Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 626

Search results for: ethics consultation

626 Medical Ethics in the Hospital: Towards Quality Ethics Consultation

Authors: Dina Siniora, Jasia Baig

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During the past few decades, the healthcare system has undergone profound changes in their healthcare decision-making competencies and moral aptitudes due to the vast advancement in technology, clinical skills, and scientific knowledge. Healthcare decision-making deals with morally contentious dilemmas ranging from illness, life and death judgments that require sensitivity and awareness towards the patient’s preferences while taking into consideration medicine’s abilities and boundaries. As the ever-evolving field of medicine continues to become more scientifically and morally multifarious; physicians and the hospital administrators increasingly rely on ethics committees to resolve problems that arise in everyday patient care. The role and latitude of responsibilities of ethics committees which includes being dispute intermediaries, moral analysts, policy educators, counselors, advocates, and reviewers; suggest the importance and effectiveness of a fully integrated committee. Despite achievements on Integrated Ethics and progress in standards and competencies, there is an imminent necessity for further improvement in quality within ethics consultation services in areas of credentialing, professionalism and standards of quality, as well as the quality of healthcare throughout the system. These concerns can be resolved first by collecting data about particular quality gaps and comprehend the level to which ethics committees are consistent with newly published ASBH quality standards. Policymakers should pursue improvement strategies that target both academic bioethics community and major stakeholders at hospitals, who directly influence ethics committees. This broader approach oriented towards education and intervention outcome in conjunction with preventive ethics to address disparities in quality on a systematic level. Adopting tools for improving competencies and processes within ethics consultation by implementing a credentialing process, upholding normative significance for the ASBH core competencies, advocating for professional Code of Ethics, and further clarifying the internal structures will improve productivity, patient satisfaction, and institutional integrity. This cannot be systemically achieved without a written certification exam for HCEC practitioners, credentialing and privileging HCEC practitioners at the hospital level, and accrediting HCEC services at the institutional level.

Keywords: ethics consultation, hospital, medical ethics, quality

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625 Determinants of Consultation Time at a Family Medicine Center

Authors: Ali Alshahrani, Adel Almaai, Saad Garni

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Aim of the study: To explore duration and determinants of consultation time at a family medicine center. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Family Medicine Center in Ahad Rafidah City, at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It was conducted on the working days of March 2013. Trained nurses helped in filling in the checklist. A total of 459 patients were included. A checklist was designed and used in this study. It included patient’s age, sex, diagnosis, type of visit, referral and its type, psychological problems and additional work-up. In addition, number of daily bookings, physician`s experience and consultation time. Results: More than half of patients (58.39%) had less than 10 minutes’ consultation (Mean+SD: 12.73+9.22 minutes). Patients treated by physicians with shortest experience (i.e., ≤5 years) had the longest consultation time while those who were treated with physicians with the longest experience (i.e., > 10 years) had the shortest consultation time (13.94±10.99 versus 10.79±7.28, p=0.011). Regarding patients’ diagnosis, those with chronic diseases had the longest consultation time (p<0.001). Patients who did not need referral had significantly shorter consultation time compared with those who had routine or urgent referral (11.91±8.42,14.60±9.03 and 22.42±14.81 minutes, respectively, p<0.001). Patients with associated psychological problems needed significantly longer consultation time than those without associated psychological problems (20.06±13.32 versus 12.45±8.93, p<0.001). Conclusions: The average length of consultation time at Ahad Rafidah Family Medicine Center is approximately 13 minutes. Less-experienced physicians tend to spend longer consultation times with patients. Referred patients, those with psychological problems, those with chronic diseases tend to have longer consultation time. Recommendations: Family physicians should be encouraged to keep their optimal consultation time. Booking an adequate number of patients per shift would allow the family physician to provide enough consultation time for each patient.

