Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14395

Search results for: process variation

14395 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

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14394 Statistical Quality Control on Assignable Causes of Variation on Cement Production in Ashaka Cement PLC Gombe State

Authors: Hamisu Idi

Abstract:

The present study focuses on studying the impact of influencer recommendation in the quality of cement production. Exploratory research was done on monthly basis, where data were obtained from secondary source i.e. the record kept by an automated recompilation machine. The machine keeps all the records of the mills downtime which the process manager checks for validation and refer the fault (if any) to the department responsible for maintenance or measurement taking so as to prevent future occurrence. The findings indicated that the product of the Ashaka Cement Plc. were considered as qualitative, since all the production processes were found to be in control (preset specifications) with the exception of the natural cause of variation which is normal in the production process as it will not affect the outcome of the product. It is reduced to the bearest minimum since it cannot be totally eliminated. It is also hopeful that the findings of this study would be of great assistance to the management of Ashaka cement factory and the process manager in particular at various levels in the monitoring and implementation of statistical process control. This study is therefore of great contribution to the knowledge in this regard and it is hopeful that it would open more research in that direction.

Keywords: cement, quality, variation, assignable cause, common cause

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14393 Multi-Point Dieless Forming Product Defect Reduction Using Reliability-Based Robust Process Optimization

Authors: Misganaw Abebe Baye, Ji-Woo Park, Beom-Soo Kang

Abstract:

The product quality of multi-point dieless forming (MDF) is identified to be dependent on the process parameters. Moreover, a certain variation of friction and material properties may have a substantially worse influence on the final product quality. This study proposed on how to compensate the MDF product defects by minimizing the sensitivity of noise parameter variations. This can be attained by reliability-based robust optimization (RRO) technique to obtain the optimal process setting of the controllable parameters. Initially two MDF Finite Element (FE) simulations of AA3003-H14 saddle shape showed a substantial amount of dimpling, wrinkling, and shape error. FE analyses are consequently applied on ABAQUS commercial software to obtain the correlation between the control process setting and noise variation with regard to the product defects. The best prediction models are chosen from the family of metamodels to swap the computational expensive FE simulation. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to determine the optimal process settings of the control parameters. Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is executed to determine how the noise parameter variation affects the final product quality. Finally, the RRO FE simulation and the experimental result show that the amendment of the control parameters in the final forming process leads to a considerably better-quality product.

Keywords: dimpling, multi-point dieless forming, reliability-based robust optimization, shape error, variation, wrinkling

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14392 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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14391 Variation in Italian Specialized Economic Texts

Authors: Abdelmagid Basyouny Sakr

Abstract:

Terminological variation is a reality and it is now recognized by terminologists. This paper investigates the terminological variation in the context of specialized economic texts in Italian. It aims to find whether certain patterns or tendencies can be derived from the analysis of these texts. Term variants pose two different kinds of difficulties. The first one is being able to recognize linguistic expressions that denote the same concept in running text. Another one lies in knowing which variant should be considered and for what purpose. This would help to differentiate between variants that could be candidates for inclusion in terminological resources and the ones which are synonyms or contextual variants. New insights about terminological variation in specialized texts could contribute to improve specialized dictionaries which will better account for the different ways in which a given thought is expressed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, specialized communication, terms and concepts, terminological variation

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14390 Data-Mining Approach to Analyzing Industrial Process Information for Real-Time Monitoring

Authors: Seung-Lock Seo

Abstract:

This work presents a data-mining empirical monitoring scheme for industrial processes with partially unbalanced data. Measurement data of good operations are relatively easy to gather, but in unusual special events or faults it is generally difficult to collect process information or almost impossible to analyze some noisy data of industrial processes. At this time some noise filtering techniques can be used to enhance process monitoring performance in a real-time basis. In addition, pre-processing of raw process data is helpful to eliminate unwanted variation of industrial process data. In this work, the performance of various monitoring schemes was tested and demonstrated for discrete batch process data. It showed that the monitoring performance was improved significantly in terms of monitoring success rate of given process faults.

