Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1114

Search results for: hypertree resolution

1114 HD-WSComp: Hypergraph Decomposition for Web Services Composition Based on QoS

Authors: Samah Benmerbi, Kamal Amroun, Abdelkamel Tari


The increasing number of Web service (WS)providers throughout the globe, have produced numerous Web services providing the same or similar functionality. Therefore, there is a need of tools developing the best answer of queries by selecting and composing services with total transparency. This paper reviews various QoS based Web service selection mechanisms and architectures which facilitate qualitatively optimal selection, in other fact Web service composition is required when a request cannot be fulfilled by a single web service. In such cases, it is preferable to integrate existing web services to satisfy user’s request. We introduce an automatic Web service composition method based on hypergraph decomposition using hypertree decomposition method. The problem of selection and the composition of the web services is transformed into a resolution in a hypertree by exploring the relations of dependency between web services to get composite web service via employing an execution order of WS satisfying global request.

Keywords: web service, web service selection, web service composition, QoS, hypergraph decomposition, BE hypergraph decomposition, hypertree resolution

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1113 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

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1112 Improved Super-Resolution Using Deep Denoising Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Pawan Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Singh Bisht


Super-resolution is the technique that is being used in computer vision to construct high-resolution images from a single low-resolution image. It is used to increase the frequency component, recover the lost details and removing the down sampling and noises that caused by camera during image acquisition process. High-resolution images or videos are desired part of all image processing tasks and its analysis in most of digital imaging application. The target behind super-resolution is to combine non-repetition information inside single or multiple low-resolution frames to generate a high-resolution image. Many methods have been proposed where multiple images are used as low-resolution images of same scene with different variation in transformation. This is called multi-image super resolution. And another family of methods is single image super-resolution that tries to learn redundancy that presents in image and reconstruction the lost information from a single low-resolution image. Use of deep learning is one of state of art method at present for solving reconstruction high-resolution image. In this research, we proposed Deep Denoising Super Resolution (DDSR) that is a deep neural network for effectively reconstruct the high-resolution image from low-resolution image.

Keywords: resolution, deep-learning, neural network, de-blurring

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1111 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen


The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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1110 Design and Performance Analysis of Advanced B-Spline Algorithm for Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: M. Z. Kurian, M. V. Chidananda Murthy, H. S. Guruprasad


An approach to super-resolve the low-resolution (LR) image is presented in this paper which is very useful in multimedia communication, medical image enhancement and satellite image enhancement to have a clear view of the information in the image. The proposed Advanced B-Spline method generates a high-resolution (HR) image from single LR image and tries to retain the higher frequency components such as edges in the image. This method uses B-Spline technique and Crispening. This work is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The method is also suitable for real-time applications. Different combinations of decimation and super-resolution algorithms in the presence of different noise and noise factors are tested.

Keywords: advanced b-spline, image super-resolution, mean square error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), resolution down converter

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1109 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong


Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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1108 Frame Camera and Event Camera in Stereo Pair for High-Resolution Sensing

Authors: Khen Cohen, Daniel Yankelevich, David Mendlovic, Dan Raviv


We present a 3D stereo system for high-resolution sensing in both the spatial and the temporal domains by combining a frame-based camera and an event-based camera. We establish a method to merge both devices into one unite system and introduce a calibration process, followed by a correspondence technique and interpolation algorithm for 3D reconstruction. We further provide quantitative analysis about our system in terms of depth resolution and additional parameter analysis. We show experimentally how our system performs temporal super-resolution up to effectively 1ms and can detect fast-moving objects and human micro-movements that can be used for micro-expression analysis. We also demonstrate how our method can extract colored events for an event-based camera without any degradation in the spatial resolution, compared to a colored filter array.

