Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Ararat Khachatryan

11 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit

Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan


In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

Keywords: aging effect, HCI, NBTI, nanoscale

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10 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan


A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation

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9 Achievement of Sustainable Groundwater Exploitation through the Introduction of Water-Efficient Usage Techniques in Fish Farms

Authors: Lusine Tadevosyan, Natella Mirzoyan, Anna Yeritsyan, Narek Avetisyan


Due to high quality, the artesian groundwater is the main source of water supply for the fisheries in Ararat Valley, Armenia. From 1.6 billion m3 abstracted groundwater in 2016, half was used by fish farms. Yet, the inefficient water use, typical for low-intensity aquaculture systems in Ararat Valley, has become a key environmental issue in Armenia. In addition to excessive pure groundwater exploitation, which along with other sectors of groundwater use in this area resulted in the reduction of artesian zone by approximately 67% during last 20 years, the negative environmental impact of these productions is magnified by the discharge of large volumes of wastewater into receiving water bodies. In turn, unsustainable use of artesian groundwater in Ararat Valley along with increasingly strict policy measures on water use had a devastating impact on small and/or medium scale aquaculture: over the last two years approximately 100 fish farms have permanently seized their operations. The current project aims at the introduction of efficient and environmentally friendly fish farming practices (e.g., Recirculating Aquaculture Systems) in Ararat Valley fisheries in order to support current levels of fish production and simultaneously reduce the negative environmental pressure of aquaculture facilities in Armenia. Economic and environmental analysis of current small and medium scale operational systems and subsequently developed environmentally–friendly and economically sustainable system configurations will be presented.

Keywords: aquaculture, groundwater, recirculation, sustainability

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8 Seismo-Volcanic Hazards in Great Ararat Region, Eastern Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Salih Bayraktutan, Emre Tokmak


Great Ararat Volcano is the highest peak in South Caucasus Volcanic Plateau. Uplifted by Quaternary basaltic pyroclastic and lava flows. Numerous volcanic cones formed along with the tensional fractures under N-S compressional geodynamic framework. Basaltic flows have fresh surface morphology give ages of 650-680 K years. Hyperstene andesites constitute a major mass of Greater Ararat gives ages of 450-490 K years. During the early eruption period, predominately pyroclastics, cinder, lapilly-ash volcanic bombs were extruded. Third-period eruptions dominantly basaltic lava flows. Andesitic domes aligned along with the NW-SE striking fractures. Hyalo basalt and hornblende basaltic lavas are the latest lava eruptions. Hyalo-basaltic eruptions occurred via parasitic cones distributed far from the center. Parasitic cones are most common at the foot of Mount covered by recent NW flowing basaltic lava. Some of the cones are distributed on a circular pattern. One of the most hazardous disasters recorded in Eastern Turkey was July 1840 Cehennem Canyon Flood. Volcanic activities seismically triggered resulted in melting of glacier cap, mixed with ash and pyroclastics, flowed down along the Valley. Mud rich Slush urged catastrophically northwards, crossed Ars River and damned Surmeli Basin, forming reservoir behind. Ararat volcanoes are located on NW-SE striking Agri Fault Zone. Right lateral extensional faults, along which a series of andesitic domes formed. Great Ararat, in general strato-type volcano. This huge structure, developed in two main parts with different topographic and morphological features. The large lower base covers a widespread area composed of predominantly pyroclastics, ignimbrites, aglomerates, thick pumice, perlite deposits. Approximately 1/3 of the Crest by height formed of this basement. And 2/3 of the upper part with a conic- shape composed of basaltic lava flows. The active tectonic structure consists of three different patterns. The first network is radially distributed fractures formed during the last stage of lava eruptions. The second group of active faults striking in NW direction, and continue in N30W strike, formes Igdir Fault Zone. The third set of faults, dipping in the northwest with 75-80 degrees, strikes NE- SW across the whole Mount, slicing Great Ararat into four segments. In the upper stage of Cehennem Canyon, this set cutting volcanic layers caused numerous Waterfalls, Rock Avalanches, Mud Flows along the canyon, threatens the Village of Yanidogan, at the apex of flood deposits. Great Ararat Region has high seismo-tectonic risk and by occurrence frequency and magnitude, which caused in history caused heavy disasters, at villages surrounding the Ararat Basement.

Keywords: Eastern Turkey, geohazard, great ararat volcano, seismo-tectonic features

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7 Speciation of Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles and other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

Authors: M. Paul Herring, Lavrent Khachatryan, Barry Dellinger


Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1-MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by g-factors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe(IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe(IV)---O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.