Keywords: consultation, quality, medicine, clinics

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624 Guidance for Strengthening Ethics of Entrepreneurs in Information and Communication Technology Professional

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

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The objectives of this paper were to study current problem of ethics of entrepreneurs in information and communication technology professional, and to build their awareness of ethics, which would be useful as guidance for strengthening professional ethics among them. The study employed quantitative research method in order to analyze relationships or differences found in each ethics factor and report in statistics. The sample of this paper was 300 information technology users of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok. The findings revealed that the ethics factors which gained the highest and high level of opinion included possessing principles of righteousness, having trust in themselves and others, and respecting different opinions of others and accepting the fact that people of different opinions.

Keywords: communication, ethics, information, entrepreneurs

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623 Suggestions to the Legislation about Medical Ethics and Ethics Review in the Age of Medical Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Xiaoyu Sun

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In recent years, the rapid development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has extensively promoted medicine, pharmaceutical, and other related fields. The medical research and development of artificial intelligence by scientific and commercial organizations are on the fast track. The ethics review is one of the critical procedures of registration to get the products approved and launched. However, the SOPs for ethics review is not enough to guide the healthy and rapid development of artificial intelligence in healthcare in China. Ethical Review Measures for Biomedical Research Involving Human Beings was enacted by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHC) on December 1st, 2016. However, from a legislative design perspective, it was neither updated timely nor in line with the trends of AI international development. Therefore, it was great that NHC published a consultation paper on the updated version on March 16th, 2021. Based on the most updated laws and regulations in the States and EU, and in-depth-interviewed 11 subject matter experts in China, including lawmakers, regulators, and key members of ethics review committees, heads of Regulatory Affairs in SaMD industry, and data scientists, several suggestions were proposed on top of the updated version. Although the new version indicated that the Ethics Review Committees need to be created by National, Provincial and individual institute levels, the review authorities of different levels were not clarified. The suggestion is that the precise scope of review authorities for each level should be identified based on Risk Analysis and Management Model, such as the complicated leading technology, gene editing, should be reviewed by National Ethics Review Committees, it will be the job of individual institute Ethics Review Committees to review and approve the clinical study with less risk such as an innovative cream to treat acne. Furthermore, to standardize the research and development of artificial intelligence in healthcare in the age of AI, more clear guidance should be given to data security in the layers of data, algorithm, and application in the process of ethics review. In addition, transparency and responsibility, as two of six principles in the Rome Call for AI Ethics, could be further strengthened in the updated version. It is the shared goal among all countries to manage well and develop AI to benefit human beings. Learned from the other countries who have more learning and experience, China could be one of the most advanced countries in artificial intelligence in healthcare.

Keywords: biomedical research involving human beings, data security, ethics committees, ethical review, medical artificial intelligence

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622 Consultation Time and Its Impact on Length of Stay in the Emergency Department

Authors: Esam Roshdy, Saleh AlRashdi, Turki Alharbi, Rawan Eskandarani, Zurina Cabilo

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Introduction/ background: Consultation in the Emergency Department constitute a major part of the work flow every day. Any delay in the consultation process have a major impact on the length of stay and patient disposition and thus affect the total waiting time of patients in the ED. King Fahad medical City in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia is considered a major Tertiary hospital where there is high flow of patients of different categories visiting the ED. The importance of decreasing consultation time and decision for final disposition of patients was recognized and interpreted in this project to find ways to improve the patient flow in the department and thus the total patient disposition and outcome. Aim / Objectives: 1. To monitor the time of consultation for patients in the Emergency department and its impact on the length of stay of patients in the ED. 2. To detect and assess the problems that lead to long consultation times in the ED, and reach a targeted time of 2 hours for final disposition of patients, according to recognized international and our institutional consultation policy, to reach the final goal of decreasing total length of stay and thus improve the patient flow in the ED. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively for a 92 charts of consultations done in the ED over 2 month’s period. The data was analyzed to get the median of Total Consultation Time. A survey was conducted among all ED staff to determine the level of knowledge about the total consultation time and the compliance to the institutional policy target of 2 hours. A second Data sample of 168 chart was collected after awareness campaign and education of all ED staff about the importance of reaching the target consultation time and compliance to the institutional policy. Results: We have found that there is room for improvement in our overall consultation time. This was found to be more frequent with certain specialties. Our surveys have showed that many ED staff are not familiar or not compliant with our consultation policy which was not clear for everyone. Post-intervention data have showed that awareness of the importance to decrease the total consultation time and compliance alone to the targeted goal have had a huge impact on overall improvement and decreasing the time of final decision and disposition of the patient and the overall patient length of stay in the ED. Conclusion: Working on improving Consultation time in the Emergency Department is a major factor in improving overall length of stay and patient flow. This improvement helps in the overall patient disposition and satisfaction. Plan: As a continuation of our project we are planning to focus on the conflict of admission cases where more than one specialty is involved in the care of patients. We are planning to collect data on the time it takes to resolve and reach final disposition of those patients, and its impact on the length of stay and our department flow and the overall patient outcome and satisfaction.

