Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1651

Search results for: molecular topology

1501 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic AlBi

Authors: Y. Benallou, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, M. Elkeurti


We present a theoretical study of the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the zinc-blende AlBi for a wide temperature range. The simulation calculation is performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using the three-body Tersoff potential which reproduces provide, with reasonable accuracy, the lattice constants and elastic constants. Our results for the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are in good agreement with other theoretical available works. Other thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion can also be predicted. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Thermodynamic Properties, aluminium compounds, interatomic potential, structural phase transition

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1500 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa


Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: India, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular Characterization, Karnataka, Dirofilaria repens

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1499 Investigation of Interaction between Interferons and Polyethylene Glycol Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, F. Kamali, M. Klantari Pour, L. Zeidabadi-Nejad


Chemical bonding between polyethylene glycol (PEG) with pharmaceutical proteins called pegylation is one of the most effective methods of improving the pharmacological properties. The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins will increase their pharmacologic properties. For the formation of a combination of pegylated protein should first be activated PEG and connected to the protein. Interferons(IFNs) are a family of cytokines which show antiviral effects in front of the biological and are responsible for setting safety system. In this study, the nature and properties of the interaction between active positions of IFNs and polyethylene glycol have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The main aspect of this theoretical work focuses on the achievement of valuable data on the reaction pathways of PEG-IFNs and the transition state energy. Our results provide a new perspective on the interactions, chemical properties and reaction pathways between IFNs and PEG.

Keywords: Interaction, Interferons, molecular dynamics simulation, polyethylene glycol

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1498 Finite Element Molecular Modeling: A Structural Method for Large Deformations

Authors: M. Huisman, A. Rezaei, W. Van Paepegem


Atomic interactions in molecular systems are mainly studied by particle mechanics. Nevertheless, researches have also put on considerable effort to simulate them using continuum methods. In early 2000, simple equivalent finite element models have been developed to study the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene in composite materials. Afterward, many researchers have employed similar structural simulation approaches to obtain mechanical properties of nanostructured materials, to simplify interface behavior of fiber-reinforced composites, and to simulate defects in carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets, etc. These structural approaches, however, are limited to small deformations due to complicated local rotational coordinates. This article proposes a method for the finite element simulation of molecular mechanics. For ease in addressing the approach, here it is called Structural Finite Element Molecular Modeling (SFEMM). SFEMM method improves the available structural approaches for large deformations, without using any rotational degrees of freedom. Moreover, the method simulates molecular conformation, which is a big advantage over the previous approaches. Technically, this method uses nonlinear multipoint constraints to simulate kinematics of the atomic multibody interactions. Only truss elements are employed, and the bond potentials are implemented through constitutive material models. Because the equilibrium bond- length, bond angles, and bond-torsion potential energies are intrinsic material parameters, the model is independent of initial strains or stresses. In this paper, the SFEMM method has been implemented in ABAQUS finite element software. The constraints and material behaviors are modeled through two Fortran subroutines. The method is verified for the bond-stretch, bond-angle and bond-torsion of carbon atoms. Furthermore, the capability of the method in the conformation simulation of molecular structures is demonstrated via a case study of a graphene sheet. Briefly, SFEMM builds up a framework that offers more flexible features over the conventional molecular finite element models, serving the structural relaxation modeling and large deformations without incorporating local rotational degrees of freedom. Potentially, the method is a big step towards comprehensive molecular modeling with finite element technique, and thereby concurrently coupling an atomistic domain to a solid continuum domain within a single finite element platform.

