of an individual in a closed or open group forms.

Keywords: cheiloscopy, lip pattern, predomianant, Gujarati population

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21 A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes

Authors: Peifei Zhu, Zisheng Li, Yasuki Kakishita, Mayumi Suzuki, Tomoaki Chono

Abstract:

Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is a widely used approach for LV segmentation but suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is proposed to improve the accuracy and speed of the model-based segmentation. Firstly, a robust and efficient detector based on Hough forest is proposed to localize cardiac feature points, and such points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Secondly, to achieve more accurate and detailed segmentation, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 800 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly of abnormal shapes. The proposed method is compared to several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. The experiment results demonstrate that the accuracy of feature point detection for initialization was improved by 40% compared to the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops, thus speeding up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.

Keywords: hough forest, active shape model, segmentation, cardiac left ventricle

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20 Drawings Reveal Beliefs of Japanese University Students

Authors: Sakae Suzuki

Abstract:

Although Japanese students study English for six years in secondary schools, they demonstrate little success with it when they enter higher education. Learners’ beliefs can predict the future behavior of students, so it may be effective to investigate how learners’ beliefs limit their success and how beliefs might be nudged in a positive direction. While many researchers still depend on a questionnaire called BALLI to reveal explicit beliefs, alternative approaches, especially those designed to reveal implicit beliefs, might be helpful for promoting learning. The present study seeks to identify beliefs with a discursive approach using visual metaphors and narratives. Employing a sociocultural framework, this study investigates how students’ beliefs are revealed by drawings of themselves and their surrounding environments and artifacts while they are engaged in language learning. Research questions are: (1) Can we identify beliefs through an analysis of students’ visual narratives? (2) What environments and artifacts can be found in students’ drawings, and what do they mean? (3) To what extent do students see language learning as a solitary, rather than a social, activity? Participants are university students majoring in science and technology in Japan. The questionnaire was administered to 70 entering students in April, 2014. Data included students drawings of themselves as learners of English as well as written descriptions of students’ backgrounds, English-learning experiences, and analogies and metaphors that they used in written descriptions of themselves as learners. Data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Anticipated results include students’ perceptions of themselves as language learners, including their sense of agency, awareness of artifacts, and social contexts of language learning. Comments will be made on implications for teaching, as well as the use of visual narratives as research tools, and recommended further research.

Keywords: drawings, learners' beliefs, metaphors, BALLI

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19 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott

Abstract:

Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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18 A Challenge to Acquire Serious Victims’ Locations during Acute Period of Giant Disasters

Authors: Keiko Shimazu, Yasuhiro Maida, Tetsuya Sugata, Daisuke Tamakoshi, Kenji Makabe, Haruki Suzuki

Abstract:

In this paper, we report how to acquire serious victims’ locations in the Acute Stage of Large-scale Disasters, in an Emergency Information Network System designed by us. The background of our concept is based on the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11th, 2011. Through many experiences of national crises caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, we have established advanced communication systems and advanced disaster medical response systems. However, Japan was devastated by huge tsunamis swept a vast area of Tohoku causing a complete breakdown of all the infrastructures including telecommunications. Therefore, we noticed that we need interdisciplinary collaboration between science of disaster medicine, regional administrative sociology, satellite communication technology and systems engineering experts. Communication of emergency information was limited causing a serious delay in the initial rescue and medical operation. For the emergency rescue and medical operations, the most important thing is to identify the number of casualties, their locations and status and to dispatch doctors and rescue workers from multiple organizations. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, the dispatching mechanism and/or decision support system did not exist to allocate the appropriate number of doctors and locate disaster victims. Even though the doctors and rescue workers from multiple government organizations have their own dedicated communication system, the systems are not interoperable.

Keywords: crisis management, disaster mitigation, messing, MGRS, military grid reference system, satellite communication system

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17 Evaluation of Chemopreventive Activity of Medicinal Plant, Gromwell Seed against Tumor Promoting Stage

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Takanari Arai, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

In our continuous search for anti-tumor promoting, chemopreventive active potency from natural source material, a kind of healthy tea, Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi) ext., and including compounds Monoolein and Trilinolein have been screened using the in vitro synergistic assay indicated by inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by TPA. In assay, Gromwell seed aqueous extract and hot aqueous extract exhibited the potential inhibitory effects on EBV-EA activation without strong cytotoxicity on Raji cells. In our experimental system, the inhibitory effects of both Gromwell extracts and compounds were greater than that of beta-carotene, which is known anti-tumor promoting agent and/or chemopreventive agent. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. The percentages of the inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA activation for these materials were 60% and 30% at concentration 100 μg. Based on the results obtained in vitro, we studied the inhibitory effect of compounds, in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin papilloma using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a potential promoter. The control animals showed a 100% incidence of papilloma at 20 weeks after DMBA-TPA tumor promotion, while treatment with compounds reduced the percentage of number of tumor to 60 % after 20 weeks. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showing chemopreventive activity against TPA promoting stage and these data support the effective potency of carcinogenic stage in clinical evaluation of integrative oncology.

Keywords: gromwell seed, medicinal plant, chemoprevention, pharmaceutical medicine

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16 Analysis of Aerodynamic Forces Acting on a Train Passing Through a Tornado

Authors: Masahiro Suzuki, Nobuyuki Okura

Abstract:

The crosswind effect on ground transportations has been extensively investigated for decades. The effect of tornado, however, has been hardly studied in spite of the fact that even heavy ground vehicles, namely, trains were overturned by tornadoes with casualties in the past. Therefore, aerodynamic effects of the tornado on the train were studied by several approaches in this study. First, an experimental facility was developed to clarify aerodynamic forces acting on a vehicle running through a tornado. Our experimental set-up consists of two apparatus. One is a tornado simulator, and the other is a moving model rig. PIV measurements showed that the tornado simulator can generate a swirling-flow field similar to those of the natural tornadoes. The flow field has the maximum tangential velocity of 7.4 m/s and the vortex core radius of 96 mm. The moving model rig makes a 1/40 scale model train of single-car/three-car unit run thorough the swirling flow with the maximum speed of 4.3 m/s. The model car has 72 pressure ports on its surface to estimate the aerodynamic forces. The experimental results show that the aerodynamic forces vary its magnitude and direction depends on the location of the vehicle in the flow field. Second, the aerodynamic forces on the train were estimated by using Rankin vortex model. The Rankin vortex model is a simple tornado model which widely used in the field of civil engineering. The estimated aerodynamic forces on the middle car were fairly good agreement with the experimental results. Effects of the vortex core radius and the path of the train on the aerodynamic forces were investigated using the Rankin vortex model. The results shows that the side and lift forces increases as the vortex core radius increases, while the yawing moment is maximum when the core radius is 0.3875 times of the car length. Third, a computational simulation was conducted to clarify the flow field around the train. The simulated results qualitatively agreed with the experimental ones.

Keywords: aerodynamic force, experimental method, tornado, train

Procedia PDF Downloads 155