Keywords: consultation time, impact, length of stay, in the ED

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621 Understanding Consumer Behavior Towards Business Ethics: Is it Really Important for Consumers

Authors: Ömer Akkaya, Muammer Zerenler

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Ethics is important for all shareholders and stakeholders that a firm has in its environment. Whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically has a significant influence on consumers’ decision making and buying process. This research tries to explain business ethics from consumers’ perspective. The survey includes several questions to explain how consumers react if they know a firm behave unethically or ethically. What are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethical behavior of firm? Do consumer reward or punish the firms considering the ethics? Does it really important for consumers firms behaving ethical?

Keywords: business ethics, consumer behavior, ethics, social responsibility

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620 Consultation Liasion Psychiatry in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: K. Pankaj, R. K. Chaudhary, B. P. Mishra, S. Kochar

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Introduction: Consultation-Liaison psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that includes clinical service, teaching and research. A consultation-liaison psychiatrist plays a role in having an expert opinion and linking the patients to other medical professionals and the patient’s bio-psycho-social aspects that may be leading to his/her symptoms. Consultation-Liaison psychiatry has been recognised as 'The guardian of the holistic approach to the patient', underlining its pre-eminent role in the management of patients who are admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Aims/ Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse the utilization of psychiatric services and reasons for referrals in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was done in a tertiary care hospital. The study included all the cases referred from different Inpatient wards to the psychiatry department for consultation. The study was conducted on 300 patients over a 3 month period. International classification of diseases 10 was used to diagnose the referred cases. Results: The majority of the referral was from the Medical Intensive care unit (22%) followed by general medical wards (18.66%). Majority of the referral was taken for altered sensorium (24.66%), followed by low mood or unexplained medical symptoms (21%). Majority of the referrals had a diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (21%) as per International classification of diseases criteria, followed by unipolar Depression and Anxiety disorder (~ 14%), followed by Schizophrenia (5%) and Polysubstance abuse (2.6%). Conclusions: Our study concludes the importance of utilization of consultation-liaison psychiatric services. Also, the study signifies the need for sensitization of our colleagues regarding psychiatric sign and symptoms from time to time and seek psychiatric consult timely to decrease morbidity.

Keywords: consultation-liaison, psychiatry, referral, tertiary care hospital

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619 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

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It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

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618 Corporate Codes of Ethics and Earnings Discretion: International Evidence

Authors: Chu Chen, Giorgio Gotti, Tony Kang, Michael Wolfe

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This study examines the role of codes of ethics in reducing the extent to which managers’ act opportunistically in reporting earnings. Corporate codes of ethics, by clarifying the boundaries of ethical corporate behaviors and making relevant social norms more salient, have the potential to deter managers from engaging in opportunistic financial reporting practices. In a sample of international companies, we find that the quality of corporate codes of ethics is associated with higher earnings quality, i.e., lower discretionary accruals. Our results are confirmed for a subsample of firms more likely to be engaging in opportunistic reporting behavior, i.e., firms that just meet or beat analysts’ forecasts. Further, codes of ethics play a greater role in reducing earnings management for firms in countries with weaker investor protection mechanisms. Our results suggest that corporate codes of ethics can be a viable alternative to country-level investor protection mechanisms in curbing aggressive reporting behaviors.

