Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: micro-bubble

8 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang


This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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7 CO2 Gas Solubility and Foam Generation

Authors: Chanmoly Or, Kyuro Sasaki, Yuichi Sugai, Masanori Nakano, Motonao Imai


Cold drainage mechanism of oil production is a complicated process which involves with solubility and foaming processes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane (as light oil) and the effect of depressurization processes on microbubble generation. The experimental study of sensitivity parameters of temperature and pressure on CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane was conducted at temperature of 20 °C and 50 °C and pressure ranged 2.0–7.0 MPa by using PVT (RUSKA Model 2370) apparatus. The experiments of foamy hexadecane were also prepared by depressurizing from saturated pressure of 6.4 MPa and temperature of 50 °C. The experimental results show the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane linearly increases with increasing pressure. At pressure 4.5 MPa, CO2 gas dissolved in hexadecane 2.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 50 °C and 3.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 20 °C. The bubbles of foamy hexadecane were observed that most of large bubbles were coalesced shortly whereas the small one keeps presence. The experimental result of foamy hexadecane indicated large depressurization step (∆P) produces high quality of foam with high microbubble distribution.

Keywords: CO2 gas solubility, depressurization process, foamy hexadecane, microbubble distribution

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6 Identification of the Microalgae Species in a Wild Mix Culture Acclimated to Landfill Leachate and Ammonia Removal Performances in a Microbubble Assisted Photobioreactor

Authors: Neslihan Ozman Say, Jim Gilmour, Pratik Desai, William Zimmerman


Landfill leachate treatment has been attracting researchers recently for various environmental and economical reasons. Leachate discharge to receiving waterbodies without treatment causes serious detrimental effects including partial oxygen depletion due to high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations besides toxicity of heavy metals it contains and high ammonia concentrations. In this study, it is aimed to show microalgal ammonia removal performances of a wild microalgae consortia as an alternative treatment method and determine the dominant leachate tolerant species for this consortia. For the microalgae species identification experiments a microalgal consortium which has been isolated from a local pond in Sheffield inoculated in %5 diluted raw landfill leachate and acclimated to the leachate by batch feeding for a month. In order to determine the most tolerant microalgal consortium, four different untreated landfill leachate samples have been used as diluted in four different ratios as 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. Microalgae cell samples have been collected from all experiment sets and have been examined by using 18S rDNA sequencing and specialised gel electrophoresis which are adapted molecular biodiversity methods. The best leachate tolerant algal consortium is being used in order to determine ammonia removal performances of the culture in a microbubble assisted photobioreactor (PBR). A porous microbubble diffuser which is supported by a fluidic oscillator is being used for dosing CO₂ and air mixture in the PBR. It is known that high mass transfer performance of microbubble technology provides a better removal efficiency and a better mixing in the photobioreactor. Ammonia concentrations and microalgal growth are being monitored for PBR currently. It is aimed to present all the results of the study in final paper submission.

Keywords: ammonia removal from leachate, landfill leachate treatment, microalgae species identification, microbubble assisted photobioreactors

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5 Experimental Investigation of Gas Bubble Behaviours in a Domestic Heat Pump Water Heating System

Authors: J. B. Qin, X. H. Jiang, Y. T. Ge


The growing awareness of global warming potential has internationally aroused interest and demand in reducing greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activity. Much national energy in the UK had been consumed in the residential sector mainly for space heating and domestic hot water production. Currently, gas boilers are mostly applied in the domestic water heating which contribute significantly to excessive CO2 emissions and consumption of primary energy resources. The issues can be solved by popularizing heat pump systems that are attributable to higher performance efficiency than those of traditional gas boilers. Even so, the heat pump system performance can be further enhanced if the dissolved gases in its hot water circuit can be efficiently discharged.  To achieve this target, the bubble behaviors in the heat pump water heating system need to be extensively investigated. In this paper, by varying different experimental conditions, the effects of various heat pump hot water side parameters on gas microbubble diameters were measured and analyzed. Correspondingly, the effect of each parameter has been investigated. These include varied system pressures, water flow rates, saturation ratios and heat outputs. The results measurement showed that the water flow rate is the most significant parameter to influence on gas microbubble productions. The research outcomes can significantly contribute to the understanding of gas bubble behaviors at domestic heat pump water heating systems and thus the efficient way for the discharging of the associated dissolved gases.  