Keywords: cryogenic trapping, EPFRs, dendrimer, Fe2O3 doped silica, soot

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6 Modeling of the Mechanism of Ion Channel Opening of the Visual Receptor's Rod on the Light and Allosteric Effect of Rhodopsin in the Phosphorylation Process

Authors: N. S. Vassilieva-Vashakmadze, R. A. Gakhokidze, I. M. Khachatryan


In the first part of the paper it is shown that both the depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of rods observed in invertebrates and hyperpolarization characteristic of vertebrates on the light may activate the functioning of ion (Na+) channels of cytoplasmic membrane of rods and thus provide the emergence of nerve impulse and its transfer to the neighboring neuron etc. In the second part, using the quantum mechanical program for modeling of the molecular processes, we got a clear picture demonstrating the effect of charged phosphate groups on the protein components of α-helical subunits of the visual rhodopsin receptor. The analysis shows that the phosphorylation of terminal amino acid of seventh α-helical subunits of the visual rhodopsin causes a redistribution of electron density on the atoms, i.e. polarization of subunits, also the changing the configuration of the nuclear subsystem, which corresponds to the deformation process in the molecule. Based on the use of models it can be concluded that this system has an internal relationship between polarization and deformation processes that indicates on the allosteric effect. The allosteric effect is based on quantum-mechanical principle of the self-consistency of the molecules.

Keywords: membrane potential, ion channels, visual rhodopsin, allosteric effect

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5 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan


The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: development, rank, reforms, comparative, index, economic, corruption, social, program

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4 Review of Current Literature on Use of Prazosin for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related Sleep Disturbances in Child and Adolescent Population

Authors: Davit Khachatryan, Shuo Xiang


Numerous published studies on the use of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbances in adult population have resulted in updates to the recommendation for prazosin for nightmares that showed its strength of evidence elevated from C to B in the US Department of Veterans Affairs clinical practice guideline. In addition, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline gave prazosin a level-A recommendation for the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature for prazosin use for nightmares and other sleep disturbances in children and adolescents with PTSD. Method: A comprehensive search for studies on prazosin use for sleep disturbances in child and adolescent population with PTSD has been performed. We looked at MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Results: Compared to adult population with similar psychopathology, the available literature in child and adolescent population is scarce. Despite increased interest in prazosin in the management of PTSD, only six studies investigating this medication in children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: A large randomized control trial on this topic is needed for more definite evidence on the efficacy and safety of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares in children and adolescents with PTSD.

Keywords: guidelines, prazosin, PTSD, sleep disturbance

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3 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of DNA-Ionic Liquids Complexes

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Gohar Khachatryan, Krzysztof Danel


Complexes of ionic liquids with different heterocyclic-rings were synthesized by ion exchange reactions with pure salmon DNA. Ionic liquids (ILs) like 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide were used. The ILs were built into helical state and confirmed by IR spectrometric techniques. Patterns of UV-Vis, photoluminescence, IR, and CD spectra indicated inclusion of small molecules into DNA structure. Molecular weight and radii of gyrations values of ILs-DNA complexes chains were established by HPSEC–MALLS–RI method. Modification DNA with 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide gives more uniform material and leads to elimination of high molecular weight chains. Thus, the incorporation DNA double helical structure with both 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride exhibited higher molecular weight values. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate formation of nanofibre structures in all DNA complexes. Fluorescence depends strongly on the environment in which the chromophores are inserted and simultaneously on the molecular interactions with the biopolymer matrix. The most intensive emission was observed for DNA-imidazole ring complex. Decrease in intensity UV-Vis peak absorption is a consequence of a reduction in the spatial order of polynucleotide strands and provides different π–π stacking structure. Changes in optical properties confirmed by spectroscopy methods make DNA-ILs complexes potential biosensor applications.

Keywords: biopolymers, biosensors, cationic surfactant, DNA, DNA-gels

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2 Combained Cultivation of Endemic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast with Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: A. M. Isakhanyan, F. N. Tkhruni, N. N. Yakimovich, Z. I. Kuvaeva, T. V. Khachatryan