Keywords: corporate ethics policy, code of ethics, business ethics, earnings discretion, accruals

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617 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

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The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: accounting, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting education, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

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616 A Levinasian Perspective on the Field of Applied Ethics

Authors: Payman Tajalli, Steven Segal

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Applied ethics is an area of ethics which is looked upon most favorably as the most appropriate and useful for educational purposes; after all if ethics finds no application would any investment of time, effort and finance by the educational institutions be warranted? The current approaches to ethics in business and management often entail appealing to various types of moral theories and to this end almost every major philosophical approach has been enlisted. In this paper, we look at ethics through the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to argue that since ethics is ‘first philosophy’ it can neither be rule-based nor rule-governed, not something that can be worked out first and then applied to a given situation, hence the overwhelming emphasis on ‘applied ethics’ as a field of study in business and management education is unjustified. True ethics is not applied ethics. This assertion does not mean that teaching ethical theories and philosophies need to be abandoned rather it is the acceptance of the fact that an increase in cognitive awareness of such theories and ethical models and frameworks, or the mastering of techniques and procedures for ethical decision making, will not affect the desired ethical transformation in our students. Levinas himself argued for an ethics without a foundation, not one that required us to go ‘beyond good and evil’ as Nietzsche contended, rather an ethics which necessitates going ‘before good and evil'. Such an ethics does not provide us with a set of methods or techniques or a decision tree that enable us determine the rightness of an action and what we ought to do, rather it is about a way of being, an ethical posture or approach one takes in the inter-subjective relationship with the other that holds the promise of ethical conduct. Ethics in this Levinasian sense then is one of infinite and unconditional responsibility for the other person in relationship, an ethics which is not subject to negotiation, calculation or reciprocity, and as such it could neither be applied nor taught through conventional pedagogy with its focus on knowledge transfer from the teacher to student, and to this end Levinas offers a non-maieutic, non-conventional approach to pedagogy. The paper concludes that from a Levinasian perspective on ethics and education, we may need to guide our students to move away from the clear and objective professionalism of the management and applied ethics towards the murky individual spiritualism. For Levinas, this is ‘the Copernican revolution’ in ethics.

Keywords: business ethics, ethics education, Levinas, maieutic teaching, ethics without foundation

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615 The Effects of Evidence-Based Nursing Training and Consultation Program on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy of Evidence-Based Practice among Nurses

Authors: Yea-Pyng Lin

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Evidence-based nursing (EBN) can improve quality of patient care and reduce medical expenses. Development of training and consultation program according to nurses’ needs and difficulties is essential to promote their competence and self-efficacy in EBN. However, limited research evaluated the effects of EBN program on EBN self-efficacy among nurses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an EBN consultation program on self-efficacy and outcome expectancy of evidence-based practice (EBP) among nurses. A two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. A purposive sample of full-time nurses was recruited from a hospital. Experimental group (n=28) received the EBN consultation program including 18-hour EBN training courses, hand-on practices and group discussion by faculty mentors. Control group (n=33) received regular in-service education with no EBN program. All participants received baseline and post-test assessment using Chinese version of Self-Efficacy in EBP scale (SE-EBP) and Outcome Expectancy for EBP scale (OE-EBP). After receiving EBN consultation program, experimental group’s posttest scores of SE-EBP (t=-4.98, p<0.001) and OE-SEP (t=-3.65, p=0.001) were significantly higher than those of the pretests. By controlling the age and years of nursing work experience, the experimental group‘s SE-EBP(F=10.47, p=0.002) and OE-SEP(F=9.53, p=0.003) scores were significantly improved compared to those of the control group. EBN program focus on hand-on practice and group discussion by faculty mentors in addition to EBN training courses can improve EBP self-efficacy and outcome expectancy among nurses. EBN program focus on English literature reading, database searching, and appraisal practice according to nurses’ needs and difficulties can promote implementation of EBN.