Keywords: Molecular Mechanics, large deformation, finite element, structural method

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1497 Phase Transition and Molecular Polarizability Studies in Liquid Crystalline Mixtures

Authors: M. Shahina, K. Fakruddin, C. M. Subhan, S. Rangappa


In this work, two mixtures with equal concentrations of 1) 4ꞌ-(6-(4-(pentylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(hexyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate and 2) 4ꞌ - (6-(4-(hexylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(octyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate, have been prepared. The transition temperature and optical texture are observed by using thermal microscopy. Density and birefringence studies are carried out on the above liquid crystalline mixtures. Using density and refractive indices data, the molecular polarizabilities are evaluated by using well-known Vuks and Neugebauer models. The molecular polarizability is also evaluated theoretically by Lippincott δ function model. The results reveal that the polarizability values are same in both experimental and theoretical methods.

Keywords: Liquid crystals, birefringence, polarizability, transition temperature, optical textures

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1496 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Navin Kumar, Pramod Kumar, Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra


Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: Elasticity, Molecular Dynamics, Mechanical Properties, carbon nanofiber

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1495 Effect of Natural Molecular Crowding on the Structure and Stability of DNA Duplex

Authors: Chaudhari S. G., Saxena


We systematically and quantitatively investigated the effect of glucose as a model of natural molecular crowding agent on the structure and thermodynamics of Watson-Crick base paired three duplexes (named as D1, D2 and D3) of different base compositions and lengths. Structural analyses demonstrated that duplexes (D1 and D2) folded into B-form with different cations in the absence and presence of glucose while duplex (D3) folded into mixed A and B-form. Moreover, we demonstrated that the duplex was more stable in the absence of glucose, and marginally destabilized in its presence because glucose act as a weak structure breaker on the tetrahedral network of water. In the absence of glucose, the values of ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) were -13.56, -13.76, -12.46, and -12.36 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) were -13.64, -12.93, -12.86, and -12.30 kcal/mol, for duplex (D3) were -10.05, -11.76, -9.91, -9.70 kcal/mol in the presence of Na+, K+, Na+ + Mg++ and K+ + Mg++ respectively. At high concentration of glucose (1:10000), there was increase in ΔG°25 for duplex (D1) -12.47, -12.37, -11.96, -11.55 kcal/mol, for duplex (D2) -12.37, -11.47, -11.98, -11.01 kcal/mol and for duplex (D3) -8.47, -9.17, -9.16, -8.66 kcal/mol. Our results provide the information that structure and stability of DNA duplex depends on the structure of molecular crowding agent present in its close vicinity. In this study, I have taken the hydration of simple sugar as an essential model for understanding interactions between hydrophilic groups and interfacial water molecules and its effect on hydrogen bonded DNA duplexes. On the basis of these relatively simple building blocks I hope to gain some insights for understanding more generally the properties of sugar–water–salt systems with DNA duplexes.

Keywords: Bioengineering and Life Sciences, natural molecular crowding, DNA Duplex, structure of DNA

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1494 Optical Properties of Tetrahydrofuran Clathrate Hydrates at Terahertz Frequencies

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee


Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to observe the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different average molecular weights (10,000 g/mol, 40,000 g/mol, 360,000 g/mol). Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4 - 2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and complex refractive indices are obtained and compared in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: terahertz, clathrate hydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), THz-TDS, inhibitor

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1493 Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: R. Pilafkan, M. Kaffash Irzarahimi, S. F. Asbaghian Namin


The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, nonlocal elasticity, biaxial buckling, single-layered graphene sheets, classical plate theory

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1492 Structural Development and Multiscale Design Optimization of Additively Manufactured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Blended Wing Body Configuration

Authors: Malcolm Dinovitzer, Calvin Miller, Adam Hacker, Gabriel Wong, Zach Annen, Padmassun Rajakareyar, Jordan Mulvihill, Mostafa S.A. ElSayed