Keywords: DVS-CIS stereo vision, micro-movements, temporal super-resolution, 3D reconstruction

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1107 Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Settlement of Environmental Disputes in South Africa

Authors: M. van der Bank, C. M. van der Bank


Alternative Dispute Resolution denotes all forms of dispute resolution other than litigation or adjudication through the courts. This definition of Alternative Dispute Resolution, however, makes no mention of a vital consideration. ADR is the generally accepted acronym for alternative dispute resolution. Despite the choice not to proceed before a court or statutory tribunal, ADR will still be regulated by law and by the Constitution. Fairness is one of the core values of the South African constitutional order. Environmental disputes occur frequently, but due to delays and costs, ADR is a mechanism to resolve this kind of disputes which is a resolution of non-judicial mechanism. ADR can be used as a mechanism in environmental disputes that are less expensive and also more expeditious than formal litigation. ADR covers a broad range of mechanisms and processes designed to assist parties in resolving disputes creatively and effectively. In so far as this may involve the selection or design of mechanisms and processes other than formal litigation, these mechanisms and processes are not intended to supplant court adjudication, but rather to supplement it. A variety of ADR methods have been developed to deal with numerous problems encountered during environmental disputes. The research questions are: How can ADR facilitate environmental disputes in South Africa? Are they appropriate? And what improvements should be made?

Keywords: alternative dispute, environmental disputes, non-judicial, resolution and settlement

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1106 Application on Metastable Measurement with Wide Range High Resolution VDL Circuit

Authors: Po-Hui Yang, Jing-Min Chen, Po-Yu Kuo, Chia-Chun Wu


This paper proposed a high resolution Vernier Delay Line (VDL) measurement circuit with coarse and fine detection mechanism, which improved the trade-off problem between high resolution and less delay cells in traditional VDL circuits. And the measuring time of proposed measurement circuit is also under the high resolution requests. At first, the testing range of input signal which proposed high resolution delay line is detected by coarse detection VDL. Moreover, the delayed input signal is transmitted to fine detection VDL for measuring value with better accuracy. This paper is implemented at 0.18μm process, operating frequency is 100 MHz, and the resolution achieved 2.0 ps with only 16-stage delay cells. The test range is 170ps wide, and 17% stages saved compare with traditional single delay line circuit.

Keywords: vernier delay line, D-type flip-flop, DFF, metastable phenomenon

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1105 Alternate Dispute Resolution: Expeditious Justice

Authors: Uzma Fakhar, Osama Fakhar, Aamir Shafiq Ch


Methods of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) like conciliation, arbitration, mediation are the supplement to ensure inexpensive and expeditious justice in a country. Justice delayed has not only created chaos, but an element of rebellious behavior towards judiciary is being floated among people. Complexity of traditional judicial system and its diversity has created an overall coherence. Admittedly, In Pakistan the traditional judicial system has failed to achieve its goals which resulted in the backlog of cases pending in courts, resultantly even the critics of alternate dispute resolution agree to restore the spirit of expeditious justice by reforming the old Panchayat system. The Government is keen to enact certain laws and make amendments to facilitate the resolution of a dispute through a simple and faster ADR framework instead of a lengthy and exhausting complex trial in order to create proliferation and faith in alternate dispute resolution. This research highlights the value of ADR in a country like Pakistan for revival of the confidence of the people upon the judicial process and a useful judicial tool to reduce the pressure on the judiciary.

Keywords: alternate dispute resolution, development of law, expeditious justice, Pakistan

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1104 Revisiting Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in the Southern African Development Community: A Proposal for Synchronization

Authors: Tapiwa Shumba, Nyaradzo D. T. Karubwa


Dispute resolution is the plinth of regional integration initiatives anchored on the rule of law and compliance with obligations. Without effective and reliable despite resolution mechanisms, it may be difficult to foster deeper integration. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) legal and institutional framework exists an apparent recognition that dispute resolution is an integral part of the regional integration. Almost all legal instruments of SADC include some provision for dispute resolution. Institutionally, the somewhat now defunct SADC Tribunal is meant to be the fulcrum for resolving disputes that arise under SADC instruments. However, after a closer analysis of the substance of these legal provisions and the attendant procedural mechanisms for addressing disputes, an argument can be made that dispute resolution in SADC is somewhat scant, fragmented and neglected. In most instruments, the common provision on dispute resolution appears to be a ‘mid-night clause’. In other instruments which have specialised provisions and procedures, questions of practicality and genius cannot be avoided. Worse still there now appears to be a lack of magnanimity between the substantive provisions in various instruments and the role of the transformed Tribunal. This scant, fragmented and neglected dispute resolution system may have an impact on the observance of the rule of law and compliance with obligations in the rules-based SADC system. This all, in turn, has an effect on the common agenda for deeper regional integration. This article seeks to expose this scant, fragmented and neglected SADC dispute resolution system and to propose a harmonised system that addresses these challenges. A ‘one stop shop’ system under a strengthened SADC tribunal is proposed as a responsive solution.