Keywords: evidence-based nursing, evidence-based practice, consultation program, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy

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614 Artificial Intelligence Ethics: What Business Leaders Need to Consider for the Future

Authors: Kylie Leonard

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Investment in artificial intelligence (AI) can be an attractive opportunity for business leaders as there are many easy-to-see benefits. These benefits include task completion rates, overall cost, and better forecasting. Business leaders are often unaware of the challenges that can accompany AI, such as data center costs, access to data, employee acceptance, and privacy concerns. In addition to the benefits and challenges of AI, it is important to practice AI ethics to ensure the safe creation of AI. AI ethics include aspects of algorithm bias, limits in transparency, and surveillance. To be a good business leader, it is critical to address all the considerations involving the challenges of AI and AI ethics.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence ethics, business leaders, business concerns

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613 Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Malik

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Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.

Keywords: ethics, business, Islam, economic perspective

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612 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

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Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

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611 Public Service Ethics in Public Administration: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Kalsoom Sumra

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The increasing concern of public sector reforms brings new challenges to public service ethics in developing countries not only at central level but also at local level. This paper aims to identify perceptions on public service ethics of public officials and examines more generally the understanding of public servants in Pakistan towards public service ethics in local public organizations. The study uses an independently administered structured questionnaire to collect data to know the extent of the recognition of public service ethics in local organizations. A total of 150 completed questionnaires are analyzed received from public servants working at the local level in Pakistan. The analysis explores how traditional, social patterns and cultural ethics can provide us with a rounded picture of the main antecedents, moderators of public service ethics in Pakistan. Moreover, the findings of this study contribute in association of public service ethics which are crucial in ongoing political and administrative culture of Pakistan, the most crucial core for public organizational ethical climate. This study also has numerous implications for local public administration and it highlights the importance of expanding research agenda on public service ethics in developing settings with challenging institutional contexts with imperfect training and operating environments. This study may well be particularly important for practice of public service ethics in developing countries in public administration. To the best of author’s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to provide an initial step in practical implications to emphasize relevant public service ethics in public administration in developing transparent and accountable organization.

Keywords: public service ethics, accountability and transparency, public service reforms, public administration, organizational ethical climate

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610 An Examination of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Zenith Bank PLC Jalingo

Authors: Abubakar Mohammed Bakoji

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The paper examine business ethics through it pursuit for corporate social responsibility to the society in which the business long existed, Zenith bank PLC was selected as case study for it longer period of its business in the state, in order to achieve the research objective of the paper which sought the following: i. To examine relationship between business ethics and corporate social responsibility in Zenith bank PLC Jalingo; ii. To establish whether or not such ethics statement that acclaim corporate social responsibility are adhere to by the Zenith bank PLC Jalingo; iii. To determine the benefit drive by the society on the corporate social responsibility of Zenith bank PLC Jalingo to the people of the state of their operation. The research was conducted using qualitative research design approach, where convenience sampling technique was adopted using semi structured interview to one of the key staff of Zenith bank PLC Jalingo and five other beneficiaries of Zenith bank PLC corporate social responsibility projects served as respondents. The data obtained was analyze using content analysis and the result of the findings revealed that Zenith bank PLC has a Good business ethics and they adhere to the ethics, that they have completed several viable projects to the state as their corporate social responsibility and the beneficiaries and the respondents beneficiaries has confirmed and have produced evidence of how the projects has assisted in stifle their hardship. Hence, business ethics has a significant relationship with corporate social responsibility in Zenith bank PLC Jalingo.

Keywords: business ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Zenith Bank PLC, business ethics

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609 The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

Authors: Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu

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Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.