Introduction: At present, the simbiotics based on different genera and species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are used. One of the basic properties of probiotics is presence of antimicrobial activity and therefore selection of LAB and yeast strains for their co-cultivation with the aim of increasing of the activity is topical. Since probiotic yeast and bacteria have different mechanisms of action, natural synergies between species, higher viability and increasing of antimicrobial activity might be expected from mixing both types of probiotics. Endemic strains of LAB Enterococcus faecium БТK-64, Lactobaccilus plantarum БТK-66, Pediococcus pentosus БТK-28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus БТK-109 and Kluyveromyces lactis БТX-412, Saccharomycopsis sp. БТX- 151 strains of yeast, with probiotic properties and hight antimicrobial activity, were selected. Strains are deposited in "Microbial Depository Center" (MDC) SPC "Armbiotechnology". Methods: LAB and yeast strains were isolated from different dairy products from rural households of Armenia. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing for LAB and 26S RNA sequencing for yeast were used. Combined cultivation of LAB and yeast strains was carried out in the nutrient media on the basis of milk whey, in anaerobic conditions (without shaker, in a thermostat at 37oC, 48 hours). The complex preparations were obtained by purification of cell free culture broth (CFC) broth by the combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration methods. The spot-on-lawn method was applied for determination of antimicrobial activity and expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). Results. The obtained data showed that at the combined growth of bacteria and yeasts, the cultivation conditions (medium composition, time of growth, genera of LAB and yeasts) affected the display of antimicrobial activity. Purification of CFC broth allowed obtaining partially purified antimicrobial complex preparation which contains metabiotics from both bacteria and yeast. The complex preparation inhibited the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, isolated from various internal organs from diseased animals and poultry with greater efficiency than the preparations derived individually alone from yeast and LAB strains. Discussion. Thus, our data shown perspectives of creation of a new class of antimicrobial preparations on the basis of combined cultivation of endemic strains of LAB and yeast. Obtained results suggest the prospect of use of the partially purified complex preparations instead antibiotics in the agriculture and for food safety. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the RA MES State Committee of Science and Belarus National Foundation for Basic Research in the frames of the joint Armenian - Belarusian joint research project 13РБ-064.

Keywords: co-cultivation, antimicrobial activity, biosafety, metabiotics, lactic acid bacteria, yeast

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1 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Enterococcus Genus

Authors: Kristina Karapetyan, Flora Tkhruni, Tsovinar Balabekyan, Arevik Israyelyan, Tatyana Khachatryan


The ability of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to prevent and cure a variety of diseases, their protective role against infections and colonization of pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive tract, has lead to the coining of the term probiotics or pro-life. LAB inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms, maintaining the nutritive quality and improving the shelf life of foods. They have also been used as flavor and texture producers. Enterococcus strains have been used for treatment of diseases such as diarrhea or antibiotic associated diarrhea, inflammatory pathologies that affect colon such as irritable bowel syndrome, or immune regulation, diarrhea caused by antibiotic treatments. The obtaining and investigation of biological properties of proteinoceous antibiotics, on the basis of probiotic LAB shown, that bacteriocins, metabiotics, and peptides of LAB represent bactericides have a broad range of activity and are excellent candidates for development of new prophylactic and therapeutic substances to complement or replace conventional antibiotics. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing for LAB were used. Cell free culture broth (CFC) broth was purified by the Gel filtration method on the Sephadex Superfine G 25 resin. Antimicrobial activity was determined by spot-on-lawn method and expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). The diversity of multidrug-resistance (MDR) of pathogenic strains to antibiotics, most widely used for treatment of human diseases in the Republics of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh were examined. It was shown, that difference of resistance of pathogens to antibiotics depends on their isolation sources. The influences of partially purified antimicrobial preparations (AMP), obtained from the different strains of Enterococcus genus on the growth of MDR pathogenic bacteria were investigated. It was shown, that bacteriocin containing partially purified preparations, obtained from different strains of Enterococcus faecium and durans species, possess bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against antibiotic resistant intestinal, spoilage and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella. Endemic strains of LAB, isolated from Matsoni made from donkey, buffalo and goat milk, shown broad spectrum of activity against food spoiling microorganisms, moulds and fungi, such as Salmonella sp., Esherichia coli, Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Highest activity against MDR pathogens shown bacteria, isolated from goat milk products. High stability of the investigated strains of the genus Enerococcus, isolated from samples of matsun from different regions of Nagorno-Karabakh (NKR) to the antibiotics was shown. The obtained data show high stability of the investigated different strains of the genus Enerococcus. The high genetic diversity in Enterococcus group suggests adaptations for specific mutations in different environments. Thus, endemic strains of LAB are able to produce bacteriocins with high and different inhibitory activity against broad spectrum of microorganisms isolated from different sources and belong to different taxonomic group. Prospect of the use of certain antimicrobial preparations against pathogenic strains is obvious. These AMP can be applied for long term use against different etiology antibiotic resistant pathogens for prevention or treatment of infectional diseases as an alternative to antibiotics.

Keywords: antimicrobial biopreparation, endemic lactic acid bacteria, intra-species diversity, multidrug resistance of pathogens

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