Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 503

Search results for: dynamical localization

503 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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502 Dynamical Systems and Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Vandana N. Purav


The Dynamical systems concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. e.g. pendulum of a clock, the number of fish each spring in a lake, the number of rabbits spring in an enclosure, etc. The Dynamical system theory used to describe the complex nature that is dynamical systems with differential equations called continuous dynamical system or dynamical system with difference equations called discrete dynamical system. The concept of dynamical system has its origin in Newtonian mechanics.

Keywords: dynamical systems, Fibonacci numbers, Newtonian mechanics, discrete dynamical system

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501 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto


In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

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500 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt


Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization

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499 Bug Localization on Single-Line Bugs of Apache Commons Math Library

Authors: Cherry Oo, Hnin Min Oo


Software bug localization is one of the most costly tasks in program repair technique. Therefore, there is a high claim for automated bug localization techniques that can monitor programmers to the locations of bugs, with slight human arbitration. Spectrum-based bug localization aims to help software developers to discover bugs rapidly by investigating abstractions of the program traces to make a ranking list of most possible buggy modules. Using the Apache Commons Math library project, we study the diagnostic accuracy using our spectrum-based bug localization metric. Our outcomes show that the greater performance of a specific similarity coefficient, used to inspect the program spectra, is mostly effective on localizing of single line bugs.

Keywords: software testing, bug localization, program spectra, bug

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498 Influence of Scalable Energy-Related Sensor Parameters on Acoustic Localization Accuracy in Wireless Sensor Swarms

Authors: Joyraj Chakraborty, Geoffrey Ottoy, Jean-Pierre Goemaere, Lieven De Strycker


Sensor swarms can be a cost-effectieve and more user-friendly alternative for location based service systems in different application like health-care. To increase the lifetime of such swarm networks, the energy consumption should be scaled to the required localization accuracy. In this paper we have investigated some parameter for energy model that couples localization accuracy to energy-related sensor parameters such as signal length,Bandwidth and sample frequency. The goal is to use the model for the localization of undetermined environmental sounds, by means of wireless acoustic sensors. we first give an overview of TDOA-based localization together with the primary sources of TDOA error (including reverberation effects, Noise). Then we show that in localization, the signal sample rate can be under the Nyquist frequency, provided that enough frequency components remain present in the undersampled signal. The resulting localization error is comparable with that of similar localization systems.

Keywords: sensor swarms, localization, wireless sensor swarms, scalable energy

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497 The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane


The localization information is crucial for the operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict requirements on hardware; thus, it is expensive to be implemented in practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios. In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the simulating results.

Keywords: WSN, localization, DV-Hop, RSSI

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496 An Introductory Study on Optimization Algorithm for Movable Sensor Network-Based Odor Source Localization

Authors: Yossiri Ariyakul, Piyakiat Insom, Poonyawat Sangiamkulthavorn, Takamichi Nakamoto


In this paper, the method of optimization algorithm for sensor network comprised of movable sensor nodes which can be used for odor source localization was proposed. A sensor node is composed of an odor sensor, an anemometer, and a wireless communication module. The odor intensity measured from the sensor nodes are sent to the processor to perform the localization based on optimization algorithm by which the odor source localization map is obtained as a result. The map can represent the exact position of the odor source or show the direction toward it remotely. The proposed method was experimentally validated by creating the odor source localization map using three, four, and five sensor nodes in which the accuracy to predict the position of the odor source can be observed.

Keywords: odor sensor, odor source localization, optimization, sensor network

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495 Hybrid Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fatima Babar, Majid I. Khan, Malik Najmus Saqib, Muhammad Tahir


This article provides range based improvements over a well-known single-hop range free localization scheme, Approximate Point in Triangulation (APIT) by proposing an energy efficient Barycentric coordinate based Point-In-Triangulation (PIT) test along with PIT based trilateration. These improvements result in energy efficiency, reduced localization error and improved localization coverage compared to APIT and its variants. Moreover, we propose to embed Received signal strength indication (RSSI) based distance estimation in DV-Hop which is a multi-hop localization scheme. The proposed localization algorithm achieves energy efficiency and reduced localization error compared to DV-Hop and its available improvements. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-hop localization scheme is also proposed that utilize Barycentric coordinate based PIT test and both range based (Received signal strength indicator) and range free (hop count) techniques for distance estimation. Our experimental results provide evidence that proposed hybrid multi-hop localization scheme results in two to five times reduction in the localization error compare to DV-Hop and its variants, at reduced energy requirements.

