Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7231

Search results for: Kruskal Wallis Test

7231 Public and Private Involvement in Agricultural Extension Services: Factors of Farmers’ Preference in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, O. A. Adekunle

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. The study was therefore designed to examine the farmers’ preference for public and private extension services in Southwestern Nigeria, specifically to determine the farmers’ level of participation in the two types of organizations involved and also to evaluate the Performance level of personnel in the two organizations in order to ascertain the beneficiaries’ satisfaction. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to samples 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in each of the three states sampled in Southwestern Nigeria. Hence, 270 respondents were sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance to test the difference between the participation of beneficiaries in the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued from the two organizations involved in the study. Results generally revealed that private organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2=0.709) indicates no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however shows significant difference (X2=12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations, such benefits include: increased quantity of Crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved Education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly “merging” of public and private sectors in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots both in production and processing.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers’ preferences, Kruskal Wallis Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
7230 Effect of Gender on Carcass Parameters in Japanese Quail

Authors: M. Bolacali

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of and sex on the carcass characteristics in Japanese quails. A total of 320 (160 for each sex groups) one-day-old quail chicks were randomly allocated to the sex groups, each containing 160 chicks according to a completely randomized design. Each gender was then divided into five replicate groups of 32 chicks. According to sex groups, the chicks of all replicate groups were housed in cages. The normality of distribution for all data was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test at 95% confidence interval. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was interpreted as different. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the dietary groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of five replications. Duncan’s multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons in important groups. Data points bearing different letters are significantly different P ≤ 0.05. For the distribution of data that was different from normal, Kruskal Wallis H-Test was applied as a nonparametric test, and the results were expressed as median, minimum and maximum values. Pairwise comparisons of groups were made when Kruskal Wallis H-Test was significant. The study period lasted 42 days. Hot carcass, cold carcass, heart, and leg percentages in male quails was higher than female quails (P < 0.05), but liver, and breast percentages in female quails was higher than male quails (P > 0.05). The highest slaughter and carcass weight values were determined in the female quails in the cage. As a conclusion, it may be recommended to quail meat producers, who would like to obtain higher carcass weight to make more economic profit, to raise female quails in cage.

Keywords: carcass yield, chick, gender, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
7229 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia

Abstract:

Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
7228 Examining How Teachers’ Backgrounds and Perceptions for Technology Use Influence on Students’ Achievements

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Amanda Resendez

Abstract:

This study is to examine how teachers’ perspective on education technology use in their class influence their students’ achievement. The authors hypothesized that teachers’ perspective can directly or indirectly influence students’ learning, performance, and achievements. In this study, a questionnaire entitled, Teacher’s Perspective on Educational Technology, was delivered to 63 teachers and 1268 students’ mathematics and reading achievement records were collected. The questionnaire consists of four parts: a) demographic variables, b) attitudes on technology integration, c) outside factor affecting technology integration, and d) technology use in the classroom. Kruskal-Wallis and hierarchical regression analysis techniques were used to examine: 1) the relationship between the demographic variables and teachers’ perspectives on educational technology, and 2) how the demographic variables were causally related to students’ mathematics and reading achievements. The study found that teacher demographics were significantly related to the teachers’ perspective on educational technology with p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 separately. These teacher demographical variables included the school district, age, gender, the grade currently teach, teaching experience, and proficiency using new technology. Further, these variables significantly predicted students’ mathematics and reading achievements with p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 separately. The variations of R² are between 0.176 and 0.467. That means 46.7% of the variance of a given analysis can be explained by the model.

Keywords: teacher's perception of technology use, mathematics achievement, reading achievement, Kruskal-Wallis test, hierarchical regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
7227 Analysis of Farmer's Involvement in Public and Private Extension Services in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, R. A. Oyeyinka, K. K. Bolarinwa

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. This study was designed to examine farmers’ involvement in public and private extension services in southwestern Nigeria, specifically to explore the farmers’ participation in the two types of organizations involved. It also evaluates the performances of personnel in the organizations. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected with interview schedule and analyzed both at descriptive and inferential levels. Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the participation of beneficiaries who are farmers under the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued to them from the various extension organizations involved in the study. Results revealed that private extension organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2 = 0.709) S no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however showed significant difference (X2 =12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations. These include: increased quantity of crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly privatization in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots in production, processing and marketing of agricultural produce.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers' participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
7226 A Kruskal Based Heuxistic for the Application of Spanning Tree

Authors: Anjan Naidu

Abstract:

In this paper we first discuss the minimum spanning tree, then we use the Kruskal algorithm to obtain minimum spanning tree. Based on Kruskal algorithm we propose Kruskal algorithm to apply an application to find minimum cost applying the concept of spanning tree.

