Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14619

Search results for: hype cycle model

14619 The Status of BIM Adoption in Six Continents

Authors: Wooyoung Jung, Ghang Lee


This paper paper reports the worldwide status of building information modeling (BIM) adoption from the perspectives of the engagement level, the Hype Cycle model, the technology diffusion model, and BIM-uses. An online survey was distributed, and 156 experts from six continents responded. Overall, North America was the most advanced continent, followed by Oceania and Europe. Countries in Asia perceived their phase mainly as slope of enlightenment (mature) in the Hype Cycle model. In the technology diffusion model, the main BIM-users worldwide were “early majority” (third phase), but those in the Middle East/Africa and South America were “early adopters” (second phase). In addition, the more advanced the country, the more number of BIM services employed in general. In summary, North America, Europe, Oceania, and Asia were advancing rapidly toward the mature stage of BIM, whereas the Middle East/Africa and South America were still in the early phase. The simple indexes used in this study may be used to track the worldwide status of BIM adoption in long-term surveys.

Keywords: BIM adoption, BIM services, hype cycle model, technology diffusion model

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14618 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski


The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

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14617 Optimization of a Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems with R134a

Authors: Ilhem Ouelhazi, Mouna Elakhdar, Lakdar Kairouani


A computer simulation model for a combined ejector-vapor compression cycle that uses working fluid R134a. A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed using the equations governing the flow and thermodynamics based on the constant area ejector flow model. The effects of the operating parameters on the cooling capacity, the performance coefficient, and the entrainment ratio are studied. The current model is based on the NIST-REFPROP database for refrigerants properties calculations. The simulated performance is compared with the available experimental data from the literature for validation.

Keywords: combined refrigeration cycle, constant area ejector, R134a, ejector-cooling cycle, performance, mathematical simulation, vapor compression cycle

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14616 Camera Model Identification for Mi Pad 4, Oppo A37f, Samsung M20, and Oppo f9

Authors: Ulrich Wake, Eniman Syamsuddin


The model for camera model identificaiton is trained using pretrained model ResNet43 and ResNet50. The dataset consists of 500 photos of each phone. Dataset is divided into 1280 photos for training, 320 photos for validation and 400 photos for testing. The model is trained using One Cycle Policy Method and tested using Test-Time Augmentation. Furthermore, the model is trained for 50 epoch using regularization such as drop out and early stopping. The result is 90% accuracy for validation set and above 85% for Test-Time Augmentation using ResNet50. Every model is also trained by slightly updating the pretrained model’s weights

Keywords: ​ One Cycle Policy, ResNet34, ResNet50, Test-Time Agumentation

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14615 The Quality Improvement of Painting Assignments for Grade 4-6 Students by Using PDCA Cycle

Authors: Pawinee Sorawech


The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality improvement of painting assignments for grade 4-6 students by using PDCA cycle. This study employed a qualitative technique. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University and its demonstration school were selected as the area of study. An in-depth interview was utilized. The findings revealed that model of PDCA cycle was a proper model to increase the quality of painting assignments for grade 4-6 students. The six steps of improvement included: studying the PDCA model, setting up a plan, determining the scope of work, creating a strategy, developing a quality for painting assignment, and coming up with a handbook for a quality improvement of painting assignment.

Keywords: quality, painting assignments, PDCA cycle, grade 4-6 students

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14614 A Study on Human Musculoskeletal Model for Cycle Fitting: Comparison with EMG

Authors: Yoon- Ho Shin, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Joo-Hack Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack


