Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5549

Search results for: environmental gases

5549 Short-Path Near-Infrared Laser Detection of Environmental Gases by Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy

Authors: Isao Tomita


The detection of environmental gases, 12CO_2, 13CO_2, and CH_4, using near-infrared semiconductor lasers with a short laser path length is studied by means of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy. The developed system is compact and has high sensitivity enough to detect the absorption peaks of isotopic 13CO_2 of a 3-% CO_2 gas at 2 um with a path length of 2.4 m, where its peak size is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the ordinary 12CO_2 peaks. In addition, the detection of 12CO_2 peaks of a 385-ppm (0.0385-%) CO_2 gas in the air is made at 2 um with a path length of 1.4 m. Furthermore, in pursuing the detection of an ancient environmental CH_4 gas confined to a bubble in ice at the polar regions, measurements of the absorption spectrum for a trace gas of CH_4 in a small area are attempted. For a 100-% CH_4 gas trapped in a 1 mm^3 glass container, the absorption peaks of CH_4 are obtained at 1.65 um with a path length of 3 mm, and also the gas pressure is extrapolated from the measured data.

Keywords: environmental gases, Near-Infrared Laser Detection, Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy, gas pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
5548 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro


Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

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5547 Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301

Authors: M. Ba-Shammakh


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101, ZIF-301

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5546 Modelling Magnetohydrodynamics to Investigate Variation of Shielding Gases on Arc Characteristics in the GTAW Process

Authors: Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Norman A. McPherson, Duncan Camilleri, Daniel Micallef


Gas tungsten arc welding requires a gas shield to be present in order to protect the arc area from contamination by atmospheric gases. As a result of each gas having its own unique thermophysical properties, the shielding gas selected can have a major influence on the arc stability, welding speed, weld appearance and geometry, mechanical properties and fume generation. Alternating shielding gases is a relatively new method of discreetly supplying two different shielding gases to the welding region in order to take advantage of the beneficial properties of each gas, as well as the inherent pulsing effects generated. As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of this novel supply method, a computational fluid dynamics model has been generated to include the gas dependent thermodynamic and transport properties in order to evaluate the effects that an alternating gas supply has on the arc plasma. Experimental trials have also been conducted to validate the model arc profile predictions.

Keywords: Alternating shielding gases, ANSYS CFX, Gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW), magnetohydrodynamics(MHD)

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5545 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko


Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: atmosphere, lidar sounding, DIAL, DOAS, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

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5544 Effects of a Cooler on the Sampling Process in a Continuous Emission Monitoring System

Authors: J. W. Ahn, I. Y. Choi, T. V. Dinh, J. C. Kim


A cooler has been widely employed in the extractive system of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to remove water vapor in the gas stream. The effect of the cooler on analytical target gases was investigated in this research. A commercial cooler for the CEMS operated at 4 C was used. Several gases emitted from a coal power plant (i.e. CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 and CO) were mixed with humid air, and then introduced into the cooler to observe its effect. Concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2 and CO were made as 200 ppm. The CO2 concentration was 8%. The inlet absolute humidity was produced as 12.5% at 100 C using a bubbling method. It was found that the reduction rate of SO2 was the highest (~21%), followed by NO2 (~17%), CO2 (~11%) and CO (~10%). In contrast, the cooler was not affected by NO gas. The result indicated that the cooler caused a significant effect on the water soluble gases due to condensate water in the cooler. To overcome this problem, a correction factor may be applied. However, water vapor might be different, and emissions of target gases are also various. Therefore, the correction factor is not only a solution, but also a better available method should be employed.

Keywords: cooler, CEMS, monitoring, reproductive, sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5543 Plasma Systems Application in Treating Automobile Exhaust Gases for a Clean Environment (Case Study)

Authors: Tahsen Abdalwahab Ibraheem Albehege


Exhaust fuel purification is of great importance to prevent the emission of major pollutants into the atmosphere such as diesel particulates and nitrogen oxides and meet environmental regulations, so environmental impacts are a primary concern of Diesel Exhaust Gas (DEG) which contains hazardous substances harmful to the environment as well as human health.We can not plasma formed through directing electrical energy to create free electrons, which in turn can react with gaseous species, but we can by used to treat engine exhaust gases. . By NO that has been reportedly oxidized to HNO3 and then into ammonium nitrate, and then condensed and removed. In general, thermal plasmas are formed by heating a system to high temperatures 2,000 degrees C, however this can be inefficient and can require extensive thermal management.