Keywords: data mining, process data, monitoring, safety, industrial processes

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14389 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation

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14388 Part Variation Simulations: An Industrial Case Study with an Experimental Validation

Authors: Narendra Akhadkar, Silvestre Cano, Christophe Gourru

Abstract:

Injection-molded parts are widely used in power system protection products. One of the biggest challenges in an injection molding process is shrinkage and warpage of the molded parts. All these geometrical variations may have an adverse effect on the quality of the product, functionality, cost, and time-to-market. The situation becomes more challenging in the case of intricate shapes and in mass production using multi-cavity tools. To control the effects of shrinkage and warpage, it is very important to correctly find out the input parameters that could affect the product performance. With the advances in the computer-aided engineering (CAE), different tools are available to simulate the injection molding process. For our case study, we used the MoldFlow insight tool. Our aim is to predict the spread of the functional dimensions and geometrical variations on the part due to variations in the input parameters such as material viscosity, packing pressure, mold temperature, melt temperature, and injection speed. The input parameters may vary during batch production or due to variations in the machine process settings. To perform the accurate product assembly variation simulation, the first step is to perform an individual part variation simulation to render realistic tolerance ranges. In this article, we present a method to simulate part variations coming from the input parameters variation during batch production. The method is based on computer simulations and experimental validation using the full factorial design of experiments (DoE). The robustness of the simulation model is verified through input parameter wise sensitivity analysis study performed using simulations and experiments; all the results show a very good correlation in the material flow direction. There exists a non-linear interaction between material and the input process variables. It is observed that the parameters such as packing pressure, material, and mold temperature play an important role in spread on functional dimensions and geometrical variations. This method will allow us in the future to develop accurate/realistic virtual prototypes based on trusted simulated process variation and, therefore, increase the product quality and potentially decrease the time to market.

Keywords: correlation, molding process, tolerance, sensitivity analysis, variation simulation

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14387 Numerical Investigation of Thermal Energy Storage System with Phase Change Materials

Authors: Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha, Mayank Srivastava

Abstract:

The position of interface and temperature variation of phase change thermal energy storage system under constant heat injection and radiative heat injection is analysed during charging/discharging process by Heat balance integral method. The charging/discharging process is solely governed by conduction. Phase change material is kept inside a rectangular cavity. Time-dependent fixed temperature and radiative boundary condition applied on one wall, all other walls are thermally insulated. Interface location and temperature variation are analysed by using MATLAB.

Keywords: conduction, melting/solidification, phase change materials, Stefan’s number

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14386 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Jui-Pin Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: dynamic compliance, bearing preload, modal damping, standard preload

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14385 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Age Test Result Using Design of Experiments (Rsm)

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Loubna Bentaher

Abstract:

Response Surface Methods (RSM) provide statistically validated predictive models that can then be manipulated for finding optimal process configurations. Variation transmitted to responses from poorly controlled process factors can be accounted for by the mathematical technique of propagation of error (POE), which facilitates ‘finding the flats’ on the surfaces generated by RSM. The dual response approach to RSM captures the standard deviation of the output as well as the average. It accounts for unknown sources of variation. Dual response plus propagation of error (POE) provides a more useful model of overall response variation. In our case, we implemented this technique in predicting compressive strength of concrete of 28 days in age. Since 28 days is quite time consuming, while it is important to ensure the quality control process. This paper investigates the potential of using design of experiments (DOE-RSM) to predict the compressive strength of concrete at 28th day. Data used for this study was carried out from experiment schemes at university of Benghazi, civil engineering department. A total of 114 sets of data were implemented. ACI mix design method was utilized for the mix design. No admixtures were used, only the main concrete mix constituents such as cement, coarse-aggregate, fine aggregate and water were utilized in all mixes. Different mix proportions of the ingredients and different water cement ratio were used. The proposed mathematical models are capable of predicting the required concrete compressive strength of concrete from early ages.

Keywords: mix proportioning, response surface methodology, compressive strength, optimal design

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14384 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

Abstract:

We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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14383 Pattern Identification in Statistical Process Control Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Pramila Devi, N. V. N. Indra Kiran

Abstract:

Control charts, predominantly in the form of X-bar chart, are important tools in statistical process control (SPC). They are useful in determining whether a process is behaving as intended or there are some unnatural causes of variation. A process is out of control if a point falls outside the control limits or a series of point’s exhibit an unnatural pattern. In this paper, a study is carried out on four training algorithms for CCPs recognition. For those algorithms optimal structure is identified and then they are studied for type I and type II errors for generalization without early stopping and with early stopping and the best one is proposed.

