Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4305

Search results for: natural gas

4155 Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Machines Reflect Misogyny in Society

Authors: Irene Yi

Abstract:

Machine learning, natural language processing, and neural network models of language are becoming more and more prevalent in the fields of technology and linguistics today. Training data for machines are at best, large corpora of human literature and at worst, a reflection of the ugliness in society. Machines have been trained on millions of human books, only to find that in the course of human history, derogatory and sexist adjectives are used significantly more frequently when describing females in history and literature than when describing males. This is extremely problematic, both as training data, and as the outcome of natural language processing. As machines start to handle more responsibilities, it is crucial to ensure that they do not take with them historical sexist and misogynistic notions. This paper gathers data and algorithms from neural network models of language having to deal with syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and text classification. Results are significant in showing the existing intentional and unintentional misogynistic notions used to train machines, as well as in developing better technologies that take into account the semantics and syntax of text to be more mindful and reflect gender equality. Further, this paper deals with the idea of non-binary gender pronouns and how machines can process these pronouns correctly, given its semantic and syntactic context. This paper also delves into the implications of gendered grammar and its effect, cross-linguistically, on natural language processing. Languages such as French or Spanish not only have rigid gendered grammar rules, but also historically patriarchal societies. The progression of society comes hand in hand with not only its language, but how machines process those natural languages. These ideas are all extremely vital to the development of natural language models in technology, and they must be taken into account immediately.

Keywords: gendered grammar, misogynistic language, natural language processing, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
4154 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
4153 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geohazard Mapping: Case Study Dominica

Authors: Michael Mickson

Abstract:

The recent development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been increasing the number of technical solutions that can be used to identify, map, and manage the effects of geohazards. UAVs are generally cheaper and more versatile than traditional remote-sensing techniques, and they can be therefore considered as a good alternative for the acquisition of imagery and other remote sensing data before, during and after a natural hazard event. This study aims to use UAV for investigating areas susceptible to high mobility flows such as debris flow in Dominica, especially after the 2017 Hurricane Maria. The use of UAVs in identifying, mapping and managing of natural hazards helps to mitigate the negative effects of natural hazards on livelihood, properties and the built environment.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), geohazards, remote sensing, mapping, Dominica

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
4152 Current Medical and Natural Synchronization Methods in Small Ruminants

Authors: Mehmet Akoz, Mustafa Kul

Abstract:

Ewes and goats are seasonally polyestrus animals. Their reproductive activities are associated with the reduction or extending of daylight. Melatonin releasing from pineal gland regulates the sexual activities depending on daylight. In recent years, number of ewes decreased in our country. This situation dispatched to developing of some methods to increase productivity. Small ruminants can be synchronized with the natural and medical methods. known methods from natural light set with ram and goat participation. The most important natural methods of male influence, daylight is regulated and feed. On the other hand, progestagens, PGF2α, melatonin, and gonadotropins are commonly used for the purpose of estrus synchranization. But it is not effective PGF2α anestrous season The short-term and long-term progesterone treatment was effective to synchronize estrus in small ruminats during both breeding and anestrus seasons. Alternative choices of progesterone/progestagen have been controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices, supplying natural progesterone, norgestomet implants, and orally active melengestrol acetate Melatonin anestrous season and should be applied during the transition period, but the season can be synchronized. Estrus synchronisation shortens anestrus season, decreases labor for mating/insemination and estrus pursuit, and induces multiple pregnancies.

Keywords: ewes, goat, synchronization, progestagen, PGF2α

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
4151 From User's Requirements to UML Class Diagram

Authors: Zeineb Ben Azzouz, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa

Abstract:

The automated extraction of UML class diagram from natural language requirements is a highly challenging task. Many approaches, frameworks and tools have been presented in this field. Nonetheless, the experiments of these tools have shown that there is no approach that can work best all the time. In this context, we propose a new accurate approach to facilitate the automatic mapping from textual requirements to UML class diagram. Our new approach integrates the best properties of statistical Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to reduce ambiguity when analysing natural language requirements text. In addition, our approach follows the best practices defined by conceptual modelling experts to determine some patterns indispensable for the extraction of basic elements and concepts of the class diagram. Once the relevant information of class diagram is captured, a XMI document is generated and imported with a CASE tool to build the corresponding UML class diagram.