The research work presented in this paper is developed by the Blended Wing Body (BWB) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) team, a fourth-year capstone project at Carleton University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Here, a clean sheet UAV with BWB configuration is designed and optimized using Multiscale Design Optimization (MSDO) approach employing lattice materials taking into consideration design for additive manufacturing constraints. The BWB-UAV is being developed with a mission profile designed for surveillance purposes with a minimum payload of 1000 grams. To demonstrate the design methodology, a single design loop of a sample rib from the airframe is shown in details. This includes presentation of the conceptual design, materials selection, experimental characterization and residual thermal stress distribution analysis of additively manufactured materials, manufacturing constraint identification, critical loads computations, stress analysis and design optimization. A dynamic turbulent critical load case was identified composed of a 1-g static maneuver with an incremental Power Spectral Density (PSD) gust which was used as a deterministic design load case for the design optimization. 2D flat plate Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) was used to simulate aerodynamics in the aeroelastic analysis. The aerodynamic results were verified versus a 3D CFD analysis applying Spalart-Allmaras and SST k-omega turbulence to the rigid UAV and vortex lattice method applied in the OpenVSP environment. Design optimization of a single rib was conducted using topology optimization as well as MSDO. Compared to a solid rib, weight savings of 36.44% and 59.65% were obtained for the topology optimization and the MSDO, respectively. These results suggest that MSDO is an acceptable alternative to topology optimization in weight critical applications while preserving the functional requirements.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Unmanned aerial vehicle, blended wing body, multiscale design optimization

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1491 Subway Ridership Estimation at a Station-Level: Focus on the Impact of Bus Demand, Commercial Business Characteristics and Network Topology

Authors: Jungyeol Hong, Dongjoo Park


The primary purpose of this study is to develop a methodological framework to predict daily subway ridership at a station-level and to examine the association between subway ridership and bus demand incorporating commercial business facility in the vicinity of each subway station. The socio-economic characteristics, land-use, and built environment as factors may have an impact on subway ridership. However, it should be considered not only the endogenous relationship between bus and subway demand but also the characteristics of commercial business within a subway station’s sphere of influence, and integrated transit network topology. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, therefore it should be considered endogeneity and heteroscedastic issues which might have in the subway ridership prediction model. This study focused on both discovering the impacts of bus demand, commercial business characteristics, and network topology on subway ridership and developing more precise subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers entire Seoul city in South Korea and includes 243 stations with the temporal scope set at twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The data for subway and bus ridership was collected Seoul Smart Card data from 2015 and 2016. Three-Stage Least Square(3SLS) approach was applied to develop daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity between bus and subway demand. Independent variables incorporating in the modeling process were commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. As a result, it was found that bus ridership and subway ridership were endogenous each other and they had a significantly positive sign of coefficients which means one transit mode could increase another transportation mode’s ridership. In other words, two transit modes of subway and bus have a mutual relationship instead of the competitive relationship. The commercial business characteristics are the most critical dimension among the independent variables. The variables of commercial business facility rate in the paper containing six types; medical, educational, recreational, financial, food service, and shopping. From the model result, a higher rate in medical, financial buildings, shopping, and food service facility lead to increment of subway ridership at a station, while recreational and educational facility shows lower subway ridership. The complex network theory was applied for estimating integrated network topology measures that cover the entire Seoul transit network system, and a framework for seeking an impact on subway ridership. The centrality measures were found to be significant and showed a positive sign indicating higher centrality led to more subway ridership at a station level. The results of model accuracy tests by out of samples provided that 3SLS model has less mean square error rather than OLS and showed the methodological approach for the 3SLS model was plausible to estimate more accurate subway ridership. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017R1C1B2010175).

Keywords: Network topology, endogeneity, subway ridership, bus ridership, commercial business characteristic

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1490 Preparation of Melt Electrospun Polylactic Acid Nanofibers with Optimum Conditions

Authors: Amir Doustgani


Melt electrospinning is a safe and simple technique for the production of micro and nanofibers which can be an alternative to conventional solvent electrospinning. The effects of various melt-electrospinning parameters, including molecular weight, electric field strength, flow rate and temperature on the morphology and fiber diameter of polylactic acid were studied. It was shown that molecular weight was the predominant factor in determining the obtainable fiber diameter of the collected fibers. An orthogonal design was used to examine process parameters. Results showed that molecular weight is the most effective parameter on the average fiber diameter of melt electrospun PLA nanofibers and the flow rate has the less important impact. Mean fiber diameter increased by increasing MW and flow rate, but decreased by increasing electric field strength and temperature. MFD of optimized fibers was below 100 nm and the result of software was in good agreement with the experimental condition.