Keywords: plasma system application, project physics, oxidizing environment, electromagnetically

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5542 Geometric Optimization of Catalytic Converter

Authors: P. Makendran, M. Pragadeesh, N. Narash, N. Manikandan, A. Rajasri, V. Sanal Kumar


The growing severity of government-obligatory emissions legislation has required continuous improvement in catalysts performance and the associated reactor systems. IC engines emit a lot of harmful gases into the atmosphere. These gases are toxic in nature and a catalytic converter is used to convert these toxic gases into less harmful gases. The catalytic converter converts these gases by Oxidation and reduction reaction. Stoichiometric engines usually use the three-way catalyst (TWC) for simultaneously destroying all of the emissions. CO and NO react to form CO2 and N2 over one catalyst, and the remaining CO and HC are oxidized in a subsequent one. Literature review reveals that typically precious metals are used as a catalyst. The actual reactor is composed of a washcoated honeycomb-style substrate, with the catalyst being contained in the washcoat. The main disadvantage of a catalytic converter is that it exerts a back pressure to the exhaust gases while entering into them. The objective of this paper is to optimize the back pressure developed by the catalytic converter through geometric optimization of catalystic converter. This can be achieved by designing a catalyst with a optimum cone angle and a more surface area of the catalyst substrate. Additionally, the arrangement of the pores in the catalyst substrate can be changed. The numerical studies have been carried out using k-omega turbulence model with varying inlet angle of the catalytic converter and the length of the catalyst substrate. We observed that the geometry optimization is a meaningful objective for the lucrative design optimization of a catalytic converter for industrial applications.

Keywords: catalytic converter, emission control, reactor systems, substrate for emission control

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5541 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham


Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: forest, soil, greenhouse, quadrupole

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5540 Electronic Equipment Failure due to Corrosion

Authors: Yousaf Tariq


There are many reasons which are involved in electronic equipment failure i.e. temperature, humidity, dust, smoke etc. Corrosive gases are also one of the factor which may involve in failure of equipment. Sensitivity of electronic equipment increased when “lead-free” regulation enforced on manufacturers. In data center, equipment like hard disk, servers, printed circuit boards etc. have been exposed to gaseous contamination due to increase in sensitivity. There is a worldwide standard to protect electronic industrial electronic from corrosive gases. It is well known as “ANSI/ISA S71.04 – 1985 - Environmental Conditions for Control Systems: Airborne Contaminants. ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 9.9 members also recommended ISA standard in their whitepaper on Gaseous and Particulate Contamination Guideline for data centers. TC 9.9 members represented some of the major IT equipment manufacturers e.g. IBM, HP, Cisco etc. As per standard practices, first step is to monitor air quality in data center. If contamination level shows more than G1, it means that gas-phase air filtration is required other than dust/smoke air filtration. It is important that outside fresh air entering in data center should have pressurization/re-circulated process in order to absorb corrosive gases and to maintain level within specified limit. It is also important that air quality monitoring should be conducted once in a year. Temperature and humidity should also be monitored as per standard practices to maintain level within specified limit.

Keywords: corrosive gases, corrosion, electronic equipment failure, ASHRAE, hard disk

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
5539 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira


Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

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5538 A Quantitative Structure-Adsorption Study on Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

Authors: Marc Sader, Michiel Stock, Bernard De Baets


Considering a large amount of adsorption data of adsorbate gases on adsorbent materials in literature, it is interesting to predict such adsorption data without experimentation. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is developed to correlate molecular characteristics of gases and existing knowledge of materials with their respective adsorption properties. The application of Random Forest, a machine learning method, on a set of adsorption isotherms at a wide range of partial pressures and concentrations is studied. The predicted adsorption isotherms are fitted to several adsorption equations to estimate the adsorption properties. To impute the adsorption properties of desired gases on desired materials, leave-one-out cross-validation is employed. Extensive experimental results for a range of settings are reported.

Keywords: adsorption, predictive modeling, QSAR, random forest

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5537 The Impact of the Number of Neurons in the Hidden Layer on the Performance of MLP Neural Network: Application to the Fast Identification of Toxics Gases

Authors: Slimane Ouhmad, Abdellah Halimi


In this work, we have applied neural networks method MLP type to a database from an array of six sensors for the detection of three toxic gases. As the choice of the number of hidden layers and the weight values has a great influence on the convergence of the learning algorithm, we proposed, in this article, a mathematical formulation to determine the optimal number of hidden layers and good weight values based on the method of back propagation of errors. The results of this modeling have improved discrimination of these gases on the one hand, and optimize the computation time on the other hand, the comparison to other results achieved in this case.