Keywords: class diagram, user’s requirements, XMI, software engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
4150 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir

Abstract:

The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
4149 Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection of Pine, Olive and Orange Leaves

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Behnam Amiri

Abstract:

Heat transfer of leaves is a crucial factor in optimal operation of metabolic functions in plants. In order to quantify this phenomenon in different leaves and investigate the influence of leaf shape on heat transfer, natural convection for pine, orange and olive leaves was simulated as representatives of different groups of leaf shapes. CFD techniques were used in this simulation with the purpose to calculate heat transfer of leaves in similar environmental conditions. The problem was simulated for steady state and three-dimensional conditions. From obtained results, it was concluded that heat fluxes of all three different leaves are almost identical, however, total rate of heat transfer have highest and lowest values for orange leaves and pine leaves, respectively.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamic, heat flux, heat transfer, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
4148 Evaluation of Drilling-Induced Delamination of Flax/Epoxy Composites by Non-Destructive Testing Methods

Authors: Hadi Rezghimaleki, Masatoshi Kubouchi, Yoshihiko Arao

Abstract:

The use of natural fiber composites (NFCs) is growing at a fast rate regarding industrial applications and principle researches due to their eco-friendly, renewable nature, and low density/costs. Drilling is one of the most important machining operations that are carried out on natural fiber composites. Delamination is a major concern in the drilling process of NFCs that affects the structural integrity and long-term reliability of the machined components. Flax fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates were prepared by hot press technique. In this research, we evaluated drilling-induced delamination of flax/epoxy composites by X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasonic testing (UT), and optical methods and compared the results.

Keywords: natural fiber composites, flax/epoxy, X-ray CT, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
4147 The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey

Authors: Asiye Ciftci, Zeki Kaya

Abstract:

Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.

Keywords: populus, clonal, loci, ex situ

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
4146 Oxygenation in Turbulent Flows over Block Ramps

Authors: Thendiyath Roshni, Stefano Pagliara

Abstract:

Block ramps (BR) or rock chutes are eco-friendly natural river restoration structures. BR are made of ramp of rocks and flows over BR develop turbulence and helps in the entrainment of ambient air. These act as natural aerators in river flow and therefore leads to oxygenation of water. As many of the hydraulic structures in rivers, hinders the natural path for aquatic habitat. However, flows over BR ascertains a natural rocky flow and ensures safe and natural movement for aquatic habitat. Hence, BR is considered as a better alternative for drop structures. As water quality is concerned, turbulent and aerated flows over BR or macro-roughness conditions improves aeration and thereby oxygenation. Hence, the objective of this paper is to study the oxygenation in the turbulent flows over BR. Experimental data were taken for a slope (S) of 27.5% for three discharges (Q = 9, 15 and 21 lps) conditions. Air concentration were measured with the help of air concentration probe for three different discharges in the uniform flow region. Oxygen concentration is deduced from the air concentration as ambient air is entrained in the flows over BR. Air concentration profiles and oxygen profiles are plotted in the uniform flow region for three discharges and found that air concentration and oxygen concentration does not show any remarkable variation in properties in the longitudinal profile in uniform flow region. An empirical relation is developed for finding the average oxygen concentration (Oₘ) for S = 27.5% in the uniform flow region for 9 < Q < 21 lps. The results show that as the discharge increases over BR, there is a reduction of oxygen concentration in the uniform flow region.