Keywords: environment, environmental ethics, interaction, value

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608 Exploring Teledermatology in Selected Dermatology Clinics in San Fernando City, La Union

Authors: Everdeanne Javier, Kelvin Louie Abat, Alodia Rizzalynn Cabaya, Chynna Allyson Manzano, Vlasta Sai Espiritu, Raniah May Puzon, Michelle Tobler

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Teledermatology is becoming a more popular form of providing dermatologic healthcare worldwide, and it will almost certainly play a larger role in the future. As the current pandemic continues to worsen, Teledermatology is seen as the primary alternative to face-to-face dermatology consultation; therefore, it needs to be enhanced and developed to become as convenient and reliable as it can be for both patients and doctors. This research paper seeks to know the processes used in teledermatology regarding delivery modalities and proper consultation. This study's research design is a Qualitative Descriptive approach to describe further the processes used by teledermatologists. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect data from Teledermatology Clinics in San Fernando City, La Union. Research showed that patients tend to embrace and be pleased with teledermatology as a way of accessing healthcare. On the other hand, clinicians have usually reported positive outcomes from teledermatology. Furthermore, it is not intended to be used instead of a face-to-face appointment with a dermatologist.

Keywords: teledermatology, online dermatology consultation, dermatology, dermatologist

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607 Developing Learning in Organizations with Innovation Pedagogy Methods

Authors: T. Konst

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Most jobs include training and communication tasks, but often the people in these jobs lack pedagogical competences to plan, implement and assess learning. This paper aims to discuss how a learning approach called innovation pedagogy developed in higher education can be utilized for learning development in various organizations. The methods presented how to implement innovation pedagogy such as process consultation and train the trainer model can provide added value to develop pedagogical knowhow in organizations and thus support their internal learning and development.

Keywords: innovation pedagogy, learning, organizational development, process consultation

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606 Study of the Business Ethics Based on Daimler Bribery Case in China

Authors: Yuandi Hu, Gang Yang

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In order to study the business ethics of the international enterprise, the thirteenth-largest car manufacturer and second-largest truck manufacturer in the world, Daimler AG was taken as research object. At first, Daimler AG is briefly introduced and the bribery affairs of Daimler AG in China are simply reviewed. Subsequently, the causes of the bribery are discussed in depth and the manifestations of the value conflict are analyzed in detail. Based on the analyzed results, the reasons why they bribe are investigated. Furthermore, some proposals for improving business ethics of international enterprises are put forward based on the study of Daimler bribery case.

Keywords: business ethics, Daimler AG, bribe, cultural conflict

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605 The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems

Authors: Caroline Foulquier-Expert

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In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges’ Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.

Keywords: judicial ethics, codes of conduct, independence, limits of judgment

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604 Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government

Authors: Qian Zaijian

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E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.

Keywords: China, e-consultation, e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, ICTs, public policy information systems

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603 An Experimental Exploration of the Interaction between Consumer Ethics Perceptions, Legality Evaluations, and Mind-Sets

Authors: Daphne Sobolev, Niklas Voege

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During the last three decades, consumer ethics perceptions have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Nevertheless, little is known about the effect of the cognitive and situational contexts of the decision on ethics judgments. In this paper, the interrelationship between consumers’ ethics perceptions, legality evaluations and mind-sets are explored. Legality evaluations represent the cognitive context of the ethical judgments, whereas mind-sets represent their situational context. Drawing on moral development theories and priming theories, it is hypothesized that both factors are significantly related to consumer ethics perceptions. To test this hypothesis, 289 participants were allocated to three mind-set experimental conditions and a control group. Participants in the mind-set conditions were primed for aggressiveness, politeness or awareness to the negative legal consequences of breaking the law. Mind-sets were induced using a sentence-unscrambling task, in which target words were included. Ethics and legality judgments were assessed using consumer ethics and internet ethics questionnaires. All participants were asked to rate the ethicality and legality of consumer actions described in the questionnaires. The results showed that consumer ethics and legality perceptions were significantly correlated. Moreover, including legality evaluations as a variable in ethics judgment models increased the predictive power of the models. In addition, inducing aggressiveness in participants reduced their sensitivity to ethical issues; priming awareness to negative legal consequences increased their sensitivity to ethics when uncertainty about the legality of the judged scenario was high. Furthermore, the correlation between ethics and legality judgments was significant overall mind-set conditions. However, the results revealed conflicts between ethics and legality perceptions: consumers considered 10%-14% of the presented behaviors unethical and legal, or ethical and illegal. In 10-23% of the questions, participants indicated that they did not know whether the described action was legal or not. In addition, an asymmetry between the effects of aggressiveness and politeness priming was found. The results show that the legality judgments and mind-sets interact with consumer ethics perceptions. Thus, they portray consumer ethical judgments as dynamical processes which are inseparable from other cognitive processes and situational variables. They highlight that legal and ethical education, as well as adequate situational cues at the service place, could have a positive effect on consumer ethics perceptions. Theoretical contribution is discussed.