Keywords: MLP Neural Network, back-propagation, number of neurons in the hidden layer, identification, computing time

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5536 Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Zuzana Sedláková, Magda Kárászová, Jiří Vejražka, Lenka Morávková, Pavel Izák


Membrane separations are mentioned frequently as a possibility for CO2 capture. Selectivity of ionic liquid membranes is strongly determined by different solubility of separated gases in ionic liquids. The solubility of separated gases usually varies over an order of magnitude, differently from diffusivity of gases in ionic liquids, which is usually of the same order of magnitude for different gases. The present work evaluates the selection of an appropriate ionic liquid for the selective membrane preparation based on the gas solubility in an ionic liquid. The current state of the art of CO2 capture patents and technologies based on the membrane separations was considered. An overview is given of the discussed transport mechanisms. Ionic liquids seem to be promising candidates thanks to their tunable properties, wide liquid range, reasonable thermal stability, and negligible vapor pressure. However, the uses of supported liquid membranes are limited by their relatively short lifetime from the industrial point of view. On the other hand, ionic liquids could overcome these problems due to their negligible vapor pressure and their tunable properties by adequate selection of the cation and anion.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, ionic liquid membrane, transport properties

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5535 Helicopter Exhaust Gases Cooler in Terms of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Ksenia Siadkowska


Due to the low-altitude and relatively low-speed flight, helicopters are easy targets for actual combat assets e.g. infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness of the military helicopters. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. One of them is cooling hot exhaust gasses, emitting from the engines to the atmosphere in special heat exchangers. Nowadays, this process is realized in ejective coolers, where strong heat and momentum exchange between hot exhaust gases and cold air ejected from atmosphere takes place. Flow effects of air, exhaust gases; mixture of those two and the heat transfer between cold air and hot exhaust gases are given by differential equations of: Mass transportation–flow continuity, ejection of cold air through expanding exhaust gasses, conservation of momentum, energy and physical relationship equations. Calculation of those processes in ejective cooler by means of classic mathematical analysis is extremely hard or even impossible. Because of this, it is necessary to apply the numeric approach with modern, numeric computer programs. The paper discussed the general usability of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in a process of projecting the ejective exhaust gases cooler cooperating with helicopter turbine engine. In this work, the CFD calculations have been performed for ejective-based cooler cooperating with the PA W3 helicopter’s engines.

Keywords: aviation, CFD analysis, ejective-cooler, helicopter techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
5534 Analysis of a Multiejector Cooling System in a Truck at Different Loads

Authors: Leonardo E. Pacheco, Carlos A. Díaz


An alternative way of addressing the difficult to recover the useless heat is through an ejector refrigeration cycle for vehicles applications. A group of thermo-compressor supply the mechanical compressor function at conventional refrigeration compression system. The thermo-compressor group recovers the thermal energy from waste streams (exhaust gases product in internal combustion motors, gases burned in wellhead among others) to eliminate the power consumption of the mechanical compressor. These types of alternative cooling system (air-conditioners) present a kind of advantages in both the increase in energy efficiency and the improvement of the COP of the system being studied from their its mechanical simplicity (decrease of moving parts). An ejector refrigeration cycle represents a significant step forward in the optimization of the efficient use of energy in the process of air conditioning and an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts. On one side, with the energy recycling decreases the temperature of the gases thrown into the atmosphere, which contributes to the principal beneficiaries of the average temperature of the planet. In parallel, mitigating the environmental impact caused by the production and handling of conventional cooling fluids commonly available in the market, causing the destruction of the ozone layer. This work had studied the operation of the multiejector cooling system for a truck with a 420 HP engine at different rotation speed. The operation condition limits and the COP of multi-ejector cooling systems applied in a truck are analyzed for a variable rpm range from to 800–1800 rpm.

Keywords: ejector system, exhaust gas, multiejector cooling system, recovery energy

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5533 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap


Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, scrubbing, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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5532 Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel

Authors: Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Nader R. Ammar


One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.