Keywords: Minimum Spanning tree, algorithm, Heuxistic, application, classification of Sub 97K90

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
7225 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors

Authors: Nuran Nur Aypar, Merlinda Alus Tokat

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.

Keywords: affecting factors, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), knowledge level, nursing, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7224 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, diversity, abundance, West Port

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7223 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7222 Determination of the Factors Affecting Adjustment Levels of First Class Students at Elementary School

Authors: Sibel Yoleri

Abstract:

In this research it is aimed to determine the adjustment of students who attend the first class at elementary school to school in terms of several variables. The study group of the research consists of 286 students (131 female, 155 male) who continue attending the first class of elementary school in 2013-2014 academic year, in the city center of Uşak. In the research, ‘Personal Information Form’ and ‘Walker-Mcconnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment’ have been used as data collection tools. In the analysis of data, the t-test has been applied in the independent groups to determine whether the sampling group students’ scores of school adjustment differ according to the sex variable or not. For the evaluation of data identified as not showing normal distribution, Mann Whitney U test has been applied for paired comparison, Kruskal Wallis H test has been used for multiple comparisons. In the research, all the statistical processes have been evaluated bidirectional and the level of significance has been accepted as .05. According to the results gathered from the research, a meaningful difference could not been identified in the level of students’ adjustment to school in terms of sex variable. At the end of the research, it is identified that the adjustment level of the students who have started school at the age of seven is higher than the ones who have started school at the age of five and the adjustment level of the students who have preschool education before the elementary school is higher than the ones who have not taken.

Keywords: starting school, preschool education, school adjustment, Walker-Mcconnell Scale

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7221 An Analysis of the Differences between Three Levels Water Polo Players Based on Indicators of Efficiency

Authors: Mladen Hraste, Igor Jelaska, Ivan Granic

Abstract:

The scope of this research is the identification and explanation of differences of three levels of water polo players in some parameters of effectiveness. The sample for this study was 132 matches of the Adriatic Water Polo League in the 2013/14 competition season. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparisons of mean ranks for all groups at the significance level of α=0, 05, the hypothesis that there are significant differences between groups of respondents in ten of the seventeen variables of effectiveness was confirmed. There is a reasonable possibility that the differences are caused by the degree of learned and implemented tactical knowledge, the degree of scoring ability and the best selection for certain roles in the team. The results of this study can be applied to selection of teams and players, for the selection of the appropriate match concept and for organizing training process.

Keywords: scoring abilities, selection, tactical knowledge, water polo effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
7220 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang

Abstract:

Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
7219 Microfinance and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: Impact in Economic Dimension

Authors: Abm Mostafa, Rumbidzai Mukono, Peijie Wang

Abstract:

Using 285 respondents from two microfinance institutions, this research aims to assess the impact of microfinance on women’s economic empowerment in Bangladesh. Empirical measures of economic empowerment used in this paper are underpinned by a bargaining theory of household. Questionnaire is used for data collection following purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, binary, and ordinal logistic regressions are deployed for data analysis. The findings of this study show that around three quarters of respondents have increased household income. They have increased their savings overwhelmingly; nonetheless, many of them are found to have a very small amount of savings. Still, more than half of the respondents are reported to have increased their savings when it is checked against at least 500 BDT per month. On the contrary, the percentage of women is moderate in terms of increasing control over finances. Empirical findings demonstrate the evidence of a relationship between the amount of loan and women’s household income, their savings, and control over finances. Nonetheless, no relationship is found in women’s areas. This study infers that women’s access to financial resources is fundamental to empower them in economic dimension.

Keywords: microfinance, women, economic, empowerment, Bangladesh

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7218 Examining the Association of Demographic Factors and Arab Women’s Investment Behavior

Authors: Razan Salem

Abstract:

Men and women are different, and so their investment behaviors may also vary. To the author’s best knowledge, women's investment behavior and its association with demographic factors have not been explored directly in the behavioral finance literature, however, particularly in respect to the Arab region. Thus, this study extends the literature by focusing on examining the association of demographic factors (age, annual income, and education) with Arab women’s investment behavior. To achieve the study’s aim, the researcher distributed 600 close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of Arab male and female individual investors in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan; using Kruskal-Wallis H Test and the Mann-Whitney U Test to analyze the data. The findings reveal that age, education, and level of income are associated with Arab women’s investment behavior. Educational level and level of income are positively associated with Arab women investment confidence level. On the contrary, age is negatively associated with Arab women financial risk tolerance. According to annual income, Arab women with lower incomes have lower confidence and investment literacy levels. Overall, the study concludes that age, income, and education are important demographic factors that must be considered when investigating the investment behavior of women in the Arab region.