Keywords: regional integration, harmonisation, SADC tribunal, dispute resolution

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1103 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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1102 PET Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski


PET is widely applied scanning procedure in medical imaging based research. It delivers measurements of functioning in distinct areas of the human brain while the patient is comfortable, conscious and alert. This article presents the new compression sensing based super-resolution algorithm for improving the image resolution in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The issue of motion artifacts is well known in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies as its side effect. The PET images are being acquired over a limited period of time. As the patients cannot hold breath during the PET data gathering, spatial blurring and motion artefacts are the usual result. These may lead to wrong diagnosis. It is shown that the presented approach improves PET spatial resolution in cases when Compressed Sensing (CS) sequences are used. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were traditionally thought necessary. The application of CS to PET has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the goal is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework to achieve high resolution PET output. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity.

Keywords: PET, super-resolution, image reconstruction, pattern recognition

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1101 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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1100 OAS and Interstate Dispute Resolution at the Beginning of the 21st Century: General Pattern and Peculiarities

Authors: Victor Jeifets, Liliia Khadorich


The paper describes the OAS role in dispute resolution. The authors make an attempt to identify a general pattern of the OAS activities within the peaceful settlement of interstate conflicts, in the beginning of 21st century, as well as to analyze some features of Honduras–Belize, Nicaragua–Honduras, Honduras–El Salvador, Costa-Rica–Nicaragua, Colombia–Ecuador cases.

Keywords: OAS, peace maintenance, border dispute, dispute resolution, peaceful settlement

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1099 The Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center and Jurisprudence Office as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry

Authors: Camille Paldi


As the Islamic finance industry is growing annually at a rate of 10% to 15% per year, it is imperative that a unique, independent legal framework is established in order to effectively adjudicate Islamic finance disputes. Currently, Islamic finance disputes are being adjudicated in inadequate civil and common law courts and arbitration centers where the contracts in dispute are being transformed from Islamic to conventional transactions. Through case analysis combined with an exploration of the efficacy of existing arbitration centers and dispute resolution methods available to Islamic finance, this paper will seek to reveal that the Islamic finance industry currently lacks an adequate dispute resolution mechanism and facility to adjudicate disputes arising from Islamic finance contracts. Hence, now is the time for the Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center (DWIFAC) and Jurisprudence Office (DWIFACJO) as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry.

Keywords: Islamic finance, dispute resolution, Dubai world Islamic finance arbitration center, jurisprudence office

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1098 Examining the Factors That Mediate the Effects of Mindfulness on Conflict Resolution Strategies

Authors: Franco Ceasar Agbalog, Shintaro Yukawa


Mindfulness is increasingly being used as a method for resolving conflict. However, less is known about how its positive outcome develops. To better understand the underlying effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies, this study examines the potential mediating factors between them. The researchers hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence (EI) mediates the effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies due to its similar components to the benefits of mindfulness, such as awareness and control of one’s emotions, awareness and understanding of other’s emotions, and cultivation of compassion and empathy. Using a random sampling, 157 participants completed three questionnaires: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II). Utilizing the SPSS Process, results showed a significant relationship between mindfulness and EI. However, among the five approaches to conflict resolution, only the integrating style was significantly related to EI. Following the principle of Mediation Analysis, mindfulness has an indirect effect on integrating style. Moreover, mindfulness and conflict resolution strategies were not significantly related. This is a rather surprising result because research literature has always indicated a positive relationship between the two variables. These findings imply that although integrating style is generally considered the best approach in handling conflict, each style may be appropriate depending on the situation. Mindfulness allows practitioners to have a holistic view of the conflict situation and choose the approach they think best for that specific situation. This could explain why statistically, there is no direct effect of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies. This work provides basis for the necessity to investigate the factors of conflict instead of the conflict resolution strategies; factors that can be manipulated and may be directly influenced by mindfulness.