Keywords: Spinning, Processing, fiber formation, melt blowing

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1489 Preparation and Study of Pluronic F127 Monolayers at Air-Water Interface

Authors: Neha Kanodia, M. Kamil


Properties of mono layers of Pluronic F127 at air/water interface have been investigated by using Langmuir trough method. Pluronic F127 is a triblock copolymer of poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO groups)– poly (propylene oxide) (PO groups)–poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO groups). Surface pressure versus mean molecular area isotherms is studied. The isotherm of the mono layer showed the characteristics of a pancake-to-brush transition upon compression of the mono layer. The effect of adding surfactant (SDS) to polymer and the effect of increasing loading on polymer was also studied. The effect of repeated compression and expansion cycle (or hysteresis curve) is investigated to know about stability of the film formed. Static elasticity of mono layer gives information about molecular arrangement, phase structure and phase transition.

Keywords: hysteresis, surface-pressure, mean molecular area isotherms, static elasticity

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1488 Computational Analysis of Potential Inhibitors Selected Based on Structural Similarity for the Src SH2 Domain

Authors: W. P. Hu, J. V. Kumar, Jeffrey J. P. Tsai


The inhibition of SH2 domain regulated protein-protein interactions is an attractive target for developing an effective chemotherapeutic approach in the treatment of disease. Molecular simulation is a useful tool for developing new drugs and for studying molecular recognition. In this study, we searched potential drug compounds for the inhibition of SH2 domain by performing structural similarity search in PubChem Compound Database. A total of 37 compounds were screened from the database, and then we used the LibDock docking program to evaluate the inhibition effect. The best three compounds (AP22408, CID 71463546 and CID 9917321) were chosen for MD simulations after the LibDock docking. Our results show that the compound CID 9917321 can produce a more stable protein-ligand complex compared to other two currently known inhibitors of Src SH2 domain. The compound CID 9917321 may be useful for the inhibition of SH2 domain based on these computational results. Subsequently experiments are needed to verify the effect of compound CID 9917321 on the SH2 domain in the future studies.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, nonpeptide inhibitor, Src SH2 domain, LibDock

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1487 VHL, PBRM1, and SETD2 Genes in Kidney Cancer: A Molecular Investigation

Authors: Ahmet Arslan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Mehri Igci, Emine Bayraktar, Sakip Erturhan, Metin Karakok


Kidney cancer is the most lethal urological cancer accounting for 3% of adult malignancies. VHL, a tumor-suppressor gene, is best known to be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The VHL functions as negative regulator of hypoxia inducible factors. Recent sequencing efforts have identified several novel frequent mutations of histone modifying and chromatin remodeling genes in ccRCC (clear cell RCC) including PBRM1 and SETD2. The PBRM1 gene encodes the BAF180 protein, which involved in transcriptional activation and repression of selected genes. SETD2 encodes a histone methyltransferase, which may play a role in suppressing tumor development. In this study, RNAs of 30 paired tumor and normal samples that were grouped according to the types of kidney cancer and clinical characteristics of patients, including gender and average age were examined by RT-PCR, SSCP and sequencing techniques. VHL, PBRM1 and SETD2 expressions were relatively down-regulated. However, statistically no significance was found (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p > 0.05). Interestingly, no mutation was observed on the contrary of previous studies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of RCC has aided the development of molecular-targeted drugs for kidney cancer. Further analysis is required to identify the responsible genes rather than VHL, PBRM1 and SETD2 in kidney cancer.