Keywords: Arab region, demographic factors, investment behavior, women investors

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
7217 Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing

Authors: Mohammed S. Assiri

Abstract:

In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.

Keywords: analytic scoring, rating scales, writing assessment, writing constructs, writing performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
7216 The Role of Sport-Centered Social Capitals on Student's Tendency in Sports Activities

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the review and prioritizes of sport-centered social capital on Islamic Azad university of Garmsar student’s tendency in sports activities, especially public sports based on Bourdieu viewpoint. 365 students at of 6254 students (3140 male and 3114 female) of Islamic Azad university of Garmsar branch were selected randomly, Morgan also used. 272 person answer questionnaire (with the help of specific questionnaires moeinaldini, 1391) it has 30 questions. Researchers have confirmed the validity of this questionnaire justifiability. Reliability was achieved through Cronbach's alpha 84%. The analysis of data done by, SPSS software and independent t-tests, friedman, u Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis test. friedman test showed below things : environmental dimension (MR=4.71) social and economic factors (MR=3.57) and family (MR=3.47). These factors have significant role on sports activities of students (P≤1.0). Also, comparison of these dimensions showed that the men believe to university (t-4.30) in increasing students participation. These results show that environment like (such as) governmental organization, going to the stadium and life environment is the most important factor which can effect on sport and body activities of the students.

Keywords: cultural capital, social capital, Bourdieu viewpoint, sport for all

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
7215 Sexual Quality of Life in Women with Gynecological Cancer

Authors: Hatice Kahyaoglu Sut, Serap Unsar, Seda Kurt

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 women with gynecological cancer and 39 control women (in menopausal term) at the Gynecooncology and Menopause Clinics of Trakya University Medical Faculty between January and July 2015. Women who had sexual active and willing to participate in the study filled an information form inquiring socio-demographic characteristics and Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The average age of the women was 52.7 ± 7.6 (51.2 ± 8.7 in women with gynecological cancer, 54.3 ± 6.0 in controls). The SQOL-F scores in women with gynecologic cancer (60.8 ± 22.4) was lower than controls (63.5 ± 20.7), however, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.759). Women with gynecological cancer who had vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (45.7 ± 21.3) were lower SQOL-F total score than control group (66.0 ± 21.7) (p = 0.014). The SQOL-F scores in women who took chemotherapy treatment (55.7 ± 17.8) were lower than in women who had not chemotherapy treatment (86.8 ± 16.6) (p = 0.005). In conclusion, taking chemotherapy treatment and occurring vaginal dryness and pain complaints during sexual intercourse in women with gynecological cancer reduces sexual quality of life. Therefore, sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer should be evaluated, and they should be supported in order to improve their sexual quality of life.

Keywords: gynecological cancer, quality of life, sexuality, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7214 Cumulus Cells of Mature Local Goat Oocytes Vitrified with Insulin Transferrin Selenium and Heat Shock Protein 70

Authors: Izzatul Ulfana, Angga Pratomo Cahyadi, Rimayanti, Widjiati

Abstract:

Freezing oocyte could cause temperature stress. Temperature stress triggers cell damage. Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) had been used to prevent damage to the oocyte after freezing. ITS and HSP70 could cause the difference protective effect. The aim of this research was to obtain an effective cryoprotectant for freezing local goat oocyte in cumulus cells change. The research began by collecting the ovary from a local slaughterhouse in Indonesia, aspiration follicle, in vitro maturation and the freezing had been used vitrification method. Examination of the morphology cells by native staining method. Data on the calculation morphology oocyte analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis Test. After the Kruskall-Wallis Test which indicated significance, followed by Mann-Whitney Test to compare between treatment groups. As a result, cryoprotectant ITS has the best culumus cells after warming

Keywords: Insulin Transferrin Selenium, Heat Shock Protein 70, cryoprotectant, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
7213 Internal Audit and the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Operations in Hospitals

Authors: Naziru Suleiman

Abstract:

The ever increasing cases of financial frauds and corporate accounting scandals in recent years have raised more concern on the operation of internal control mechanisms and performance of the internal audit departments in organizations. In most cases the seeming presence of both the internal control system and internal audit in organizations do not prove useful as frauds errors and irregularities are being perpetuated. The aim of this study, therefore, is to assess the role of internal audit in achieving the objectives of internal control system of federal hospitals in Kano State from the perception of the respondents. The study used survey research design and generated data from primary source by means of questionnaire. A total number of 100 copies of questionnaire were administered out of which 68 were duly completed and returned. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the internal validity of the various items in the constructs. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were employed for the analysis of data. The study finds that from the perception of the respondents, internal audit departments in Federal Hospitals in Kano State are effective and that they contribute positively to the overall attainment of the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals. There is no significant difference found on the views of the respondents from the three hospitals. Hence, the study concludes that strong and functional internal audit department is a basic requirement for effectiveness of operations of the internal control system. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that internal audit should continue to ensure that the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals are achieved through proper and adequate evaluation and review of the system.

Keywords: internal audit, internal control, federal hospitals, financial frauds

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
7212 Quantifying Freeway Capacity Reductions by Rainfall Intensities Based on Stochastic Nature of Flow Breakdown

Authors: Hoyoung Lee, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho, R. Eddie Wilson

Abstract:

This study quantifies a decrement in freeway capacity during rainfall. Traffic and rainfall data were gathered from Highway Agencies and Wunderground weather service. Three inter-urban freeway sections and its nearest weather stations were selected as experimental sites. Capacity analysis found reductions of maximum and mean pre-breakdown flow rates due to rainfall. The Kruskal-Wallis test also provided some evidence to suggest that the variance in the pre-breakdown flow rate is statistically insignificant. Potential application of this study lies in the operation of real time traffic management schemes such as Variable Speed Limits (VSL), Hard Shoulder Running (HSR), and Ramp Metering System (RMS), where speed or flow limits could be set based on a number of factors, including rainfall events and their intensities.

Keywords: capacity randomness, flow breakdown, freeway capacity, rainfall

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7211 The Promise of Social Enterprise to Improve Health Outcomes in Trafficking Survivors: A Quantitative Case Study

Authors: Sean Roy, Mercedes Miller

Abstract:

A study was conducted to assess the positive outcomes related to Filipino human trafficking survivors working at a social enterprise. As most existing research on human survivors pertains to the adverse outcomes of victims, the researchers were seeking to fill the dearth of existing data related to positive outcomes. A quantitative study was conducted using a convenience sample of 41 participants within three staggered cohorts of the social enterprise. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted and indicated that participants in the third cohort (who were employed at the social enterprise the longest) had significantly lower anxiety scores than participants in other cohorts. This study indicates that social enterprises hold the promise of positively impacting anxiety of human trafficking survivors and provides a starting point for researchers looking to assess ways to positively influence the lives of survivors.

Keywords: human trafficking, Philippines, quantitative analysis, self-identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
7210 The Factors That Influence the Self-Sufficiency and the Self-Efficacy Levels among Oncology Patients

Authors: Esra Danaci, Tugba Kavalali Erdogan, Sevil Masat, Selin Keskin Kiziltepe, Tugba Cinarli, Zeliha Koc

Abstract:

This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner to determine that factors that influence the self-efficacy and self-sufficiency levels among oncology patients. The research was conducted between January 24, 2017 and September 24, 2017 in the oncology and hematology departments of a university hospital in Turkey with 179 voluntary inpatients. The data were collected through the Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale and a 29-question survey, which was prepared in order to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale is a Likert-type scale with 23 articles. The scale scores range between 23 and 115. A high final score indicates a good self-sufficiency/self-efficacy perception for the individual. The data were analyzed using percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and Tukey test. The demographic data of the subjects were as follows: 57.5% were male and 42.5% were female, 82.7% were married, 46.4% were primary school graduate, 36.3% were housewives, 19% were employed, 93.3% had social security, 52.5% had matching expenses and incomes, 49.2% lived in the center of the city. The mean age was 57.1±14.6. It was determined that 22.3% of the patients had lung cancer, 19.6% had leukemia, and 43.6% had a good overall condition. The mean self-sufficiency/self-efficacy score was 83,00 (41-115). It was determined that the patients' self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores were influenced by some of their socio-demographic and clinical properties. This study has found that the patients had high self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores. It is recommended that the nursing care plans should be developed to improve their self-sufficiency/self-efficacy levels in the light of the patients' sociodemographic and clinical properties.