Keywords: ship emissions, IMO, lithium bromide-water ARU, analysis, thermodynamic, economic and environmental analysis

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5531 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni


The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

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5530 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu


Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

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5529 Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: Case Study of Maku City, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade


This paper aims to determine the best environmental and economic scenario for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management of the Maku city by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The functional elements of this study are collection, transportation, and disposal of MSW in Maku city. Waste composition and density, as two key parameters of MSW, have been determined by field sampling, and then, the other important specifications of MSW like chemical formula, thermal energy and water content were calculated. These data beside other information related to collection and disposal facilities are used as a reliable source of data to assess the environmental impacts of different waste management options, including landfills, composting, recycling and energy recovery. The environmental impact of MSW management options has been investigated in 15 different scenarios by Integrated Waste Management (IWM) software. The photochemical smog, greenhouse gases, acid gases, toxic emissions, and energy consumption of each scenario are measured. Then, the environmental indices of each scenario are specified by weighting these parameters. Economic costs of scenarios have been also compared with each other based on literature. As final result, since the organic materials make more than 80% of the waste, compost can be a suitable method. Although the major part of the remaining 20% of waste can be recycled, due to the high cost of necessary equipment, the landfill option has been suggested. Therefore, the scenario with 80% composting and 20% landfilling is selected as superior environmental and economic scenario. This study shows that, to select a scenario with practical applications, simultaneously environmental and economic aspects of different scenarios must be considered.

Keywords: IWM software, life cycle assessment, Maku, municipal solid waste management

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5528 Gan Nanowire-Based Sensor Array for the Detection of Cross-Sensitive Gases Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Ashfaque Hossain Khan, Brian Thomson, Ratan Debnath, Abhishek Motayed, Mulpuri V. Rao


Though the efforts had been made, the problem of cross-sensitivity for a single metal oxide-based sensor can’t be fully eliminated. In this work, a sensor array has been designed and fabricated comprising of platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) decorated TiO2 and ZnO functionalized GaN nanowires using industry-standard top-down fabrication approach. The metal/metal-oxide combinations within the array have been determined from prior molecular simulation study using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The gas responses were obtained for both single and mixture of NO2, SO2, ethanol, and H2 in the presence of H2O and O2 gases under UV light at room temperature. Each gas leaves a unique response footprint across the array sensors by which precise discrimination of cross-sensitive gases has been achieved. An unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) technique has been implemented on the array response. Results indicate that each gas forms a distinct cluster in the score plot for all the target gases and their mixtures, indicating a clear separation among them. In addition, the developed array device consumes very low power because of ultra-violet (UV) assisted sensing as compared to commercially available metal-oxide sensors. The nanowire sensor array, in combination with PCA, is a potential approach for precise real-time gas monitoring applications.

Keywords: cross-sensitivity, gas sensor, principle component analysis (PCA), sensor array

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5527 Morphological Characterization and Gas Permeation of Commercially Available Alumina Membrane

Authors: Ifeyinwa Orakwe, Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina


This work presents experimental results relating to the structural characterization of a commercially available alumina membrane. A γ-alumina mesoporous tubular membrane has been used. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and gas permeability test has been carried out on the alumina membrane to characterize its structural features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the pore size distribution of the membrane. Pore size, specific surface area and pore size distribution were also determined with the use of the Nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument. Gas permeation tests were carried out on the membrane using a variety of single and mixed gases. The permeabilities at different pressure between 0.05-1 bar and temperature range of 25-200oC were used for the single and mixed gases: nitrogen (N2), helium (He), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), 14%CO₂/N₂, 60%CO₂/N₂, 30%CO₂/CH4 and 21%O₂/N₂. Plots of flow rate verses pressure were obtained. Results got showed the effect of temperature on the permeation rate of the various gases. At 0.5 bar for example, the flow rate for N2 was relatively constant before decreasing with an increase in temperature, while for O2, it continuously decreased with an increase in temperature. In the case of 30%CO₂/CH4 and 14%CO₂/N₂, the flow rate showed an increase then a decrease with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the membrane performance of the various gases is presented and the influence of the trans membrane pressure drop will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: alumina membrane, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, gas permeation, temperature

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5526 A Review on Nuclear Desalination Technology

Authors: Aiswarya C. L, Swatantra Pratap Singh


In recent years, most desalination plants have been powered by fossil fuels, and to a lesser extent, by green energy. Greenhouse gases emitted by fossil-fuelled plants significantly impact the global climate. So scientists are forced to develop a powerful energy source to protect the environment with greater sustainability due to climate change issues. Nuclear energy can supply much more fresh water than what is currently available. Furthermore, it is more affordable and does not emit any greenhouse gases. This review compares conventional desalination plants with nuclear-powered desalination plants in terms of cost, energy consumption, water recovery, and environmental issues. On the basis of the review conducted, nuclear desalination has been demonstrated to be technically feasible and economically competitive with a variety of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, and waste heat sources. Nuclear sources have been criticized due to their lack of safety. But studies show, if we were able to handle the issue with care, the problems could be eliminated. Here we're looking at the Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant (SWROP) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu, India and review the further possibility of implementing nuclear desalination technology in other states of India.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental impacts, nuclear desalination, water recovery