Keywords: Localization, Trilateration, Triangulation, Wireless Sensor Networks

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494 Real Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance in Dynamic Environments with Different D-S

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi


In this paper a real-time obstacle avoidance approach for both autonomous and non-autonomous dynamical systems (DS) is presented. In this approach the original dynamics of the controller which allow us to determine safety margin can be modulated. Different common types of DS increase the robot’s reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle especially when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments. The method is validated by simulation and influence of different autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as important characteristics of limit cycles and unstable DS. Furthermore, the position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained. Finally, the verification of avoidance trajectories is described through different parameters such as safety factor.

Keywords: limit cycles, nonlinear dynamical system, real time obstacle avoidance, safety margin

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493 Factor Analysis on Localization of Human Resources of Japanese Firms in Taiwan

Authors: Nana Weng


Localization in the aspect of human resource means more diversity and more opportunities. The main purpose of this article is to identify the perception of local employees and intermediate managers (non-Japanese) and figure out exploratory factors which have been contributing and blocking the level of localization in the aspect of human resource management by using EFA (Exploratory Factors Analysis). Questionnaires will be designed for local employees and managers to inquire about the perceptions of regulations and implementation regarding recruitment, training and development, promotion and rewarding. The study finds that Japanese firms have worked well in the process of localization, especially in hiring and training local staffs in Taiwan. The significance of this study lies in paying more attention to the perception of local employees and intermediate managers regarding localization rather than interviews results from Japanese expatriates or top HR managers who are in charging of localization policy-making.

Keywords: Japanese firms in Taiwan, localization of human resources, exploratory factors analysis, local employees and intermediate managers

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492 Modeling and Controlling Nonlinear Dynamical Effects in Non-Contact Superconducting and Diamagnetic Suspensions

Authors: Sergey Kuznetsov, Yuri Urman


We present an approach to investigate non-linear dynamical effects occurring in the noncontact superconducting and diamagnetic suspensions, when levitated body has finite size. This approach is based on the calculation of interaction energy between spherical finite size superconducting or diamagnetic body with external magnetic field. Effects of small deviations from spherical shape may be also taken into account by introducing small corrections to the energy. This model allows investigating dynamical effects important for practical applications, such as nonlinear resonances, change of vibration plane, coupling of rotational and translational motions etc. We also show how the geometry of suspension affects various dynamical effects and how an inverse problem may be formulated to enforce or diminish various dynamical effects.

Keywords: levitation, non-linear dynamics, superconducting, diamagnetic stability

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491 Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based on Extended Database

Authors: Gyumin Hwang, Jihong Lee


This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1 m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Keywords: chirp spread spectrum, indoor localization, pattern-matching, time of arrival, multi-path, mahalanobis distance, reception rate, simultaneous localization and mapping, laser range finder

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490 Improved Acoustic Source Sensing and Localization Based On Robot Locomotion

Authors: V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta


This paper presents different methodology for an acoustic source sensing and localization in an unknown environment. The developed methodology includes an acoustic based sensing and localization system, a converging target localization based on the recursive direction of arrival (DOA) error minimization, and a regressive obstacle avoidance function. Our method is able to augment the existing proven localization techniques and improve results incrementally by utilizing robot locomotion and is capable of converging to a position estimate with greater accuracy using fewer measurements. The results also evinced the DOA error minimization at each iteration, improvement in time for reaching the destination and the efficiency of this target localization method as gradually converging to the real target position. Initially, the system is tested using Kinect mounted on turntable with DOA markings which serve as a ground truth and then our approach is validated using a FireBird VI (FBVI) mobile robot on which Kinect is used to obtain bearing information.

Keywords: acoustic source localization, acoustic sensing, recursive direction of arrival, robot locomotion

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489 Real-Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance with DS Method and the Influence of Dynamic Environments Change on Different DS

Authors: Saeed Mahjoub Moghadas, Farhad Asadi, Shahed Torkamandi, Hassan Moradi, Mahmood Purgamshidian


In this paper, we present real-time obstacle avoidance approach for both autonomous and non-autonomous DS-based controllers and also based on dynamical systems (DS) method. In this approach, we can modulate the original dynamics of the controller and it allows us to determine safety margin and different types of DS to increase the robot’s reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle and especially when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments. The method is validated in simulation and influence of different autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as limit cycles, and unstable DS on this algorithm and also the position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained. Finally, we describe how the avoidance trajectories can be verified through different parameters such as safety factor.