Keywords: Kidney Cancer, molecular biomarker, expression analysis, mutation screening

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1486 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Anil Chandewar, Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder


The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Homology Modeling, Diabetic Nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, schrodinger

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1485 Prevalence of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes at a Tertiary Cancer Institute

Authors: Nahush Modak, Meena Pangarkar, Anand Pathak, Ankita Tamhane


Background: Breast cancer is the prominent cause of cancer and mortality among women. This study was done to show the statistical analysis of a cohort of over 250 patients detected with breast cancer diagnosed by oncologists using Immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was performed by using ER; PR; HER2; Ki-67 antibodies. Materials and methods: Formalin fixed Paraffin embedded tissue samples were obtained by surgical manner and standard protocol was followed for fixation, grossing, tissue processing, embedding, cutting and IHC. The Ventana Benchmark XT machine was used for automated IHC of the samples. Antibodies used were supplied by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS for windows. Statistical tests performed were chi-squared test and Correlation tests with p<.01. The raw data was collected and provided by National Cancer Insitute, Jamtha, India. Result: Luminal B was the most prevailing molecular subtype of Breast cancer at our institute. Chi squared test of homogeneity was performed to find equality in distribution and Luminal B was the most prevalent molecular subtype. The worse prognostic indicator for breast cancer depends upon expression of Ki-67 and her2 protein in cancerous cells. Our study was done at p <.01 and significant dependence was observed. There exists no dependence of age on molecular subtype of breast cancer. Similarly, age is an independent variable while considering Ki-67 expression. Chi square test performed on Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses of patients and strong dependence was observed in percentage of Ki-67 expression and Her2 (+/-) character which shows that, value of Ki depends upon Her2 expression in cancerous cells (p<.01). Surprisingly, dependence was observed in case of Ki-67 and Pr, at p <.01. This shows that Progesterone receptor proteins (PR) are over-expressed when there is an elevation in expression of Ki-67 protein. Conclusion: We conclude from that Luminal B is the most prevalent molecular subtype at National Cancer Institute, Jamtha, India. There was found no significant correlation between age and Ki-67 expression in any molecular subtype. And no dependence or correlation exists between patients’ age and molecular subtype. We also found that, when the diagnosis is Luminal A, out of the cohort of 257 patients, no patient shows >14% Ki-67 value. Statistically, extremely significant values were observed for dependence of PR+Her2- and PR-Her2+ scores on Ki-67 expression. (p<.01). Her2 is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Chi squared test for Her2 and Ki-67 shows that the expression of Ki depends upon Her2 statuses. Moreover, Ki-67 cannot be used as a standalone prognostic factor for determining breast cancer.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, correlation, immunohistochemistry, breast cancer molecular subtypes, Ki-67 and HR

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1484 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat


Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme

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1483 Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability, Hyperpolarizability, and HOMO–LUMO Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-Nitrobenzenesulfonamide

Authors: M. Elkeurti, A. Didaoui, N. Benhalima, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui


The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G (d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method show good agreement with xperimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilty of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. the intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 03 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: dft, Gaussian 03, NLO, N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide

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1482 The Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability Hyperpolarizability, and Homo–Lumo Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of 2-Chloro-N-(2 Methylphenyl) Benzamide

Authors: N. Benhalima, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui, N. Khelloul


The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G (d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method shows good agreement with experimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilty of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. The intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 09 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that 2-Chloro-N-(2-methylphenyl) benzamide 2 molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: dft, HOMO, LUMO, NLO

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1481 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva


Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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1480 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of DNA-Ionic Liquids Complexes

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Gohar Khachatryan, Krzysztof Danel