Keywords: control chart pattern recognition, neural network, backpropagation, generalization, early stopping

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14382 Causes of Variation Orders in the Egyptian Construction Industry: Time and Cost Impacts

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Jwanda M. El Sarag

Abstract:

Variation orders are of great importance in any construction project. Variation orders are defined as any change in the scope of works of a project that can be an addition omission, or even modification. This paper investigates the variation orders that occur during construction projects in Egypt. The literature review represents a comparison of causes of variation orders among Egypt, Tanzania, Nigeria, Malaysia and the United Kingdom. A classification of occurrence of variation orders due to owner related factors, consultant related factors and other factors are signified in the literature review. These classified events that lead to variation orders were introduced in a survey with 19 events to observe their frequency of occurrence, and their time and cost impacts. The survey data was obtained from 87 participants that included clients, consultants, and contractors and a database of 42 scenarios was created. A model is then developed to help assist project managers in predicting the frequency of variations and account for a budget for any additional costs and minimize any delays that can take place. Two experts with more than 25 years of experience were given the model to verify that the model was working effectively. The model was then validated on a residential compound that was completed in July 2016 to prove that the model actually produces acceptable results.

Keywords: construction, cost impact, Egypt, time impact, variation orders

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14381 Molecular Analysis of Somaclonal Variation in Tissue Culture Derived Bananas Using MSAP and SSR Marker

Authors: Emma K. Sales, Nilda G. Butardo

Abstract:

The project was undertaken to determine the effects of modified tissue culture protocols e.g. age of culture and hormone levels (2,4-D) in generating somaclonal variation. Moreover, the utility of molecular markers (SSR and MSAP) in sorting off types/somaclones were investigated. Results show that somaclonal variation is in effect due to prolonged subculture and high 2,4-D concentration. The resultant variation was observed to be due to high level of methylation events specifically cytosine methylation either at the internal or external cytosine and was identified by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Simple sequence repeats (SSR) on the other hand, was able to associate a marker to a trait of interest. These therefore, show that molecular markers can be an important tool in sorting out variation/mutants at an early stage.

Keywords: methylation, MSAP, somaclones, SSR, subculture, 2, 4-D

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14380 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi

Abstract:

The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

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14379 Study the Effect of Tolerances for Press Tool Assembly: Computer Aided Tolerance Analysis

Authors: Subodh Kumar, Ramkisan Pawar, Gopal D. Belurkar

Abstract:

This paper describes a study for simple blanking tool. In blanking or piercing operation, punch and die should be concentric for proper cutting. In this study, tolerance analysis method is used to analyze the variation in the press tool assembly. Variation results into the eccentricity in between die and punch due to cumulative tolerance of parts used in assembly. 1D variation analysis were performed by CREO parametric computer aided design (CAD) Software Powered by CETOL 6σ computer aided tolerance analysis software. Use of CAD analysis software given the opportunity to find out the cause of variation in tool assembly. Accordingly, the new specification of tolerance and process setting for die set manufacturing has determined. Tolerance allocation and tolerance analysis method were performed iteratively to conclude that position tolerance as well as size tolerance of hole in top plate for bush and size tolerance of guide pillar were more responsible for eccentricity in punch and die. This work proposes optimum tolerance for press tool assembly parts to achieve 100 % yield for specified .015mm minimum tolerance zone.

Keywords: blanking, GD&T (Geometric Dimension and Tolerancing), DPMU (defects per million unit), press tool, stackup analysis, tolerance allocation, yield percentage

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14378 Towards an Understanding of Breaking and Coalescence Process in Bitumen Emulsions

Authors: Abdullah Khan, Per Redelius, Nicole Kringos

Abstract:

The breaking and coalescence process in bitumen emulsion strongly influence the performance of the cold mix asphalt (CMA) and this phase separation process is affected by the physio-chemical changes happening at the bitumen/water interface. In this paper, coalescence experiments of two bitumen droplets in an emulsion environment have been carried out by a newly developed test procedure. In this study, different types of emulsifiers were selected to understand the coalescence process with respect to changes in the water phase surface tension due to addition of different surfactants and other additives such as salts. The research showed that the relaxation kinetics of bitumen droplets varied with the type of emulsifier, its concentration as well as with and without presence of salt in the water phase. Moreover, kinetics of the coalescence process was also investigated with the temperature variation.

Keywords: bitumen emulsions, breaking and coalescence, cold mix asphalt, emulsifiers, relaxation, salts

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14377 System Identification and Quantitative Feedback Theory Design of a Lathe Spindle

Authors: M. Khairudin

Abstract:

This paper investigates the system identification and design quantitative feedback theory (QFT) for the robust control of a lathe spindle. The dynamic of the lathe spindle is uncertain and time variation due to the deepness variation on cutting process. System identification was used to obtain the dynamics model of the lathe spindle. In this work, real time system identification is used to construct a linear model of the system from the nonlinear system. These linear models and its uncertainty bound can then be used for controller synthesis. The real time nonlinear system identification process to obtain a set of linear models of the lathe spindle that represents the operating ranges of the dynamic system. With a selected input signal, the data of output and response is acquired and nonlinear system identification is performed using Matlab to obtain a linear model of the system. Practical design steps are presented in which the QFT-based conditions are formulated to obtain a compensator and pre-filter to control the lathe spindle. The performances of the proposed controller are evaluated in terms of velocity responses of the the lathe machine spindle in corporating deepness on cutting process.