It is difficult to study the effect of various variables on cycle fitting through actual experiment. To overcome such difficulty, the forward dynamics of a musculoskeletal model was applied to cycle fitting in this study. The measured EMG data were compared with the muscle activities of the musculoskeletal model through forward dynamics. EMG data were measured from five cyclists who do not have musculoskeletal diseases during three minutes pedaling with a constant load (150 W) and cadence (90 RPM). The muscles used for the analysis were the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Bicep Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Medial (GM). Person’s correlation coefficients of the muscle activity patterns, the peak timing of the maximum muscle activities, and the total muscle activities were calculated and compared. BIKE3D model of AnyBody (Anybodytech, Denmark) was used for the musculoskeletal model simulation. The comparisons of the actual experiments with the simulation results showed significant correlations in the muscle activity patterns (VL: 0.789, TA: 0.503, BF: 0.468, GM: 0.670). The peak timings of the maximum muscle activities were distributed at particular phases. The total muscle activities were compared with the normalized muscle activities, and the comparison showed about 10% difference in the VL (+10%), TA (+9.7%), and BF (+10%), excluding the GM (+29.4%). Thus, it can be concluded that muscle activities of model & experiment showed similar results. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to apply the simulation of further improved musculoskeletal model to cycle fitting.

Keywords: musculoskeletal modeling, EMG, cycle fitting, simulation

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14613 Systems Contextual Integrated Model for Clinical Psychology and Social Work

Authors: Raymond C. Hawkins II, Catherine A. Hawkins


The System Contextual Integrated Model (SCIM), developed as a trans-theoretical framework for selecting measures for psychotherapy process and outcome, is reformulated for behavioral health applications. The SCIM “healing cycle” is an allostatic hedonic affective-cognitive right-hemisphere–left-hemisphere coordinated process involving positive alliesthesia that mitigates traumatic pain and generates psychological flexibility. The SCIM “trauma cycle” is an allostatic overload alliesthesia opponent process with long-lasting pathology sequelae. The social ecological context moderates the “healing cycle” and the “trauma cycle.” Repeated evocation of the “healing cycle” in a therapeutic relationship can gradually relieve trauma sequelae. The SCIM is applied to pain, obese binge eating, and substance use disorders.

Keywords: allostasis, alliesthesia, opponent process, behavioral health, assessment

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14612 An Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Human Muscle

Authors: Sina Saadati, Mohammadreza Razzazi


In this article, we have tried to present an agent-based model of human muscle. A suitable model of muscle is necessary for the analysis of mankind's movements. It can be used by clinical researchers who study the influence of motion sicknesses, like Parkinson's disease. It is also useful in the development of a prosthesis that receives the electromyography signals and generates force as a reaction. Since we have focused on computational efficiency in this research, the model can compute the calculations very fast. As far as it concerns prostheses, the model can be known as a charge-efficient method. In this paper, we are about to illustrate an agent-based model. Then, we will use it to simulate the human gait cycle. This method can also be done reversely in the analysis of gait in motion sicknesses.

Keywords: agent-based modeling and simulation, human muscle, gait cycle, motion sickness

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14611 Inventory Decisions for Perishable Products with Age and Stock Dependent Demand Rate

Authors: Maher Agi, Hardik Soni


This paper presents a deterministic model for optimized control of the inventory of a perishable product subject to both physical deterioration and degradation of its freshness condition. The demand for the product depends on its current inventory level and freshness condition. Our model allows for any positive amount of end of cycle inventory. Some useful conditions that characterize the optimal solution of the model are derived and an algorithm is presented for finding the optimal values of the price, the inventory cycle, the end of cycle inventory level and the order quantity. Numerical examples are then given. Our work shows how the product freshness in conjunction with the inventory deterioration affects the inventory management decisions.

Keywords: inventory management, lot sizing, perishable products, deteriorating inventory, age-dependent demand, stock-dependent demand

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14610 The Potential of Braking Energy Recuperation in a City Bus Diesel Engine in the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Piotr Kacejko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Mariusz Duk


This paper discusses a model of a bus-driving scheme. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the mechanical energy recuperation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass. The research results show that fuel economy is impacted by kinetic energy recuperation.

Keywords: heavy duty vehicle, city bus, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy, simulations

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14609 Control-Oriented Enhanced Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone Combustion Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines

Authors: Razieh Arian, Hadi Adibi-Asl


This paper investigates an efficient combustion modeling for cycle simulation of internal combustion engine (ICE) studies. The term “efficient model” means that the models must generate desired simulation results while having fast simulation time. In other words, the efficient model is defined based on the application of the model. The objective of this study is to develop math-based models for control applications or shortly control-oriented models. This study compares different modeling approaches used to model the ICEs such as mean-value models, zero dimensional, quasi-dimensional, and multi-dimensional models for control applications. Mean-value models have been widely used for model-based control applications, but recently by developing advanced simulation tools (e.g. Maple/MapleSim) the higher order models (more complex) could be considered as control-oriented models. This paper presents the enhanced zero-dimensional cycle-by-cycle modeling and simulation of a spark ignition engine with a two-zone combustion model. The simulation results are cross-validated against the simulation results from GT-Power package and show a good agreement in terms of trends and values.