Keywords: aeration, block ramps, oxygenation, turbulent flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
4145 Thermal Performance of Hybrid PVT Collector with Natural Circulation

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, I. Tabet, H. Haloui, H. Bencheikh El Houcine, M. Adouane

Abstract:

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors allow simultaneous production of electrical energy thus heat energy. There are several configurations of hybrid collectors (to produce water or air). For hybrids water collectors, there are several configurations that differ by the nature of the absorber (serpentine, tubes...). In this paper, an absorber tank is studied. The circulation of the coolant is natural (we do not use the pump). We present the obtained results in our experimental study and we analyzed the data, and then we compare the results with the theory practices. The electrical performances of the hybrid collector are compared with those of conventional photovoltaic module mounted on the same structure and measured under the same conditions. We conducted experiments with natural circulation of the coolant (Thermosyphon), for a flow rate of 0.025kg/m².

Keywords: experimental, photovoltaic, solar, temperature, tank

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
4144 Eco-Friendly Natural Filler Based Epoxy Composites

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli

Abstract:

In this study, acrylated soybean oil (AESO) was used as modifying agent for DGEBF-type epoxy resin (ER). AESO was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt % with ER. Composites with eco-friendly natural fillers-banana bark and seashell were prepared. MNA was used as a hardener. Effect of banana peel (BP) and seashell (SSh) fillers on mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness of M-ERs were investigated. The structure epoxy resins (M-ERs) cured with MNA and sebacic acid (SAc) hardeners were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Tensile test results show that Young’s (elastic) modulus, tensile strength and hardness of SSh particles reinforced with M-ERs were higher than the M-ERs reinforced with banana bark.

Keywords: biobased composite, epoxy resin, mechanical properties, natural fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
4143 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Recep Karadağ, Emine Torgan

Abstract:

Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, natural dye, dyeing, silk fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
4142 An Inquiry into Bioregionalism as a Holistic Development Paradigm in Developing Small Towns

Authors: K. C. Surekha

Abstract:

The natural habitat forms the setting for every urban development. The tangible and intangible characteristics of the site contributed to the sustenance of various urban dimensions of early civilizations. However, as the towns were continuously evolving and developing, the attitude towards the natural habitat changed. The after effects of this self-centered attitude resulted in various natural and manmade catastrophes. At the same time the social habitat, cities and new towns were increasingly over-populated; and will become even more numerous and crowded in the future. The coexistence of natural and urban components is necessary for a sustainable future and preserving the region’s unique features. Therefore, there is an urgent need to rethink actively on alternative development paradigms to achieve sustenance of all living forms on the planet in a more sustainable way. The main aim of this paper is to understand bioregionalism as an alternative development paradigm, its theory, concepts as well as the key aspects of bioregional planning. The paper will try to understand the concept of bioregionalism theoretically and take case studies. The critical interpretation of theory and analysis of case studies will be used to form a set of design parameters which can be physically implemented from an urban design and planning standpoint.

Keywords: bioregion, bioregionalism, holistic, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
4141 Effects of Interfacial Modification Techniques on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Particle Based Polymer Composites

Authors: Bahar Basturk, Secil Celik Erbas, Sevket Can Sarikaya

Abstract:

Composites combining the particulates and polymer components have attracted great interest in various application areas such as packaging, furniture, electronics and automotive industries. For strengthening the plastic matrices, the utilization of natural fillers instead of traditional reinforcement materials has received increased attention. The properties of natural filler based polymer composites (NFPC) may be improved by applying proper surface modification techniques to the powder phase of the structures. In this study, acorn powder-epoxy and pine corn powder-epoxy composites containing up to 45% weight percent particulates were prepared by casting method. Alkali treatment and acetylation techniques were carried out to the natural particulates for investigating their influences under mechanical forces. The effects of filler type and content on the tensile properties of the composites were compared with neat epoxy. According to the quasi-static tensile tests, the pine cone based composites showed slightly higher rigidity and strength properties compared to the acorn reinforced samples. Furthermore, the structures independent of powder type and surface modification technique, showed higher tensile properties with increasing the particle content.