Complexes of ionic liquids with different heterocyclic-rings were synthesized by ion exchange reactions with pure salmon DNA. Ionic liquids (ILs) like 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide were used. The ILs were built into helical state and confirmed by IR spectrometric techniques. Patterns of UV-Vis, photoluminescence, IR, and CD spectra indicated inclusion of small molecules into DNA structure. Molecular weight and radii of gyrations values of ILs-DNA complexes chains were established by HPSEC–MALLS–RI method. Modification DNA with 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide gives more uniform material and leads to elimination of high molecular weight chains. Thus, the incorporation DNA double helical structure with both 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride exhibited higher molecular weight values. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate formation of nanofibre structures in all DNA complexes. Fluorescence depends strongly on the environment in which the chromophores are inserted and simultaneously on the molecular interactions with the biopolymer matrix. The most intensive emission was observed for DNA-imidazole ring complex. Decrease in intensity UV-Vis peak absorption is a consequence of a reduction in the spatial order of polynucleotide strands and provides different π–π stacking structure. Changes in optical properties confirmed by spectroscopy methods make DNA-ILs complexes potential biosensor applications.

Keywords: Biosensors, Biopolymers, Dna, cationic surfactant, DNA-gels

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1479 Understanding Inhibitory Mechanism of the Selective Inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 Complex by Molecular Modeling Studies

Authors: Minky Son, Ayoung Baek, Amir Zeb, Shailima Rampogu, Sang H. Yoon, Keun W. Lee


Neurotoxic insults activate calpain, which in turn produces truncated p25 from p35. p25 forms hyperactivated Cdk5/p25 complex, and thereby induces severe neuropathological aberrations including hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and neuronal death. Inhibition of Cdk5/p25 complex alleviates aberrant phosphorylation of tau to mitigate AD pathology. PHA-793887 and Roscovitine have been investigated as selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 with IC50 values 5nM and 160nM, respectively, but their mechanistic studies remain unknown. Herein, computational simulations have explored the binding mode and interaction mechanism of PHA-793887 and Roscovitine with Cdk5/p25. Docking results suggested that PHA-793887 and Rsocovitine have occupied the ATP-binding site of Cdk5 and obtained highest docking (GOLD) score of 66.54 and 84.03, respectively. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrated that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine established stable RMSD of 1.09 Å and 1.48 Å with Cdk5/p25, respectively. Profiling of polar interactions suggested that each inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds (H-bond) with catalytic residues of Cdk5 and could remain stable throughout the molecular dynamics simulation. Additionally, binding free energy calculation by molecular mechanics/Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) suggested that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine had lowest binding free energies of -150.05 kJ/mol and -113.14 kJ/mol, respectively with Cdk5/p25. Free energy decomposition demonstrated that polar energy by H-bond between the Glu81 of Cdk5 and PHA-793887 is the essential factor to make PHA-793887 highly selective towards Cdk5/p25. Overall, this study provided substantial evidences to explore mechanistic interactions of the selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 and could be used as fundamental considerations in the development of structure-based selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25.

Keywords: Cdk5/p25 inhibition, molecular modeling of Cdk5/p25, PHA-793887 and roscovitine, selective inhibition of Cdk5/p25

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1478 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi


The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Molecular Docking, Dna, ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, DNA enzymes

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1477 Self-Action of Pyroelectric Spatial Soliton in Undoped Lithium Niobate Samples with Pyroelectric Mechanism of Nonlinear Response

Authors: Anton S. Perin, Vladimir M. Shandarov


Compensation for the nonlinear diffraction of narrow laser beams with wavelength of 532 and the formation of photonic waveguides and waveguide circuits due to the contribution of pyroelectric effect to the nonlinear response of lithium niobate crystal have been experimentally demonstrated. Complete compensation for the linear and nonlinear diffraction broadening of light beams is obtained upon uniform heating of an undoped sample from room temperature to 55 degrees Celsius. An analysis of the light-field distribution patterns and the corresponding intensity distribution profiles allowed us to estimate the spacing for the channel waveguides. The observed behavior of bright soliton beams may be caused by their coherent interaction, which manifests itself in repulsion for anti-phase light fields and in attraction for in-phase light fields. The experimental results of this study showed a fundamental possibility of forming optically complex waveguide structures in lithium niobate crystals with pyroelectric mechanism of nonlinear response. The topology of these structures is determined by the light field distribution on the input face of crystalline sample. The optical induction of channel waveguide elements by interacting spatial solitons makes it possible to design optical systems with a more complex topology and a possibility of their dynamic reconfiguration.