Keywords: Two-zone combustion, control-oriented model, wiebe function, internal combustion engine

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14608 Identification of Key Parameters for Benchmarking of Combined Cycle Power Plants Retrofit

Authors: S. Sabzchi Asl, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi


Benchmarking of a process with respect to energy consumption, without accomplishing a full retrofit study, can save both engineering time and money. In order to achieve this goal, the first step is to develop a conceptual-mathematical model that can easily be applied to a group of similar processes. In this research, we have aimed to identify a set of key parameters for the model which is supposed to be used for benchmarking of combined cycle power plants. For this purpose, three similar combined cycle power plants were studied. The results showed that ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, number of HRSG evaporator pressure levels and relative power in part load operation are the main key parameters. Also, the relationships between these parameters and produced power (by gas/ steam turbine), gas turbine and plant efficiency, temperature and mass flow rate of the stack flue gas were investigated.

Keywords: combined cycle power plant, energy benchmarking, modelling, retrofit

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14607 4P-Model of Information Terrorism

Authors: Nataliya Venelinova


The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary model of reconsidering the role of mass communication effects by coverage of terrorism. The idea of 4P model is based on the synergy, created by the information strategy of threat, predominantly used by terrorist groups, the effects of mediating the symbolic action of the terrorist attacks or the taking of responsibility of any attacks, and the reshaped public perception for security after the attacks being mass communicated. The paper defines the mass communication cycle of terrorism, which leads not only to re-agenda setting of the societies, but also spirally amplifying the effect of propagating fears by over-informing on terrorism attacks. This finally results in the outlining of the so called 4P-model of information terrorism: mass propaganda, panic, paranoia and pandemic.

Keywords: information terrorism, mass communication cycle, public perception, security

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14606 Analysis of Reliability of Mining Shovel Using Weibull Model

Authors: Anurag Savarnya


The reliability of the various parts of electric mining shovel has been assessed through the application of Weibull Model. The study was initiated to find reliability of components of electric mining shovel. The paper aims to optimize the reliability of components and increase the life cycle of component. A multilevel decomposition of the electric mining shovel was done and maintenance records were used to evaluate the failure data and appropriate system characterization was done to model the system in terms of reasonable number of components. The approach used develops a mathematical model to assess the reliability of the electric mining shovel components. The model can be used to predict reliability of components of the hydraulic mining shovel and system performance. Reliability is an inherent attribute to a system. When the life-cycle costs of a system are being analyzed, reliability plays an important role as a major driver of these costs and has considerable influence on system performance. It is an iterative process that begins with specification of reliability goals consistent with cost and performance objectives. The data were collected from an Indian open cast coal mine and the reliability of various components of the electric mining shovel has been assessed by following a Weibull Model.

Keywords: reliability, Weibull model, electric mining shovel

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14605 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh


A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

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14604 Developing an Information Model of Manufacturing Process for Sustainability

Authors: Jae Hyun Lee


Manufacturing companies use life-cycle inventory databases to analyze sustainability of their manufacturing processes. Life cycle inventory data provides reference data which may not be accurate for a specific company. Collecting accurate data of manufacturing processes for a specific company requires enormous time and efforts. An information model of typical manufacturing processes can reduce time and efforts to get appropriate reference data for a specific company. This paper shows an attempt to build an abstract information model which can be used to develop information models for specific manufacturing processes.