Keywords: natural fillers, polymer composites, surface modifications, tensile properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
4140 Sensitizing Bamboo Fabric with Antimicrobial Turmeric Dye

Authors: Varinder Kaur, Amanjit Kaur, Simran Kaur, Samriti Vaid

Abstract:

Coating of fabrics with anti-microbial dyes is an adaptable technique of protection from various diseases. Natural dyes, which are known to possess antibacterial properties, can be used for antibacterial finishing of fibers like cotton, wool, bamboo and so many. Dyeing of fabrics with natural dyes normally requires the use of mordants so that dyes can stay on the fabric as well as into interstices of the fabric during multiple washings. In this study, the mordants used are alum and chitosan for ensuring a reasonable color fastness to light and washing. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide having significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, microbial activity and polycationicity. The metal ion of alum mordant can act as electron acceptor for electron donor to form coordination bond with the dye molecule, making them insoluble in water. The dyeing of bamboo fabric using a natural dye extracted from turmeric has been studied using conventional dyeing method. Natural dye was extracted using water as solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity. The effect of mordants on the dyeing outcome in terms of colour depth as well as fastness properties of the dyeing was investigated. It has been found that employing the conventional dyeing technique at 100 oC, the mordanted samples were deeper in depth than their unmordanted counterparts. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Turmeric extract was found to enhance microbial resistance of bamboo as well as was itself as a good cause of coloration. These textiles dyed with the turmeric as natural dye can be very useful in developing clothing for infants, elderly and infirm people to protect them against common infections. The outcome of this study will provide a new feature to the interface of dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo fabric, natural dye, turmeric

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
4139 Comparison of Two Artificial Accelerated Weathering Methods of Larch Wood with Natural Weathering in Exterior Conditions

Authors: I. Sterbova, E. Oberhofnerova, M. Panek, M. Pavelek

Abstract:

With growing popularity, wood of European larch (Larix decidua, Mill.) is being more often applied into the exterior, usually as facade elements, also without surface treatment. The aim of this work was to compare two laboratory tests of artificial accelerated weathering of wood with two ways of natural weathering in the exterior. To assess changes in selected surface characteristics of larch wood, accelerated weathering methods in the Xenotest and UV chamber were used, both in combination with temperature cycling, for 6 weeks. They were compared with natural weathering results at exposition under 45° and 90° in the exterior for 12 months. The changes of colour, gloss, contact angle of water and also changes in visual characteristics were evaluated. The results of wood surfaces changes after 6 weeks of accelerated weathering in Xenotest are closer to 12 months of natural weathering in the exterior at an angle of 90° compared to the UV chamber testing. The results, especially the colour changes, of the samples exposed at an angle of 45° in the exterior were significantly different. Testing in Xenotest more closely simulates the weathering of façade elements in the exterior compared to the UV chamber testing.

Keywords: larch wood, wooden facade, wood accelerated weathering, weathering methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
4138 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu

Abstract:

This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: finite difference method, natural convection, porous medium, scale analysis, thermal stratification

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
4137 Simulation of Natural Ventilation Strategies as a Comparison Method for Two Different Climates

Authors: Fulya Ozbey, Ecehan Ozmehmet

Abstract:

Health and living in a healthy environment are important for all the living creatures. Healthy buildings are the part of the healthy environment and the ones that people and sometimes the animals spend most of their times in it. Therefore, healthy buildings are important subject for everybody. There are many elements of the healthy buildings from material choice to the thermal comfort including indoor air quality. The aim of this study is, to simulate two natural ventilation strategies which are used as a cooling method in Mediterranean climate, by applying to a residential building and compare the results for Asian climate. Fulltime natural and night-time ventilation strategies are simulated for three days during the summertime in Mediterranean climate. The results show that one of the chosen passive cooling strategies worked on both climates good enough without using additional shading element and cooling device, however, the other ventilation strategy did not provide comfortable indoor temperature enough. Finally, both of the ventilation strategies worked better on the Asian climate than the Mediterranean in terms of the total overheating hours during the chosen period of year.