Keywords: lathe spindle, QFT, robust control, system identification

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14376 Uvulars Alternation in Hasawi Arabic: A Harmonic Serialism Approach

Authors: Huda Ahmed Al Taisan

Abstract:

This paper investigates a phonological phenomenon, which exhibits variation ‘alternation’ in terms of the uvular consonants [q] and [ʁ] in Hasawi Arabic. This dialect is spoken in Alahsa city, which is located in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, no such research has systematically studied this phenomenon in Hasawi Arabic dialect. This paper is significant because it fills the gap in the literature about this alternation phenomenon in this understudied dialect. A large amount of the data is extracted from several interviews the author has conducted with 10 participants, native speakers of the dialect, and complemented by additional forms from social media. The latter method of collecting the data adds to the significance of the research. The analysis of the data is carried out in Harmonic Serialism Optimality Theory (HS-OT), a version of the Optimality Theoretic (OT) framework, which holds that linguistic forms are the outcome of the interaction among violable universal constraints, and in the recent development of OT into a model that accounts for linguistic variation in harmonic derivational steps. This alternation process is assumed to be phonologically unconditioned and in free variation in other varieties of Arabic dialects in the area. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether this phenomenon is in free variation or governed, what governs this alternation between [q] and [ʁ] and whether the alternation is phonological or other linguistic constraints are in action. The results show that the [q] and [ʁ] alternation is not free and it occurs due to different assimilation processes. Positional, segmental sequence and vowel adjacency factors are in action in Hasawi Arabic.

Keywords: harmonic serialism, Hasawi, uvular, variation

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14375 Effect of Thermal Energy on Inorganic Coagulation for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Abhishek Singh, Rajlakshmi Barman, Tanmay Shah

Abstract:

Coagulation is considered to be one of the predominant water treatment processes which improve the cost effectiveness of wastewater. The sole purpose of this experiment on thermal coagulation is to increase the efficiency and the rate of reaction. The process uses renewable sources of energy which comprises of improved and minimized time method in order to eradicate the water scarcity of the regions which are on the brink of depletion. This paper includes the various effects of temperature on the standard coagulation treatment of wastewater and their effect on water quality. In addition, the coagulation is done with the mix of bottom/fly-ash that will act as an adsorbent and removes most of the minor and macro particles by means of adsorption which not only helps to reduce the environmental burden of fly ash but also enhance economic benefit. Also, the method of sand filtration is amalgamated in the process. The sand filter is an environmentally-friendly wastewater treatment method, which is relatively simple and inexpensive. The existing parameters were satisfied with the experimental results obtained in this study and were found satisfactory. The initial turbidity of the wastewater is 162 NTU. The initial temperature of the wastewater is 27 C. The temperature variation of the entire process is 50 C-80 C. The concentration of alum in wastewater is 60mg/L-320mg/L. The turbidity range is 8.31-28.1 NTU after treatment. pH variation is 7.73-8.29. The effective time taken is 10 minutes for thermal mixing and sedimentation. The results indicate that the presence of thermal energy affects the coagulation treatment process. The influence of thermal energy on turbidity is assessed along with renewable energy sources and increase of the rate of reaction of the treatment process.

Keywords: adsorbent, sand filter, temperature, thermal coagulation

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14374 Variation of Refractive Errors among Right and Left Eyes in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: F. B. Masok, S. S Songdeg, R. R. Dawam

Abstract:

Vision is an important process for learning and communication as man depends greatly on vision to sense his environment. Prevalence and variation of refractive errors conducted between December 2010 and May 2011 in Jos, revealed that 735 (77.50%) out 950 subjects examined for refractive error had various refractive errors. Myopia was observed in 373 (49.79%) of the subjects, the error in the right eyes was 263 (55.60%) while the error in the left was 210(44.39%). The mean myopic error was found to be -1.54± 3.32. Hyperopia was observed in 385 (40.53%) of the sampled population comprising 203(52.73%) of the right eyes and 182(47.27%). The mean hyperopic error was found to be +1.74± 3.13. Astigmatism accounted for 359 (38.84%) of the subjects, out of which 193(53.76%) were in the right eyes while 168(46.79%) were in the left eyes. Presbyopia was found in 404(42.53%) of the subjects, of this figure, 164(40.59%) were in the right eyes while 240(59.41%) were in left eyes. The number of right eyes and left eyes with refractive errors was observed in some age groups to increase with age and later had its peak within 60 – 69 age groups. This pattern of refractive errors could be attributed to exposure to various forms of light particularly the ultraviolet rays (e.g rays from television and computer screen). There was no remarkable differences between the mean Myopic error and mean Hyperopic error in the right eyes and in the left eyes which suggest the right eye and the left eye are similar.

Keywords: left eye, refractive errors, right eye, variation

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14373 Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage

Authors: M. Fadlallah, G. Ghibaudo, C. G. Theodorou

Abstract:

The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.

Keywords: low-frequency noise, random telegraph noise, dynamic variation, SRRV

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14372 A Study of Electrowetting-Assisted Mold Filling in Nanoimprint Lithography

Authors: Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Yi-Xuan Huang

Abstract:

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) possesses the advantages of sub-10-nm feature and low cost. NIL patterns the resist with physical deformation using a mold, which can easily reproduce the required nano-scale pattern. However, the variation of process parameters and environmental conditions seriously affect reproduction quality. How to ensure the quality of imprinted pattern is essential for industry. In this study, the authors used the electrowetting technology to assist mold filling in the NIL process. A special mold structure was designed to cause electrowetting. During the imprinting process, when a voltage was applied between the mold and substrate, the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surface of the mold can be converted. Both simulation and experiment confirmed that the electrowetting technology can assist mold filling and avoid incomplete filling rate. The proposed method can also reduce the crack formation during the de-molding process. Therefore, electrowetting technology can improve the process quality of NIL.

Keywords: electrowetting, mold filling, nano-imprint, surface modification

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14371 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian

Abstract:

This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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14370 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi

Abstract:

This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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14369 The Effect of Oxidation Stability Improvement in Calophyllum Inophyllum Palm Oil Methyl Ester Production

Authors: Natalina, Hwai Chyuan Onga, W. T. Chonga

Abstract:

Oxidation stability of biodiesel is very important in fuel handling especially for remote location of biodiesel application. Variety of feedstocks and biodiesel production process resulted many variation of biodiesel oxidation stability. The current study relates to investigation of the impact of fatty acid composition that caused by natural and production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester that correlated with improvement of biodiesel oxidation stability. Firstly, biodiesel was produced from crude oil of palm oil, calophyllum inophyllum and mixing of calophyllum inophyllum and palm oil. The production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester (CIPOME) was divided by including washing process and without washing. Secondly, the oxidation stability was measured from the palm oil methyl ester (POME), calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME), CIPOME with washing process and CIPOME without washing process. Then, in order to find the differences of fatty acid compositions all of the biodiesels were measured by gas chromatography analysis. It was found that mixing calophyllum inophyllum into palm oil increased the oxidation stability. Washing process influenced the CIPOME fatty acid composition, and reduction of washing process during the production process gave significant oxidation stability number of CIPOME (38 h to 114 h).

Keywords: biodiesel, oxidation stability, calophyllum inophyllum, water content

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
14368 Reliability Enhancement by Parameter Design in Ferrite Magnet Process

Authors: Won Jung, Wan Emri

Abstract:

Ferrite magnet is widely used in many automotive components such as motors and alternators. Magnets used inside the components must be in good quality to ensure the high level of performance. The purpose of this study is to design input parameters that optimize the ferrite magnet production process to ensure the quality and reliability of manufactured products. Design of Experiments (DOE) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) are used as mutual supplementations to optimize the process. DOE and SPC are quality tools being used in the industry to monitor and improve the manufacturing process condition. These tools are practically used to maintain the process on target and within the limits of natural variation. A mixed Taguchi method is utilized for optimization purpose as a part of DOE analysis. SPC with proportion data is applied to assess the output parameters to determine the optimal operating conditions. An example of case involving the monitoring and optimization of ferrite magnet process was presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. Through the utilization of these tools, reliable magnets can be produced by following the step by step procedures of proposed framework. One of the main contributions of this study was producing the crack free magnets by applying the proposed parameter design.

Keywords: ferrite magnet, crack, reliability, process optimization, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
14367 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel

Abstract:

In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
14366 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation

Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini

Abstract:

Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases.  Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.

Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246