Keywords: consumer ethics, legality judgments, mind-set, priming, aggressiveness

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602 A Case for Ethics Practice under the Revised ISO 14001:2015

Authors: Reuben Govender, M. L. Woermann

Abstract:

The ISO 14001 management system standard was first published in 1996. It is a voluntary standard adopted by both private and public sector organizations globally. Adoption of the ISO 14001 standard at the corporate level is done to help manage business impacts on the environment e.g. pollution control. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) revised the standard in 2004 and recently in 2015. The current revision of the standard appears to adopt a communitarian-type philosophy. The inclusion of requirements to consider external 'interested party' needs and expectations implies this philosophy. Therefore, at operational level businesses implementing ISO 14001 will have to consider needs and expectations beyond local laws. Should these external needs and expectations be included in the scope of the environmental management system, they become requirements to be complied with in much the same way as compliance to laws. The authors assert that the recent changes to ISO 14001 introduce an ethical dimension to the standard. The authors assert that business ethics as a discipline now finds relevance in ISO 14001 via contemporary stakeholder theory and discourse ethics. Finally, the authors postulate implications of (not) addressing these requirements before July 2018 when transition to the revised standard must be complete globally.

Keywords: business ethics, environmental ethics, ethics practice, ISO 14001:2015

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601 The Current Crisis of Refugees and Contemporary Ethics

Authors: Leila Angélica de O. Castro, Thiago R. Pereira

Abstract:

The number of refugees currently is alarming, having overcome the numbers of World War II. The objective of this research will be to examine this refugee crisis the light of the main contemporary ethical theories, mainly by analyzing whether there is an ethical obligation to assist these refugees. Among the many existing theories like virtue ethics, Kantian ethics, utilitarian ethics, ethical egoism and psychological egoism, will be the ethical theories used to analyze the current refugee crisis. The ethics of virtue is the oldest of theories, an action can be considered correct if we are acting virtuously if we predisposition to act that virtuously, where the goal is always the eudaimonia, a good life, a happy life. The Kantian ethics of the works of the philosopher Immanuel Kant, where we apply the hypothetical and categorical imperatives to find universal truths, actions that we consider to be universally correct. Utilitarian ethics believes that action will be considered as correct to bring happiness to the greatest possible number of people, even if they somehow have to bring unhappiness to any number of people. Ethical egoism should be concerned first with our individual happiness, and then we can worry about the happiness of others, so long as it causes us some happiness. Thus, action is correct since it is causing us a greater degree of happiness than unhappiness. Finally, the psychological egoism does not seek to determine whether an action is right or not, but claims that all our actions, even if they seem altruistic, actually has another motivation, which will always be a selfish motivation, that is, concerned with the our well-being. From these initial concepts, the issue of refugees, especially the question of whether states and their citizens have or not any ethical obligation to help them and receive them in their territories will be analyzed .