Keywords: Asian climate, indoor air quality, Mediterranean climate, natural ventilation simulation, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4136 Study on Biodeterioration of Proteinous Objects in Museums and Toxic Efficacy of Myristica Fragrans and Syzygium Aromaticum Oils against the Larvae of Anthrenus verbasci

Authors: Fatma Faheem, K. Abduraheem

Abstract:

Museums are custodians of natural and cultural heritage. Objects like tribal dresses, headgears, weapons, musical instruments, manuscripts and other ethnocultural materials housed in museums are prized possessions of intellectual and cultural property of people. Tropical countries like India have a favorable climatic condition for biodeterioration. Organic materials such as leather and parchment objects which form a substantial part of natural history collections of museums across the world are promptly infested by insects like dermestid beetles, tenebrionides, silver fishes, cockroaches and other micro-organisms. The environmental problems caused due to the overuse of pesticides and other non-degradable chemicals have been the matter of serious concern for both the scientists and public in recent years. Synthetic pesticides are very expensive and also highly toxic for humans and its environment. Due to its high health risk factor government has taken severe initiatives on policy of banning it. In order to overcome the problems of biodeterioration, natural biocides should be applied. In this paper, comparative study has been done to investigate the toxic efficacy of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum oil in variation with contact and stomach toxicity against larvae of Anthrenus verbasci.

Keywords: biodeterioration, contact toxicity, cultural heritage, natural biocides, natural heritage, stomach toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
4135 Biobased Facade: Illuminated Natural Fibre Polymer with Cardboard Core

Authors: Ralf Gliniorz, Carolin Petzoldt, Andreas Ehrlich, Sandra Gelbrich, Lothar Kroll

Abstract:

The building envelope is integral part of buildings, and renewable resources have a key role in energy consumption. So our aim was the development and implementation of a free forming facade system, consisting of fibre-reinforced polymer, which is built up of commercial biobased resin systems and natural fibre reinforcement. The field of application is aimed in modern architecture, like the office block 'Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.' with its oak wood recyclate facade. The build-up of our elements is a classically sandwich-structured composite: face sheets as fibre-reinforced composite using polymer matrix, here a biobased epoxy, and natural fibres. The biobased core consists of stuck cardboard structure (BC-flute). Each element is manufactured from two shells in a counterpart, via hand lay-up laminate. These natural fibre skins and cardboard core have adhered 'wet-on-wet'. As a result, you get the effect of translucent face sheets with matrix illumination. Each created pixel can be controlled in RGB-colours and form together a screen at buildings. A 10 x 5 m² area 'NFP-BIO' with 25 elements is planned as a reference object in Chemnitz. The resolution is about 100 x 50 pixels. Specials are also the efficient technology of production and the possibility to extensively 3D-formed elements for buildings, replacing customary facade systems, which can give out information or advertising.

Keywords: biobased facade, cardboard core, natural fibre skins, sandwich element

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4134 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi

Abstract:

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Fourier number, Nusselt number, Rayleigh number, steady state, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4133 Trace Metals in Natural Bottled Water on Montenegrin Market and Comaparison with Tap Water in Podgorica

Authors: Katarina Živković, Ivana Joksimović

Abstract:

Many different chemicals may occur in drinking water and cause significant human health risks after prolonged periods of exposure. In particular concern are contaminants that have cumulative toxic properties, such as heavy metals. This investigation was done to clarify concerns about chemical quality and safety of drinking tap water in Podgorica. For comparison, all available natural bottled water on Montenegrin market were bought. All samples (bottled water and tap water from Podgorica) were analyzed using ICP –OES on contents of Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn,Cr, Fe, As and Mn. All results compared with the maximum concentration levels allowed by international standards and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The results of analysis showed that all trace of heavy metals were very low and in same time below MCL according to WHO and International standard.