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5525 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky


In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

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5524 Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Raghuwanshi, Yadvendra Singh


The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, fibre Bragg grating, sensitivity, toxic gases, MATRIX method

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5523 Exploring the Relationship between the Adoption of Environmental Processes, Policies, Techniques and Environmental Operational Performance

Authors: Renata Konadu


Over the last two decades, the concept of environmental management and its related issues have received increased attention in global discourse and on management research agenda due to climate change and other environmental challenges. To abate and avert these challenges, diverse environmental policies, strategies and practices have been adopted by businesses and economies as a whole. Extant literature has placed much emphasis on whether improved environmental operational performance improves firm performance. However, there is a huge gap in the literature with regards to whether the adoption of environmental management practices and policies has a direct relationship with environmental operational performance (EOP). The current paper is intended to provide a comprehensive perspective of how different aspects of environmental management can relate to firms EOP. Using a panel regression analysis of 149 large listed firms in the UK, the study found evidence of both negative and positive statistically significant link between some Environmental Policies (EP), Environmental Processes (EPR), Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and EOP. The findings suggest that in terms of relating EP, EPR and EMS to Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions for instance, the latter should be viewed separately in Scopes 1, 2 and 3 as developed by GHG protocol. The results have useful implication for policy makers and managers when designing strategies and policies to reduce negative environmental impacts.

Keywords: environmental management, environmental operational performance, GHGs, large listed firms

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5522 Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: From European Experiences to Brazilian Needs

Authors: Amália S. Botter Fabbri


This paper proposes the analysis of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in relation to the three pillars of the sustainable development, highlighting its particular importance to combat climate change. Theoretical and practical examples from Europe show how SEA has been implemented under the SEA Directive in the recent years, while the Brazilian case study shows a situation in which no regulation on SEA was implemented, despite the strong demand for it, as revealed by past experiences and future planning needs. In the end, some aspects to the formulation of a SEA Act are suggested, in an attempt to contribute to a better Brazilian environmental governance in relation to the future plans, programmes and policies required to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.

Keywords: Brazil, climate change, Europe, strategic environmental assessment

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5521 High-Temperature Corrosion of Aluminized and Chromized Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni Alloys in N2/H2S/H2O-mixed Gases

Authors: Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee


Alloys of Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni (SUS310 stainless steel) were either chromized or aluminized via pack cementation, and corroded at 800 oC for 100 h in 1 atm of (0.9448 atm of N2+0.031 atm of H2O+0.0242 atm of H2S)-mixed gases. The chromized layer consisted primarily of Cr1.36Fe0.52 and some Cr23C6. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of Cr2S3 and some FeS and Fe5Ni4S8. The aluminized coating consisted primarily of FeAl. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of α-Al2O3, Al2S3, and Cr2S3. Aluminizing was more effective than chromizing in increasing the corrosion resistance of the substrate, due mainly to the formation of α-Al2O3.

Keywords: aluminizing, chromizing, corrosion, H2S gas

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5520 Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Smart Helmet for Coal Miners

Authors: Waheeda Jabbar, Ali Gul, Rida Noor, Sania Kurd, Saba Gulzar


Hundreds of miners die from mining accidents each year due to poisonous gases found underground mining areas. This paper proposed an idea to protect the precious lives of mining workers. A supervising system is designed which is based on ZigBee wireless technique along with the smart protective helmets to detect real-time surveillance and it gives early warnings on presence of different poisonous gases in order to save mineworkers from any danger caused by these poisonous gases. A wireless sensor network is established using ZigBee wireless technique by integrating sensors on the helmet, apart from this helmet have embedded heartbeat sensor to detect the pulse rate and be aware of the physical or mental strength of a mineworker to increase the potential safety. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used to find the location of workers. A ZigBee based base station is set-upped to control the communication. The idea is implemented and results are verified through experiment.

Keywords: Arduino, gas sensor (MQ7), RFID, wireless ZigBee

Procedia PDF Downloads 335