Keywords: refugees, ethics, obligation to help, contemporary theories

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600 Exploring Framing Effect and Repetition Effect of the Persuasive Message on Moral Decision Making in Conflict of Interests

Authors: Sae-Yeon Seong, EunSun Chung, Dongjoo Chin

Abstract:

Conflict of interest (COI) is one of the dominant circumstantial factors of moral corruption across various fields. Several management strategies have been proposed to prevent self-interested decision making in COIs. Among these strategies, message persuasion has been considered as a practical and effective approach. Framing and repetition are two of the major factors in the persuasion effect of message. Therefore, their effect on moral decision making in COI should be explored systematically. The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of positively framed message and negatively framed message, and secondly, to investigate how the effectiveness of persuasive message changes through repetitive exposures. A total of 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 framing conditions: positive framing, negative framing, and no-message condition. Prior to the online experiment involving a consultation task, the differently framed persuasive message was presented to the participants. This process was repeated four times in a row. The results showed that participants with positive-framing message were less likely to provide self-interested consultation than participants in the no-message condition. Also, a U-shaped quadric relation between repetition and self-interest consultation was found. Implications and limitations are further discussed.

Keywords: conflicts of interest, persuasive message, framing effect, repetition effect, self-interested behavior

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599 Executive Stock Options, Business Ethics and Financial Reporting Quality

Authors: Philemon Rakoto

Abstract:

This paper tests the improvement of financial reporting quality when firms award stock options to their executives. The originality of this study is that we introduce the moderating effect of business ethics in the model. The sample is made up of 116 Canadian high-technology firms with available data for the fiscal year ending in 2012. We define the quality of financial reporting as the value relevance of accounting information as developed by Ohlson. Our results show that executive stock option award alone does not improve the quality of financial reporting. Rather, the quality improves when a firm awards stock options to its executives and investors perceive that the level of business ethics in that firm is high.

Keywords: business ethics, Canada, high-tech firms, stock options, value relevance

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598 The Effect of Job Insecurity on Attitude towards Change and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

Authors: Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is to examine the direct and interactive effects of job insecurity and Islamic work ethics on employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The data was collected from 171 male and female university teachers of Pakistan. Self administered, close ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Findings: Through the analysis of data, it was found that job insecurity has a strong negative effect on the attitude towards change of university teachers. On the contrary, job insecurity has no significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior of university teachers. Our results also show that Islamic work ethics does not moderate the relationship of job insecurity and attitude towards change, while a strong moderation effect of Islamic wok ethics is found on the relationship of job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value: This study for the first time examines the relationship of job insecurity with employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior with the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics.

Keywords: job security, islamic work ethics, attitude towards change, organizational citizenship behavior

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597 Evaluating the Effect of Nursing Ethics Education on Nursing Students' Sensitivity and Moral Judgments

Authors: Hsiao Lu Lee

Abstract:

This study was based Quasi-experimental design. The study explored the relationships of nursing ethics education, nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments in Taiwan. A total of 242 nursing students (NS) participated the study.The proposed teaching nursing ethics from 2 to 16 weeks. Three questionnaires were adopted in this study. First, Demographic of nursing students questionnaire; Second, the questionnaire is Taiwan’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire for Student Nurses (TMMSQ-SN); Third, Defining Issues Test (DIT). The pre-test data were collected during the first week, and the post-test data was collected during the 17ᵗʰ week of the semester. The purpose of the study is explored evaluating the effect of nursing ethics education on nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments. The results of the study showed that moral sensitivities and moral judgments have been significantly improved after 16 weeks (Pair-t=--11.10***; Pair-t=-7.393***). Moral sensitivities and moral judgments were significant in the pretest. There was a negative correlation, but there was no correlation between moral sensitivity and moral judgments in the post-test. There was a significant correlation between the moral judgments (DIT)and the hours of work and other ethical courses (r=.28**; r=.015*). Nursing ethics education is necessary for nursing students in Taiwan. The nursing ethics courses are necessary to improve nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgment (DIT).

Keywords: defining issues test, moral judgments, moral sensitivity, nursing ethics education, nursing students

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