Keywords: inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Montenegro (Podgorica), natural bottled water, tap water , trace of heavy metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
4132 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
4131 Development of Paper Based Analytical Devices for Analysis of Iron (III) in Natural Water Samples

Authors: Sakchai Satienperakul, Manoch Thanomwat, Jutiporn Seedasama

Abstract:

A paper based analytical devices (PADs) for the analysis of Fe (III) ion in natural water samples is developed, using reagent from guava leaf extract. The extraction is simply performed in deionized water pH 7, where tannin extract is obtained and used as an alternative natural reagent. The PADs are fabricated by ink-jet printing using alkenyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax. The quantitation of Fe (III) is carried out using reagent from guava leaf extract prepared in acetate buffer at the ratio of 1:1. A color change to gray-purple is observed by naked eye when dropping sample contained Fe (III) ion on PADs channel. The reflective absorption measurement is performed for creating a standard curve. The linear calibration range is observed over the concentration range of 2-10 mg L-1. Detection limited of Fe (III) is observed at 2 mg L-1. In its optimum form, the PADs is stable for up to 30 days under oxygen free conditions. The small dimensions, low volume requirement and alternative natural reagent make the proposed PADs attractive for on-site environmental monitoring and analysis.

Keywords: green chemical analysis, guava leaf extract, lab on a chip, paper based analytical device

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
4130 An Overview of Smart Growth Concept from Ecological Planning Perspective

Authors: Ozge Celik, Elvan Ender

Abstract:

With rapidly increasing population growth and industrial revolution in the 1950s, in Turkey migration began to the cities from the countryside. Along the rapid growth of urban population has started to bring many problems. Depending on the uncontrolled urban development, concerns about the protection of natural values has increased day by day. As a result of disturbance on the natural environment, human health has started to be under threat. After all, much urban planning approaches outspread that protecting natural resources by respect to human health and troubleshooting problems emerging with anthropogenic effects. Smart growth concept is one of the chosen methods to resolve the problems in Turkey. In this paper, smart growth concept idea and its criteria will be explained while ecological planning and urban planning problems will be mentioned in Turkey according to the need of concept. Studies, consisting of practical and theoretical smart growth ideas, shows that ecological landscape planning is not included in the urban development process in Turkey. The main idea is to initiate urban development plans considering social and cultural structures of cultural assets and also natural values.

Keywords: ecological landscape planning, smart growth, Turkey, urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
4129 Assesment of Financial Performance: An Empirical Study of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Palash Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Background and significance of the study: Crude oil and natural gas is of crucial importance due to its increasing demand in India. The demand has been increased because of change of lifestyle overtime. Since India has poor utilization of oil production capacity, constantly the import of it has been increased progressively day by day. This ultimately hit the foreign exchange reserves of India, however it negatively affect the Indian economy as well. The financial performance of crude oil and natural gas companies in India has been trimmed down year after year because of underutilization of production capacity, enhancement of demand, change in life style, and change in import bill and outflows of foreign currencies. In this background, the current study seeks to measure the financial performance of crude oil and natural gas companies of India in the post liberalization period. Keeping in view of this, this study assesses the financial performance in terms of liquidity management, solvency, efficiency, financial stability, and profitability of the companies under study. Methodology: This research work is encircled on yearly ratio data collected from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) Prowess database for the periods between 1993-94 and 2012-13 with 20 observations using liquidity, solvency and efficiency indicators, profitability indicators and financial stability indicators of all the major crude oil and natural gas companies in India. In the course of analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation statistics, and linear regression test have been utilized. Major findings: Descriptive statistics indicate that liquidity position is satisfactory in case of three crude oil and natural gas companies (Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited, Oil India Limited and Selan exploration and transportation Limited) out of selected companies under study but solvency position is satisfactory only for one company (Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited). However, efficiency analysis points out that Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited performs effectively the management of inventory, receivables, and payables, but the overall liquidity management is not well. Profitability position is very much satisfactory in case of all the companies except Tata Petrodyne Limited, but profitability management is not satisfactory for all the companies under study. Financial stability analysis shows that all the companies are more dependent on debt capital, which bears a financial risk. Correlation and regression test results illustrates that profitability is positively and negatively associated with liquidity, solvency, efficiency, and financial stability indicators. Concluding statement: Management of liquidity and profitability of crude oil and natural gas companies in India should have been improved through controlling unnecessary imports in spite of the heavy demand of crude oil and natural gas in India and proper utilization of domestic oil reserves. At the same time, Indian government has to concern about rupee depreciation and interest rates.