Keywords: heat pump water heating system, microbubble formation, dissolved gases in water, effectiveness

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4 Examining Influence of The Ultrasonic Power and Frequency on Microbubbles Dynamics Using Real-Time Visualization of Synchrotron X-Ray Imaging: Application to Membrane Fouling Control

Authors: Masoume Ehsani, Ning Zhu, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi, Amira Abdelrasoul


Membrane fouling poses severe challenges in membrane-based wastewater treatment applications. Ultrasound (US) has been considered an effective fouling remediation technique in filtration processes. Bubble cavitation in the liquid medium results from the alternating rarefaction and compression cycles during the US irradiation at sufficiently high acoustic pressure. Cavitation microbubbles generated under US irradiation can cause eddy current and turbulent flow within the medium by either oscillating or discharging energy to the system through microbubble explosion. Turbulent flow regime and shear forces created close to the membrane surface cause disturbing the cake layer and dislodging the foulants, which in turn improve the cleaning efficiency and filtration performance. Therefore, the number, size, velocity, and oscillation pattern of the microbubbles created in the liquid medium play a crucial role in foulant detachment and permeate flux recovery. The goal of the current study is to gain in depth understanding of the influence of the US power intensity and frequency on the microbubble dynamics and its characteristics generated under US irradiation. In comparison with other imaging techniques, the synchrotron in-line Phase Contrast Imaging technique at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) allows in-situ observation and real-time visualization of microbubble dynamics. At CLS biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) polychromatic beamline, the effective parameters were optimized to enhance the contrast gas/liquid interface for the accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bubble cavitation within the system. With the high flux of photons and the high-speed camera, a typical high projection speed was achieved; and each projection of microbubbles in water was captured in 0.5 ms. ImageJ software was used for post-processing the raw images for the detailed quantitative analyses of microbubbles. The imaging has been performed under the US power intensity levels of 50 W, 60 W, and 100 W, in addition to the US frequency levels of 20 kHz, 28 kHz, and 40 kHz. For the duration of 2 seconds of imaging, the effect of the US power and frequency on the average number, size, and fraction of the area occupied by bubbles were analyzed. Microbubbles’ dynamics in terms of their velocity in water was also investigated. For the US power increase of 50 W to 100 W, the average bubble number and the average bubble diameter were increased from 746 to 880 and from 36.7 µm to 48.4 µm, respectively. In terms of the influence of US frequency, a fewer number of bubbles were created at 20 kHz (average of 176 bubbles rather than 808 bubbles at 40 kHz), while the average bubble size was significantly larger than that of 40 kHz (almost seven times). The majority of bubbles were captured close to the membrane surface in the filtration unit. According to the study observations, membrane cleaning efficiency is expected to be improved at higher US power and lower US frequency due to the higher energy release to the system by increasing the number of bubbles or growing their size during oscillation (optimum condition is expected to be at 20 kHz and 100 W).

Keywords: bubble dynamics, cavitational bubbles, membrane fouling, ultrasonic cleaning

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3 Microbubbles Enhanced Synthetic Phorbol Ester Degradation by Ozonolysis

Authors: D. Kuvshinov, A. Siswanto, W. Zimmerman


A phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) is a synthetic analogue of phorbol ester (PE), a natural toxic compound of Euphorbiaceae plant. The oil extracted from plants of this family is useful source for primarily biofuel. However this oil can also be used as a food stock due to its significant nutrition content. The limitations for utilizing the oil as a food stock are mainly due to a toxicity of PE. Nowadays a majority of PE detoxification processes are expensive as include multi steps alcohol extraction sequence. Ozone is considered as a strong oxidative agent. It reaction with PE it attacks the carbon double bond of PE. This modification of PE molecular structure results into nontoxic ester with high lipid content. This report presents data on development of simple and cheap PE detoxification process with water application as a buffer and ozone as reactive component. The core of this new technique is a simultaneous application of new microscale plasma unit for ozone production and patented gas oscillation technology. In combination with a reactor design the technology permits ozone injection to the water-TPA mixture in form of microbubbles. The efficacy of a heterogeneous process depends on diffusion coefficient which can be controlled by contact time and interface area. The low velocity of rising microbubbles and high surface to volume ratio allow fast mass transfer to be achieved during the process. Direct injection of ozone is the most efficient process for a highly reactive and short lived chemical. Data on the plasma unit behavior are presented and influence of the gas oscillation technology to the microbubbles production mechanism has been discussed. Data on overall process efficacy for TPA degradation is shown.