Keywords: conflict resolution strategies, emotional intelligence, mindfulness and conflict, ROCI-II integrating style

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1097 Blind Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on PSF Estimation

Authors: Osama A. Omer, Amal Hamed


Successful blind image Super-Resolution algorithms require the exact estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF). In the absence of any prior information about the imagery system and the true image; this estimation is normally done by trial and error experimentation until an acceptable restored image quality is obtained. Multi-frame blind Super-Resolution algorithms often have disadvantages of slow convergence and sensitiveness to complex noises. This paper presents a Super-Resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on estimation of the PSF that yields the optimum restored image quality. The estimation of PSF is performed by the knife-edge method and it is implemented by measuring spreading of the edges in the reproduced HR image itself during the reconstruction process. The proposed image reconstruction approach is using L1 norm minimization and robust regularization based on a bilateral prior to deal with different data and noise models. A series of experiment results show that the proposed method can outperform other previous work robustly and efficiently.

Keywords: blind, PSF, super-resolution, knife-edge, blurring, bilateral, L1 norm

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1096 Continuous FAQ Updating for Service Incident Ticket Resolution

Authors: Kohtaroh Miyamoto


As enterprise computing becomes more and more complex, the costs and technical challenges of IT system maintenance and support are increasing rapidly. One popular approach to managing IT system maintenance is to prepare and use an FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) system to manage and reuse systems knowledge. Such an FAQ system can help reduce the resolution time for each service incident ticket. However, there is a major problem where over time the knowledge in such FAQs tends to become outdated. Much of the knowledge captured in the FAQ requires periodic updates in response to new insights or new trends in the problems addressed in order to maintain its usefulness for problem resolution. These updates require a systematic approach to define the exact portion of the FAQ and its content. Therefore, we are working on a novel method to hierarchically structure the FAQ and automate the updates of its structure and content. We use structured information and the unstructured text information with the timelines of the information in the service incident tickets. We cluster the tickets by structured category information, by keywords, and by keyword modifiers for the unstructured text information. We also calculate an urgency score based on trends, resolution times, and priorities. We carefully studied the tickets of one of our projects over a 2.5-year time period. After the first 6 months, we started to create FAQs and confirmed they improved the resolution times. We continued observing over the next 2 years to assess the ongoing effectiveness of our method for the automatic FAQ updates. We improved the ratio of tickets covered by the FAQ from 32.3% to 68.9% during this time. Also, the average time reduction of ticket resolution was between 31.6% and 43.9%. Subjective analysis showed more than 75% reported that the FAQ system was useful in reducing ticket resolution times.

Keywords: FAQ system, resolution time, service incident tickets, IT system maintenance

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1095 BERT-Based Chinese Coreference Resolution

Authors: Li Xiaoge, Wang Chaodong


We introduce the first Chinese Coreference Resolution Model based on BERT (CCRM-BERT) and show that it significantly outperforms all previous work. The key idea is to consider the features of the mention, such as part of speech, width of spans, distance between spans, etc. And the influence of each features on the model is analyzed. The model computes mention embeddings that combine BERT with features. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art span-ranking approach, our model significantly improves accuracy on the Chinese OntoNotes benchmark.

Keywords: BERT, coreference resolution, deep learning, nature language processing

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1094 An Alternative Framework of Multi-Resolution Nested Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for Solving Euler Equations with Adaptive Order

Authors: Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Ning Zhao


In the present paper, an alternative framework is proposed to construct a class of finite difference multi-resolution nested weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes with an increasingly higher order of accuracy for solving inviscid Euler equations. These WENO schemes firstly obtain a set of reconstruction polynomials by a hierarchy of nested central spatial stencils, and then recursively achieve a higher order approximation through the lower-order precision WENO schemes. The linear weights of such WENO schemes can be set as any positive numbers with a requirement that their sum equals one and they will not pollute the optimal order of accuracy in smooth regions and could simultaneously suppress spurious oscillations near discontinuities. Numerical results obtained indicate that these alternative finite-difference multi-resolution nested WENO schemes with different accuracies are very robust with low dissipation and use as few reconstruction stencils as possible while maintaining the same efficiency, achieving the high-resolution property without any equivalent multi-resolution representation. Besides, its finite volume form is easier to implement in unstructured grids.