Keywords: process information model, sustainability, OWL, manufacturing

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14603 An Ontology Model for Systems Engineering Derived from ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015: Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes

Authors: Lan Yang, Kathryn Cormican, Ming Yu


ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015, Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes is an international standard that provides generic top-level process descriptions to support systems engineering (SE). However, the processes defined in the standard needs improvement to lift integrity and consistency. The goal of this research is to explore the way by building an ontology model for the SE standard to manage the knowledge of SE. The ontology model gives a whole picture of the SE knowledge domain by building connections between SE concepts. Moreover, it creates a hierarchical classification of the concepts to fulfil different requirements of displaying and analysing SE knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge management, model-based systems engineering, ontology modelling, systems engineering ontology

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14602 Epidemiological Model for Citrus Black Spot Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain

Authors: Nqobile Muleya, Winston Garira, Godwin Mchau


Citrus Black Spot (CBS) is a fungal disease that is responsible for huge economical loss and poses a threat to the citrus industry worldwide. We construct a mathematical model framework for citrus black spot between fruits to characterise the dynamics of the disease development, paying attention to the pathogen life cycle. We have made an observation from the model analysis that the initial inoculum from ascomata is very important for disease development and thereafter it is no longer important due to conidia which is responsible for secondary infection. Most importantly, the model indicated that ascospores and conidia are very important parameters in developing citrus black spot within a short distance. The basic reproductive number and its importance in relation to citrus black spot persistence are outlined. A numerical simulation of the model was done to explain the theoretical findings.

Keywords: epidemiological modelling, Guidnardia citricarpa, life cycle stage, fungal, disease development

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14601 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk


This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

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14600 Ground Surface Temperature History Prediction Using Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network Architecture

Authors: Venkat S. Somayajula


Ground surface temperature history prediction model plays a vital role in determining standards for international nuclear waste management. International standards for borehole based nuclear waste disposal require paleoclimate cycle predictions on scale of a million forward years for the place of waste disposal. This research focuses on developing a paleoclimate cycle prediction model using Bayesian long-short term memory (LSTM) neural architecture operated on accumulated borehole temperature history data. Bayesian models have been previously used for paleoclimate cycle prediction based on Monte-Carlo weight method, but due to limitations pertaining model coupling with certain other prediction networks, Bayesian models in past couldn’t accommodate prediction cycle’s over 1000 years. LSTM has provided frontier to couple developed models with other prediction networks with ease. Paleoclimate cycle developed using this process will be trained on existing borehole data and then will be coupled to surface temperature history prediction networks which give endpoints for backpropagation of LSTM network and optimize the cycle of prediction for larger prediction time scales. Trained LSTM will be tested on past data for validation and then propagated for forward prediction of temperatures at borehole locations. This research will be beneficial for study pertaining to nuclear waste management, anthropological cycle predictions and geophysical features

Keywords: Bayesian long-short term memory neural network, borehole temperature, ground surface temperature history, paleoclimate cycle

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14599 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan


The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

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14598 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee


Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

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14597 Self Tuning Controller for Reducing Cycle to Cycle Variations in SI Engine

Authors: Alirıza Kaleli, M. Akif Ceviz, Erdoğan Güner, Köksal Erentürk


The cyclic variations in spark ignition engines occurring especially under specific engine operating conditions make the maximum pressure variable for successive in-cylinder pressure cycles. Minimization of cyclic variations has a great importance in effectively operating near to lean limit, or at low speed and load. The cyclic variations may reduce the power output of the engine, lead to operational instabilities, and result in undesirable engine vibrations and noise. In this study, spark timing is controlled in order to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines. Firstly, an ARMAX model has developed between spark timing and maximum pressure using system identification techniques. By using this model, the maximum pressure of the next cycle has been predicted. Then, self-tuning minimum variance controller has been designed to change the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the first cylinder of test engine to regulate the in-cylinder maximum pressure. The performance of the proposed controller is illustrated in real time and experimental results show that the controller has a reliable effect on cycle to cycle variations of maximum cylinder pressure when the engine works under low speed conditions.