Keywords: microbubble, ozonolysis, synthetic phorbol ester, chemical engineering

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2 Advanced Separation Process of Hazardous Plastics and Metals from End-Of-Life Vehicles Shredder Residue by Nanoparticle Froth Flotation

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Min Hee Park, Soo Mim Cho, Sung Hyeon Yoon


One of the issues of End of Life Vehicles (ELVs) recycling promotion is technology for the appropriate treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR). Owing to its high heterogeneity and variable composition (plastic (23–41%), rubber/elastomers (9–21%), metals (6–13%), glass (10–20%) and dust (soil/sand) etc.), ASR can be classified as ‘hazardous waste’, on the basis of the presence of heavy metals (HMs), PCBs, BFRs, mineral oils, etc. Considering their relevant concentrations, these metals and plastics should be properly recovered for recycling purposes before ASR residues are disposed of. Brominated flame retardant additives in ABS/HIPS and PVC may generate dioxins and furans at elevated temperatures. Moreover, these BFRs additives present in plastic materials may leach into the environment during landfilling operations. ASR thermal process removes some of the organic material but concentrates, the heavy metals and POPs present in the ASR residues. In the present study, Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle assisted ozone treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR plastics by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR respectively. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5% and 99.5% of HIPS in ASR samples sank, resulting in a purity of 98% and 99%. Furthermore, at 150 rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% of purity in ASR, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. This process improved the quality of recycled ASR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities. Further, a hybrid ball-milling and with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle froth flotation process was established for the recovery of HMs from ASR. After ball-milling with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle additives, the flotation efficiency increased to about 55 wt% and the HMs recovery were also increased about 90% for the 0.25 mm size fractions of ASR. Coating with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticles associated with subsequent microbubble froth flotation allowed the air bubbles to attach firmly on the HMs. SEM–EDS maps showed that the amounts of HMs were significant on the surface of the floating ASR fraction. This result, along with the low HM concentration in the settled fraction, was confirmed by elemental spectra and semi-quantitative SEM–EDS analysis. Developed hybrid preferential hazardous plastics and metals separation process from ASR is a simple, highly efficient, and sustainable procedure.

Keywords: end of life vehicles shredder residue, hazardous plastics, nanoparticle froth flotation, separation process

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1 Toxicity Evaluation of Reduced Graphene Oxide on First Larval Stages of Artemia sp.

Authors: Roberta Pecoraro


The focus of this work was to investigate the potential toxic effect of titanium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂-rGO) nanocomposites on nauplii of microcrustacean Artemia sp. In order to assess the nanocomposite’s toxicity, a short-term test was performed by exposing nauplii to solutions containing TiO₂-rGO. To prepare titanium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂-rGO) nanocomposites, a green procedure based on solar photoreduction was proposed; it allows to obtain the photocatalysts by exploiting the photocatalytic properties of titania activated by the solar irradiation in order to avoid the high temperatures and pressures required for the standard hydrothermal synthesis. Powders of TiO₂-rGO supplied by the Department of Chemical Sciences (University of Catania) are indicated as TiO₂-rGO at 1% and TiO₂-rGO at 2%. Starting from a stock solution (1mg rGO-TiO₂/10 ml ASPM water) of each type, we tested four different concentrations (serial dilutions ranging from 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ mg/ml). All the solutions have been sonicated for 12 min prior to use. Artificial seawater (called ASPM water) was prepared to guarantee the hatching of the cysts and to maintain nauplii; the durable cysts used in this study, marketed by JBL (JBL GmbH & Co. KG, Germany), were hydrated with ASPM water to obtain nauplii (instar II-III larvae). The hatching of the cysts was carried out in the laboratory by immersing them in ASPM water inside a 500 ml beaker and keeping them constantly oxygenated thanks to an aerator for the insufflation of microbubble air: after 24-48 hours, the cysts hatched, and the nauplii appeared. The nauplii in the second and third stages of development were collected one-to-one, using stereomicroscopes, and transferred into 96-well microplates where one nauplius per well was added. The wells quickly have been filled with 300 µl of each specific concentration of the solution used, and control samples were incubated only with ASPM water. Replication was performed for each concentration. Finally, the microplates were placed on an orbital shaker, and the tests were read after 24 and 48 hours from inoculating the solutions to assess the endpoint (immobility/death) for the larvae. Nauplii that appeared motionless were counted as dead, and the percentages of mortality were calculated for each treatment. The results showed a low percentage of immobilization both for TiO₂-rGO at 1% and TiO₂-rGO at 2% for all concentrations tested: for TiO₂-rGO at 1% was below 12% after 24h and below 15% after 48h; for TiO₂-rGO at 2% was below 8% after 24h and below 12% after 48h. According to other studies in the literature, the results have not shown mortality nor toxic effects on the development of larvae after exposure to rGO. Finally, it is important to highlight that the TiO₂-rGO catalysts were tested in the solar photodegradation of a toxic herbicide (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D), obtaining a high percentage of degradation; therefore, this alternative approach could be considered a good strategy to obtain performing photocatalysts.

Keywords: Nauplii, photocatalytic properties, reduced GO, short-term toxicity test, titanium dioxide

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