Keywords: finite-difference, WENO schemes, high order, inviscid Euler equations, multi-resolution

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1093 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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1092 The Concept of Commercial Dispute Resolution through the Court in Indonesia

Authors: Anita Afriana, Efa Laela Fakhriah


The law of civil procedure which is currently in effect in Indonesia is still referring to the rules applicable at the time of the Dutch East Indies, that is Het Herziene Indonesisch Reglement (HIR) and Reglement Tot Regeling Van Het Rechtswezen In De gewesten Buiten Java En Madura (RBg). With the fact that the enactment of this has been very long, there are some things that are no longer suitable with the circumstances and needs of the community in seeking justice today. Therefore, a new regulation on the law of civil procedure is required and the discussions of the draft are currently being carried out. The fast examination of dispute in civil procedure is required to accelerate the growth of Indonesia’s economy by accelerating the dispute resolution method (time efficiency). With the provision of the quick examination on commercial disputes mentioned above, it is expected to benefit the community in order to obtain a tool of dispute resolution efficiently and effectively, so as making justice fast and inexpensive, especially for the resolution of commercial disputes.

Keywords: commercial dispute, civil law procedure, court, Indonesia

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1091 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen


In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution

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1090 The Growth of E-Commerce and Online Dispute Resolution in Developing Nations: An Analysis

Authors: Robin V. Cupido


Online dispute resolution has been identified in many countries as a viable alternative for resolving conflicts which have arisen in the so-called digital age. This system of dispute resolution is developing alongside the Internet, and as new types of transactions are made possible by our increased connectivity, new ways of resolving disputes must be explored. Developed nations, such as the United States of America and the European Union, have been involved in creating these online dispute resolution mechanisms from the outset, and currently have sophisticated systems in place to deal with conflicts arising in a number of different fields, such as e-commerce, domain name disputes, labour disputes and conflicts arising from family law. Specifically, in the field of e-commerce, the Internet’s borderless nature has served as a way to promote cross-border trade, and has created a global marketplace. Participation in this marketplace boosts a country’s economy, as new markets are now available, and consumers can transact from anywhere in the world. It would be especially advantageous for developing nations to be a part of this global marketplace, as it could stimulate much-needed investment in these nations, and encourage international co-operation and trade. However, for these types of transactions to proliferate, an effective system for resolving the inevitable disputes arising from such an increase in e-commerce is needed. Online dispute resolution scholarship and practice is flourishing in developed nations, and it is clear that the gap is widening between developed and developing nations in this regard. The potential for implementing online dispute resolution in developing countries has been discussed, but there are a number of obstacles that have thus far prevented its continued development. This paper aims to evaluate the various political, infrastructural and socio-economic challenges faced in developing nations, and to question how these have impacted the acceptance and development of online dispute resolution, scholarship and training of online dispute resolution practitioners and, ultimately, developing nations’ readiness to participate in cross-border e-commerce.

Keywords: developing countries, feasibility, online dispute resolution, progress

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1089 Integrated Intensity and Spatial Enhancement Technique for Color Images

Authors: Evan W. Krieger, Vijayan K. Asari, Saibabu Arigela


Video imagery captured for real-time security and surveillance applications is typically captured in complex lighting conditions. These less than ideal conditions can result in imagery that can have underexposed or overexposed regions. It is also typical that the video is too low in resolution for certain applications. The purpose of security and surveillance video is that we should be able to make accurate conclusions based on the images seen in the video. Therefore, if poor lighting and low resolution conditions occur in the captured video, the ability to make accurate conclusions based on the received information will be reduced. We propose a solution to this problem by using image preprocessing to improve these images before use in a particular application. The proposed algorithm will integrate an intensity enhancement algorithm with a super resolution technique. The intensity enhancement portion consists of a nonlinear inverse sign transformation and an adaptive contrast enhancement. The super resolution section is a single image super resolution technique is a Fourier phase feature based method that uses a machine learning approach with kernel regression. The proposed technique intelligently integrates these algorithms to be able to produce a high quality output while also being more efficient than the sequential use of these algorithms. This integration is accomplished by performing the proposed algorithm on the intensity image produced from the original color image. After enhancement and super resolution, a color restoration technique is employed to obtain an improved visibility color image.