Keywords: financial performance, crude oil and natural gas companies, India, linear regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
4128 Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. R. Balabiyev, A. O. Kaipbayeva

Abstract:

The article discusses the legal framework of the government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest for it deals with the most important branch of economy–utilization of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and environmental well being of the population. Development of a long-term environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy, and is a relatively new function for the public administration system. It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid their early depletion or contamination.

Keywords: environmental focus, government’s environmental function, protection of wetlands, Kazakhstan

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
4127 Development of Natural Zeolites Adsorbent: Preliminary Study on Water-Isopropyl Alcohol Adsorption in a Close-Loop Continuous Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Pandu Prabowo Jati, I Wayan Warmada

Abstract:

Klaten Indonesian natural zeolite can be used as powder or pellet adsorbent. Pellet adsorbent has been made from activated natural zeolite powder by a conventional pressing method. Starch and formaldehyde were added as binder to strengthen the construction of zeolite pellet. To increase the absorptivity and its capacity, natural zeolite was activated first chemically and thermally. This research examined adsorption process of water from Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)-water system using zeolite adsorbent pellet from natural zeolite powder which has been activated with H2SO4 0.1 M and 0.3 M. Adsorbent was pelleted by pressing apparatus at certain pressure to make specification in 1.96 cm diameter, 0.68 cm thickness which the natural zeolite powder (-80 mesh). The system of isopropyl-alcohol water contained 80% isopropyl-alcohol. Adsorption process was held in close-loop continuous apparatus which the zeolite pellet was put inside a column and the solution of IPA-water was circulated at certain flow. Concentration changing was examined thoroughly at a certain time. This adsorption process included mass transfer from bulk liquid into film layer and from film layer into the solid particle. Analysis of rate constant was using first order isotherm model that simulated with MATLAB. Besides using first order isotherm, intra-particle diffusion model was proposed by using pore diffusion model. The study shows that adsorbent activated by H2SO4 0.1 M has good absorptivity with mass transfer constant at 0.1286 min-1.

Keywords: intra-particle diffusion, fractional attainment, first order isotherm, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
4126 The Internal View of the Mu'min: Natural Law Theories in Islam

Authors: Gianni Izzo

Abstract:

The relation of Islam to its legal precepts, reflected in the various jurisprudential 'schools of thought' (madhahib), is one expressed in a version of 'positivism' (fiqh) providing the primary theory for deducing Qurʾan rulings and those from the narrations (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Scholars of Islam, including Patricia Crone (2004) and others chronicled by Anver Emon (2005), deny the influence of natural law theories as extra-scriptural indices of revelation’s content. This paper seeks to dispute these claims by reference to historical and canonical examples within Shiʿa legal thought that emphasize the salient roles of ‘aql (reason), fitrah (primordial human nature), and lutf (divine grace). These three holistic features, congenital to every human, and theophanically reflected in nature make up a mode of moral intelligibility antecedent to prophetic revelation. The debate between the 'traditionalist' Akhbaris and 'rationalist' Usulis over the nature of deriving legal edicts in Islam is well-covered academic ground. Instead, an attempt is made to define and detail the built-in assumptions of natural law revealed in the jurisprudential summa of Imami Shiʿism, whether of either dominant school, that undergird its legal prescriptions and methods of deduction.

Keywords: Islam, fiqh, natural law, legal positivism, aql

Procedia PDF Downloads 17