Keywords: oncology, patient, self-efficacy, self-sufficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7209 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
7208 Social and Economic Impact of Home Sharing in Metro Manila: Hosts' Perspective

Authors: Ma. Karen Jimeno, Erika Kate Co, Ma. Claudia Alexis Frani, Shane Rosshel Guzman, Marie Jaye Constance Selga

Abstract:

Home sharing continues to gain traction in the Philippines at the expense of traditional lodging options, to which the hospitality industry has reacted in stages. This study aims to describe the social and economic impact of home sharing in Metro Manila from the perspective of hosts. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire consisting of five-point Likert items was administered to 120 hosts in Metro Manila. Kruskal-Wallis test, together with Dunn’s pairwise comparison, was used in the analysis of data. Results show that there is a significant difference in the median scores between increased awareness of Filipino food/heritage and the pursuit of enjoyable life in terms of social impact. Economic-wise, the respondents, did not perceive that their businesses as an additional source of income for the local government. These findings can be used for further exploratory studies and formulation of sustainable business policies conducive for the entrepreneurs and the hospitality industry alike.

Keywords: bed-and-breakfast, home sharing, marketing, tourism

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7207 Potency Interaction using Simvastatin and Herbs Cholesterol Lowering Agent, Prevention of Unwanted Effect in Combination Hyperlipidemia Therapy

Authors: Agung A. Ginanjar, Lilitasari, Indra Prasetya, Rizal R. Hanif, Yusrina Rismandini, Atina Hussaana, Nurita P. Sari

Abstract:

Hyperlipidemia is an increase of lipids and cholesterol in the blood that causes the formation of atherosklerosis. The recent pharmacological therapy nowadays is statin. Many Indonesian people use of medicinal plants. There are several medical plants that people always use to cure hyperlipidemia such as bulbs onion sabrang, areca nuts, and seed of fenugreek. Most people often use a combination therapy of conventional medicine and herbs to achieve the desired therapeutic effect of combination therapy. The use of combination therapy might cause the interaction of pharmacodynamic from those medicines so that it influences the pharmacological effect of one of medicine. The aim of this study is to know the interaction of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb seen in rats pharmacodynamic simvastatin phase. This research used post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. The ANOVA test is used when the data is obtained homogeneous but if it is found that the data are not homogeneous then kruskal-wallis test is used. Normal (63.196 mg/dl), negative (70.604 mg/dl), positive (62.512 mg/dl), areca nuts (56.564 mg/dl), fenugreek seed (47.538 ,g/dl), onion sabrang (62.312 mg/dl). The results prove that the combination of herbs and simvastatin did not have a significant difference (P>0,05). The conclusion of this study is that the combination of simvastatin and a cholesterol-lowering herb can cause some pharmacodynamic interactions such as a synergistic effect, antagonist, and a powerful additive, so that combination therapy is not more effective than single simvastatin therapy. The use of the combination therapy is not given in the same time. It would be better if there are some period of time when the combination therapy is applied.

Keywords: onion bulb sabrang, areca nuts, seed of fenugreek, interaction medicine, hyperlipidemia

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7206 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: direct voice input, risk, security, technology, trust

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7205 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 as Biomarker for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Majid Marjani

Abstract:

In the last years, the potential role of distinct T-cell subsets as biomarkers of active tuberculosis TB and/or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-G-IT) for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis. After 72-h of stimulation by antigens from the QFT-G-IT assay, IL-2 secretion was quantitated in supernatants by using ELISA (Mabtech AB, Sweden). Observing the level of IL-2 released after 72-h of incubation, we found that the level of IL-2 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group (P value=0.019, Kruskal–Wallis test). The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) between LTBI and patients with active TB was 0.816 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97). Maximum discrimination was reached at a cut-off of 13.9 pg/mL for IL-2 following stimulation with 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of TB pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce and even controversial. Our data indicate that the concomitant evaluation of IFN- γ and IL-2 could be instrumental in discriminating of active and latent TB infection.