Keywords: dynamic range compression, multi-level Fourier features, nonlinear enhancement, super resolution

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1088 Low Dose In-Line Electron Holography for 3D Atomic Resolution Tomography of Soft Materials

Authors: F. R. Chen, C. Kisielowski, D. Van Dyck


In principle, the latest generation aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) could achieve sub-Å resolution, but there is bottleneck that hinders the final step towards revealing 3D structure. Firstly, in order to achieve a resolution around 1 Å with single atom sensitivity, the electron dose rate needs to be sufficiently large (10⁴-10⁵eÅ⁻² s⁻¹). With such large dose rate, the electron beam can induce surfaces alterations or even bulk modifications, in particular, for electron beam sensitive (soft) materials such as nm size particles, organic materials, proteins or macro-molecules. We will demonstrate methodology of low dose electron holography for observing 3D structure for soft materials such as single Oleic acid molecules at atomic resolution. The main improvement of this new type of electron holography is based on two concepts. Firstly, the total electron dose is distributed over many images obtained at different defocus values from which the electron hologram is then reconstructed. Secondly, in contrast to the current tomographic methods that require projections from several directions, the 3D structural information of the nano-object is then extracted from this one hologram obtained from only one viewing direction.

Keywords: low dose electron microscopy, in-line electron holography, atomic resolution tomography, soft materials

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1087 Efficient Implementation of Finite Volume Multi-Resolution Weno Scheme on Adaptive Cartesian Grids

Authors: Yuchen Yang, Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Ning Zhao


An easy-to-implement and robust finite volume multi-resolution Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed on adaptive cartesian grids in this paper. Such a multi-resolution WENO scheme is combined with the ghost cell immersed boundary method (IBM) and wall-function technique to solve Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike the k-exact finite volume WENO schemes which involve large amounts of extra storage, repeatedly solving the matrix generated in a least-square method or the process of calculating optimal linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids, the present methodology only adds very small overhead and can be easily implemented in existing edge-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes with minor modifications. Also, the linear weights of this adaptive finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme can be any positive numbers on condition that their sum is one. It is a way of bypassing the calculation of the optimal linear weights and such a multi-resolution WENO scheme avoids dealing with the negative linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids. Some benchmark viscous problems are numerical solved to show the efficiency and good performance of this adaptive multi-resolution WENO scheme. Compared with a second-order edge-based method, the presented method can be implemented into an adaptive cartesian grid with slight modification for big Reynolds number problems.

Keywords: adaptive mesh refinement method, finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme, immersed boundary method, wall-function technique.

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1086 HR MRI CS Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction algorithm using compressed sensing is presented in this paper. It is exhibited that the offered approach improves MR images spatial resolution in circumstances when highly undersampled k-space trajectories are applied. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were conventionally assumed necessary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a fundamental medical imaging method struggles with an inherently slow data acquisition process. The use of CS to MRI has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the objective is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework benefits to achieve high resolution MR output image. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity. The presented algorithm considers the cardiac and respiratory movements.

Keywords: super-resolution, MRI, compressed sensing, sparse-sense, image enhancement

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1085 The Historical Perspectives of Peace Education as a Vehicle of Unity and Technological Developments in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Enoch Adeniran


Peace studies and conflict resolution; though a relatively new discipline had attracted scholars from far and near. It had enhanced a purposeful training of mind of young adult among other categories of learners. It provides a platform through which university under-graduates and post-graduates students are exposed to the rudiments of peace building, peacemaking and peace keeping towards a successful conflict resolution. The paper historicizes peace education as most desirable in any human society that desired development. It aims at educating children and young adults in the dynamics of peaceful conflicts resolution at home, in school and communities (states) throughout the world for a purposeful technological development. It also aims at exposing students to the nature of conflict and how to manage and resolve conflicts in order to promote national unity for meaningful development. The paper argues that, for a state to record any meaningful socio-economic, political and technological development; a conducive and peaceful atmosphere must be put in place. This theoretical paper emerged in the context of historical specificities of conflict resolution from a general conceptual framework. It then concludes with suggestions on the modes of conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution for an ideal technologically advanced society.

Keywords: history, education, peace, unity, technology and development

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