Keywords: soliton, self-action, lithium niobate, piroliton, photorefractive effect, pyroelectric effect

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1476 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev


Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: NMR spectroscopy, Molecular Switches, quantum chemical calculations, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes

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1475 Polysaccharides as Pour Point Depressants

Authors: Ali M. EL-Soll


Physical properties of Sarir waxy crude oil was investigated, pour-point was determined using ASTM D-79 procedure, paraffin content and carbon number distribution of the paraffin was determined using gas liquid Chromatography(GLC), polymeric additives were prepared and their structures were confirmed using IR spectrophotometer. The molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution of these additives were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). the performance of the synthesized additives as pour-point depressants was evaluated, for the mentioned crude oil.

Keywords: sarir, waxy, crude, pour point, depressants

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1474 The Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability, Hyperpolarizability, and HOMO–LUMO Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-Nitrobenzenesulfonamide

Authors: M. Elkeurti, A. Didaoui, N. Benhalima, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui


The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method show good agreement with experimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. The intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 03 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: dft, Gaussian 03, NLO, N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, polarizability

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1473 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Binding Affinity of a Series of Anti-Prion Compounds to Human Prion Protein

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Milica Karadzic


The present study is based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of eighteen compounds with anti-prion activity. The structures and anti-prion activities (expressed in response units, RU%) of the analyzed compounds are taken from CHEMBL database. In the first step of analysis 85 molecular descriptors were calculated and based on them the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out in order to detect potential significant similarities or dissimilarities among the studied compounds. The calculated molecular descriptors were physicochemical, lipophilicity and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) descriptors. The first stage of the QSAR analysis was simple linear regression modeling. It resulted in one acceptable model that correlates Henry's law constant with RU% units. The obtained 2D-QSAR model was validated by cross-validation as an internal validation method. The validation procedure confirmed the model’s quality and therefore it can be used for prediction of anti-prion activity. The next stage of the analysis of anti-prion activity will include 3D-QSAR and molecular docking approaches in order to select the most promising compounds in treatment of prion diseases. These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-268/2016-02 financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of AP Vojvodina.

Keywords: Molecular Modeling, Chemometrics, QSAR, anti-prion activity

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1472 Molecular Characterization of Ardi Goat Assisted by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: M. F. Elzarei, A. M. Alseaf


Hundred uncorrelated animal and thirty six markers were used in this study to study the molecular characterization of Saudi native Ardi goat (BM18189, ILSTS030, INRA005, OarFCB48, BM2113, ILSTS033, INRA023, RM088, CSRD247, ILSTS034, INRA063, SRCRSP1, ILSTS002, ILSTS044, INRA172, SRCRSP5, ILSTS005, ILSTS049, MAF70, SRCRSP8, ILSTS011, ILSTS058, OarAE54, SRCRSP9, ILSTS019, ILSTS059, OARCP34, TGLA53, ILSTS022, ILSTS082, OARE129, TGLA73, ILSTS029, ILSTS087, OARE193, and RM004). Ardi goat showed high variability. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 in SRCRSP1 locus to 13.5 in CSRD247 locus. Gene diversities varied within a wide range, from 0.53 in ILSTS002 locus to 0.86 in RM088 locus. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in order to evaluate the significance of inbreeding occurring in each locus in Ardi population. Only SRCRSP9, INRA005, ILSTS030 loci showed significance in this way.

Keywords: Molecular Characterization, microsatellite markers, Ardi goats, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

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