Keywords: interleukin-2, discrimination, active TB, latent TB

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7204 Status of Production, Distribution and Determinants of Biomass Briquette Acceptability in Kampala, Uganda

Authors: David B. Kisakye, Paul Mugabi

Abstract:

Biomass briquettes have been identified as a plausible and close alternative to commonly used energy fuels such as charcoal and firewood, whose prices are escalating due to the dwindling natural resource base. However, briquettes do not seem to be as popular as would be expected. This study assessed the production, distribution, and acceptability of the briquettes in the Kampala district. A total of 60 respondents, 50 of whom were briquette users and 10 briquette producers, were sampled from five divisions of Kampala district to evaluate consumer acceptability, preference for briquette type and shape. Households and institutions were identified to be the major consumers of briquettes, while community-based organizations were the major distributors of briquettes. The Chi-square test of independence showed a significant association between briquette acceptability and briquette attributes of substitutability and low cost (p < 0,05). The Kruskal Wallis test showed that low-income class people preferred non-carbonized briquettes. Gender, marital status, and income level also cause variation in preference for spherical, stick, and honeycomb briquettes (p < 0,05). The major challenges faced by briquette users in Kampala were; production of a lot of ash, frequent crushing, and limited access to briquettes. The producers of briquettes were mainly challenged by regular machine breakdown, raw material scarcity, and poor carbonizing units. It was concluded that briquettes have a market and are generally accepted in Kampala. However, user preferences need to be taken into account by briquette produces, suitable cookstoves should be availed to users, and there is a need for standards to ensure the quality of briquettes.

Keywords: consumer acceptability, biomass residues, briquettes, briquette producers, distribution, fuel, marketability, wood fuel

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7203 Researching Servant Leadership Behaviors of Sport Managers

Authors: Betul Altinok

Abstract:

The aim of this study is researching servant leadership behaviors of sports managers. For this purpose, Servant Leadership behaviors of Sport Managers (N=69) working as Dean, School Principal and Head of Department in Sport Sciences Faculties, Physical Education and Sport Schools and Departments educating Physical Education and Sport investigated via questionnaires applied to academicians (N=1185) working in these institutions. Servant Leadership Questionnaire sent via e-mail to all Academicians working in Physical Education and Sport educating Faculties, Schools of Universities and Departments in Turkey. 406 survey which is responded and accurately completed by Academicians were evaluated. In this study, Servant Leadership Questionnaire developed and conducted validity and reliability analysis by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) used to investigate sports managers servant leadership behaviors. Scale translated into Turkish then validity and reliability analysis were conducted. After measurement model of servant leadership questionnaire verified, Shapiro Wilk normality test was applied to obtained data to determine whether has got a normal distribution or not, depending on gender, job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Results of practiced normality test showed that data has not got a normal distribution (nonparametric). After normality test, Mann Whitney-U test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to gender and Kruskal Wallis Test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to gender. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. In the light of study results, it can be said that applied survey is objective and unfurls evaluated managers servant leadership behaviors. Empirical and practical contribution of this study is to test sports managers servant leadership behaviors in Turkey for the very first time.

Keywords: academicians, management, servant leadership, sport

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7202 Analyzing Habits of Brushing Teeth in Yuzawa Town, Japan

Authors: Takeo Shibata, Arihito Endo, Akemi Kunimatsu, Chika Hiraga, Yoko Shimizu

Abstract:

Introduction: Yuzawa Town, located in the Niigata prefecture of Japan, is famous for its hot springs. A health promotion program, Yuzawa family health plan, was initiated in 2002. It has been held for fifteen years. We evaluated the profiles of brushing teeth in adults. Subjects: 368 questionnaires were corrected from people who live in Yuzawa town. The range of age was between nineteen and sixty-four years old. Methods: Mann-Whitney’s U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to evaluate significant differences in frequencies of brushing teeth per a day. Chi-square test and the adjusted residuals were used to evaluate when they brush their teeth. Results: Women showed greater frequencies of brushing teeth per a day than men. No difference was shown by age. Construction workers showed fewer frequencies of brushing teeth. Specialized technicians, clerical workers, and housewives showed greater frequencies. People who know Yuzawa family health plan, take a regular life, or take a breakfast every day showed greater frequencies. People who think not healthy, don’t care a balance of foods, don’t take yearly health check-up, or smoke showed fewer frequencies. After breakfast, women and specialized technicians showed greater frequencies, and construction workers and self-employed workers showed fewer frequencies. After lunch, clerical workers and specialized technicians showed greater frequencies. There was no significant difference at after waking up, after dinner, and before going to bed. Construction workers showed a lower rate of having a marital partner and having information of health. Conclusion: Gender and occupational differences were shown in frequencies of brushing teeth per a day. A promotion of teeth brushing for male, especially construction workers and self-employed workers, is needed.

Keywords: health promotion, Yuzawa family health plan, brushing teeth, occupational difference

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