Keywords: limit cycles, nonlinear dynamical system, real time obstacle avoidance, DS-based controllers

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488 Visual Search Based Indoor Localization in Low Light via RGB-D Camera

Authors: Yali Zheng, Peipei Luo, Shinan Chen, Jiasheng Hao, Hong Cheng


Most of traditional visual indoor navigation algorithms and methods only consider the localization in ordinary daytime, while we focus on the indoor re-localization in low light in the paper. As RGB images are degraded in low light, less discriminative infrared and depth image pairs are taken, as the input, by RGB-D cameras, the most similar candidates, as the output, are searched from databases which is built in the bag-of-word framework. Epipolar constraints can be used to relocalize the query infrared and depth image sequence. We evaluate our method in two datasets captured by Kinect2. The results demonstrate very promising re-localization results for indoor navigation system in low light environments.

Keywords: indoor navigation, low light, RGB-D camera, vision based

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487 Room Level Indoor Localization Using Relevant Channel Impulse Response Parameters

Authors: Raida Zouari, Iness Ahriz, Rafik Zayani, Ali Dziri, Ridha Bouallegue


This paper proposes a room level indoor localization algorithm based on the use Multi-Layer Neural Network (MLNN) classifiers and one versus one strategy. Seven parameters of the Channel Impulse Response (CIR) were used and Gram-Shmidt Orthogonalization was performed to study the relevance of the extracted parameters. Simulation results show that when relevant CIR parameters are used as position fingerprint and when optimal MLNN architecture is selected good room level localization score can be achieved. The current study showed also that some of the CIR parameters are not correlated to the location and can decrease the localization performance of the system.

Keywords: mobile indoor localization, multi-layer neural network (MLNN), channel impulse response (CIR), Gram-Shmidt orthogonalization

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486 Model-Free Distributed Control of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Javad Khazaei, Rick Blum


Distributed control is an efficient and flexible approach for coordination of multi-agent systems. One of the main challenges in designing a distributed controller is identifying the governing dynamics of the dynamical systems. Data-driven system identification is currently undergoing a revolution. With the availability of high-fidelity measurements and historical data, model-free identification of dynamical systems can facilitate the control design without tedious modeling of high-dimensional and/or nonlinear systems. This paper develops a distributed control design using consensus theory for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems using sparse identification of system dynamics. Compared with existing consensus designs that heavily rely on knowing the detailed system dynamics, the proposed model-free design can accurately capture the dynamics of the system with available measurements and input data and provide guaranteed performance in consensus and tracking problems. Heterogeneous damped oscillators are chosen as examples of dynamical system for validation purposes.

Keywords: consensus tracking, distributed control, model-free control, sparse identification of dynamical systems

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485 Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources

Authors: Nurbanu Guzey, S. Jagannathan


Locating radio controlled (RC) devices using their unintended emissions has a great interest considering security concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source. Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting walkie-talkie for different positions are given.

Keywords: localization, angle of arrival (AoA), range estimation, array signal processing, ESPRIT, Uniform Linear Array (ULA)

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484 Failure Localization of Bipolar Integrated Circuits by Implementing Active Voltage Contrast

Authors: Yiqiang Ni, Xuanlong Chen, Enliang Li, Linting Zheng, Shizheng Yang


Bipolar ICs are playing an important role in military applications, mainly used in logic gates, such as inverter and NAND gate. The defect of metal break located on the step is one of the main failure mechanisms of bipolar ICs, resulting in open-circuit or functional failure. In this situation, general failure localization methods like optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) and photon emission microscopy (PEM) might not be fully effective. However, active voltage contrast (AVC) can be used as a voltage probe, which may pinpoint the incorrect potential and thus locate the failure position. Two case studies will be present in this paper on how to implement AVC for failure localization, and the detailed failure mechanism will be discussed.