Keywords: cyclic variations, cylinder pressure, SI engines, self tuning controller

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14596 Contribution in Fatigue Life Prediction of Composite Material

Authors: Mostefa Bendouba, Djebli Abdelkader, Abdelkrim Aid, Mohamed Benguediab


The damage evolution mechanism is one of the important focuses of fatigue behaviour investigation of composite materials and also is the foundation to predict fatigue life of composite structures for engineering application. This paper is dedicated to a damage investigation under two block loading cycle fatigue conditions submitted to composite material. The loading sequence effect and the influence of the cycle ratio of the first stage on the cumulative fatigue life were studied herein. Two loading sequences, i.e., high-to-low and low-to-high cases are considered in this paper. The proposed damage indicator is connected cycle by cycle to the S-N curve and the experimental results are in agreement with model expectations. Some experimental researches are used to validate this proposition.

Keywords: fatigue, damage acumulation, composite, evolution

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14595 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle

Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.

Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumption

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14594 Unsupervised Feature Learning by Pre-Route Simulation of Auto-Encoder Behavior Model

Authors: Youngjae Jin, Daeshik Kim


This paper describes a cycle accurate simulation results of weight values learned by an auto-encoder behavior model in terms of pre-route simulation. Given the results we visualized the first layer representations with natural images. Many common deep learning threads have focused on learning high-level abstraction of unlabeled raw data by unsupervised feature learning. However, in the process of handling such a huge amount of data, the learning method’s computation complexity and time limited advanced research. These limitations came from the fact these algorithms were computed by using only single core CPUs. For this reason, parallel-based hardware, FPGAs, was seen as a possible solution to overcome these limitations. We adopted and simulated the ready-made auto-encoder to design a behavior model in Verilog HDL before designing hardware. With the auto-encoder behavior model pre-route simulation, we obtained the cycle accurate results of the parameter of each hidden layer by using MODELSIM. The cycle accurate results are very important factor in designing a parallel-based digital hardware. Finally this paper shows an appropriate operation of behavior model based pre-route simulation. Moreover, we visualized learning latent representations of the first hidden layer with Kyoto natural image dataset.

Keywords: auto-encoder, behavior model simulation, digital hardware design, pre-route simulation, Unsupervised feature learning

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14593 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson


There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

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14592 Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, partial evaporating, thermodynamic performance

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14591 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan


Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3-ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered [1]. Furthermore, based on computer experimental results in [1], it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular

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14590 Operation Cycle Model of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Duk, L. Grabowski, P. Magryta


Today's very important element relating to air transport is the environment impact issues. Nowadays there are no emissions standards for turbine and piston engines used in air transport. However, it should be noticed that the environmental effect in the form of exhaust gases from aircraft engines should be as small as possible. For this purpose, R&D centers often use special software to simulate and to estimate the negative effect of engine working process. For cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology and the Polish aviation company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A., to achieve more effective operation of the ASz62IR engine, one of such tools have been used. The AVL Boost software allows to perform 1D simulations of combustion process of piston engines. ASz62IR is a nine-cylinder aircraft engine in a radial configuration. In order to analyze the impact of its working process on the environment, the mathematical model in the AVL Boost software have been made. This model contains, among others, model of the operation cycle of the cylinders. This model was based on a volume change in combustion chamber according to the reciprocating movement of a piston. The simplifications that all of the pistons move identically was assumed. The changes in cylinder volume during an operating cycle were specified. Those changes were important to determine the energy balance of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine which is fundamental for a model of the operating cycle. The calculations for cylinder thermodynamic state were based on the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the mass in the cylinder was calculated from the sum of inflowing and outflowing masses including: cylinder internal energy, heat from the fuel, heat losses, mass in cylinder, cylinder pressure and volume, blowdown enthalpy, evaporation heat etc. The model assumed that the amount of heat released in combustion process was calculated from the pace of combustion, using Vibe model. For gas exchange, it was also important to consider heat transfer in inlet and outlet channels because of much higher values there than for flow in a straight pipe. This results from high values of heat exchange coefficients and temperature coefficients near valves and valve seats. A Zapf modified model of heat exchange was used. To use the model with the flight scenarios, the impact of flight altitude on engine performance has been analyze. It was assumed that the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet correspond to the values resulting from the model for International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Comparing this model of operation cycle with the others submodels of the ASz62IR engine, it could be noticed, that a full analysis of the performance of the engine, according to the ISA conditions, can be made. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, operation cycle, aircraft engine

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