Keywords: bipolar IC, failure localization, metal break, open failure, voltage contrast

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483 In-door Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran K. Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen


The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, radio signal strength

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482 Projective Lag Synchronization in Drive-Response Dynamical Networks via Hybrid Feedback Control

Authors: Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Ghada Al-Mahbashi, Sakhinah Abu Bakar


This paper investigates projective lag synchronization (PLS) behavior in drive response dynamical networks (DRDNs) model with identical nodes. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve the PLS with mismatch and without mismatch terms. The stability of the error dynamics is proven theoretically using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, analytical results show that the states of the dynamical network with non-delayed coupling can be asymptotically synchronized onto a desired scaling factor under the designed controller. Moreover, the numerical simulations results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: drive-response dynamical network, projective lag synchronization, hybrid feedback control, stability theory

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481 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi


The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

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480 Localization of Mobile Robots with Omnidirectional Cameras

Authors: Tatsuya Kato, Masanobu Nagata, Hidetoshi Nakashima, Kazunori Matsuo


Localization of mobile robots are important tasks for developing autonomous mobile robots. This paper proposes a method to estimate positions of a mobile robot using an omnidirectional camera on the robot. Landmarks for points of references are set up on a field where the robot works. The omnidirectional camera which can obtain 360 [deg] around images takes photographs of these landmarks. The positions of the robots are estimated from directions of these landmarks that are extracted from the images by image processing. This method can obtain the robot positions without accumulative position errors. Accuracy of the estimated robot positions by the proposed method are evaluated through some experiments. The results show that it can obtain the positions with small standard deviations. Therefore the method has possibilities of more accurate localization by tuning of appropriate offset parameters.

Keywords: mobile robots, localization, omnidirectional camera, estimating positions

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479 Localization of Buried People Using Received Signal Strength Indication Measurement of Wireless Sensor

Authors: Feng Tao, Han Ye, Shaoyi Liao


City constructions collapse after earthquake and people will be buried under ruins. Search and rescue should be conducted as soon as possible to save them. Therefore, according to the complicated environment, irregular aftershocks and rescue allow of no delay, a kind of target localization method based on RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) is proposed in this article. The target localization technology based on RSSI with the features of low cost and low complexity has been widely applied to nodes localization in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). Based on the theory of RSSI transmission and the environment impact to RSSI, this article conducts the experiments in five scenes, and multiple filtering algorithms are applied to original RSSI value in order to establish the signal propagation model with minimum test error respectively. Target location can be calculated from the distance, which can be estimated from signal propagation model, through improved centroid algorithm. Result shows that the localization technology based on RSSI is suitable for large-scale nodes localization. Among filtering algorithms, mixed filtering algorithm (average of average, median and Gaussian filtering) performs better than any other single filtering algorithm, and by using the signal propagation model, the minimum error of distance between known nodes and target node in the five scene is about 3.06m.

Keywords: signal propagation model, centroid algorithm, localization, mixed filtering, RSSI

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478 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy


With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: localization, wireless sensor networks, artificial neural network, radial basis function, multi-layer perceptron, backpropagation, RSSI, GPS

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477 Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi


In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which separated the observed time series into independent series and study the change and variation of the regime of the data with related statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time series data often represent separated phenomena in the some dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm for studying change point location in some time series data is simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard rate parameter and also for better identification of change point locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with different time series databases for some dynamical system.

Keywords: time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning, change-point algorithm

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476 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan


Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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475 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal


Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

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474 Dynamical Heterogeneity and Aging in Turbulence with a Nambu-Goldstone Mode

Authors: Fahrudin Nugroho, Halim Hamadi, Yusril Yusuf, Pekik Nurwantoro, Ari Setiawan, Yoshiki Hidaka


We investigate the Nikolaevskiy equation numerically using exponential time differencing method and pseudo-spectral method. This equation develops a long-wavelength modulation that behaves as a Nambu–Goldstone mode, and short-wavelength instability and exhibit turbulence. Using the autocorrelation analysis, the statistical properties of the turbulence governed by the equation are investigated. The autocorrelation then has been fitted with The Kohlrausch– Williams–Watts (KWW) expression. By varying the control parameter, we show a transition from compressed to stretched exponential for the auto-correlation function of Nikolaevskiy turbulence. The compressed exponential is an indicator of the existence of dynamical heterogeneity while the stretched indicates aging process. Thereby, we revealed the existence of dynamical heterogeneity and aging in the turbulence governed by Nikolaevskiy equation.

Keywords: compressed exponential, dynamical heterogeneity, Nikolaevskiy equation, stretched exponential, turbulence

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