Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 492

Search results for: Bauman’s moral impulse

492 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

Abstract:

Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
491 The Study of the Determinants of Impulse Buying in Algeria

Authors: Amina Merabet, Ali Iznasni, Abderrezzak Benhabib

Abstract:

Impulse buying is of strategic importance to distributors. Currently, distribution companies rely heavily on contextual variables (music, smells, colors, sound, design ...) in order to push customers towards purchase and consumption. As such, a crucial way for commercial brands to increase sales is to stimulate impulse buying. For this reason, this study aims at identifying the factors that initiate and encourage impulse buying, as well as the levers that help distributors highlight effective marketing techniques in order to encourage consumers to make impulse purchase. Thus, we try to show, upon a field survey of 590 buyers, the impact of situational elements of both the store and the product on achieving impulse buying.

Keywords: Algerian shoppers, impulse buying, shopping environment, situational variables, product

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
490 Moral Wrongdoers: Evaluating the Value of Moral Actions Performed by War Criminals

Authors: Jean-Francois Caron

Abstract:

This text explores the value of moral acts performed by war criminals, and the extent to which they should alleviate the punishment these individuals ought to receive for violating the rules of war. Without neglecting the necessity of retribution in war crimes cases, it argues from an ethical perspective that we should not rule out the possibility of considering lesser punishments for war criminals who decide to perform a moral act, as it might produce significant positive moral outcomes. This text also analyzes how such a norm could be justified from a moral perspective.

Keywords: war criminals, pardon, amnesty, retribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
489 Online Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Hedonic Shopping Value and Website Quality

Authors: Chechen Liao, Hung Wen Shaw

Abstract:

Recently, online impulse buying has been growing rapidly. It has become a major issue of concern and provided a lot of opportunities for online businesses. This study examines the effect of hedonic shopping values on hedonic motivations, and in turn affecting the urge of impulse buying. The study also explores the effects of website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness on the urge of impulse buying. A total of 459 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that adventure shopping, value shopping, and social shopping have a positive effect on hedonic motivations, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness have a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. The result of this study validates the phenomenon of online impulse buying behavior. This study also suggests that having a good website quality is the most important factor for increasing the likelihood of consumer impulse purchase. The study could serve as a basis for future research regarding online impulse buying behavior.

Keywords: hedonic motivation, hedonic shopping value, impulse buying, impulsiveness, website quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
488 Design and Construction of an Impulse Current Generator for Lightning Strike Experiments

Authors: Kamran Yousefpour, Mojtaba Rostaghi-Chalaki, Jason Warden, Chanyeop Park

Abstract:

There has been a rising trend in using impulse current generators to investigate the lightning strike protection of materials including aluminum and composites in structures such as wind turbine blade and aircraft body. The focus of this research is to present a new impulse current generator built in the High Voltage Lab at Mississippi State University. The generator is capable of producing component A and D of the natural lightning discharges in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard, which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The generator can supply lightning impulse energy up to 400 kJ with the capability of producing impulse currents with magnitudes greater than 200 kA. The electrical circuit and physical components of an improved impulse current generator are described and several lightning strike waveforms with different amplitudes is presented for comparing with the standard waveform. The results of this study contribute to the fundamental understanding the functionality of the impulse current generators and present a new impulse current generator developed at the High Voltage Lab of Mississippi State University.

Keywords: impulse current generator, lightning, society of automotive engineers, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
487 The Development of the Coherence of Moral Thinking

Authors: Hui-Tzu Lin, Wen-Ying Lin, Jenn-Wu Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of present research is to investigate whether the global coherence of moral thinking is increased by age. The author utilized two kinds of moral situations to evaluate the subjects’ responses to two contradictive arguments concerning behavior of stealing, cheating in an exam, each with two stories. The two stories will be focused on the main lead and provided two contradictory moral evaluations. Participants were 596 primary schoolchildren in Taiwan. The three age groups were 201 in grade two, 183 in grade three, and 212 in grade six. The result showed that sixth graders’ moral judgment is more coherent than third graders’. The coherence of moral thinking is increased by age which support the implication by Piaget and Kohlberg’s theoretical hypothesis. This indicates that people higher ability to detect contradiction may be involved in the development of the coherence of moral thinking.

Keywords: moral thinking, coherence, local coherence, contradiction, global coherence, cognitive development

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
486 Children's Media Skepticism and the Prospective Moral Self: A Pilot Study

Authors: A. Maftei, A. C. Holman

Abstract:

The emergence of self-knowledge and personal representations of self in children has been subject to a variety of studies. The complex process of developing the moral self in childhood is one of the most interesting interplays of biological tendencies and socialization contexts. We were interested in exploring the potential interaction between children’s media skepticism, altruism, self and others' moral representations in a series of tasks related to potential prospective moral licensing mechanisms. In our pilot study, the answers of 67 children aged 8 to 10 years (50 % females) to a series of moral perspectives and altruism tasks were subject to mixed analysis (both qualitative and quantitative). Results suggested no significant association between the moral valence of media information and children’s altruism, self and others’ moral future perspective. Results are discussed within the Construal Level, Assimilation and Contrast theories, and moral licensing mechanisms.

Keywords: children, altruism, moral licensing, media skepticism, moral valence

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
485 Expert Review on Conceptual Design Model of iTV Advertising towards Impulse Purchase

Authors: Azizah Che Omar

Abstract:

Various studies have proposed factors of impulse purchase in different advertising mediums like website, mobile, traditional retail store and traditional television. However, to the best of researchers’ knowledge, none of the impulse purchase model is dedicated towards impulse purchase tendency for interactive TV (iTV) advertising. Therefore, the proposed model conceptual design model of interactive television advertising toward impulse purchase (iTVAdIP) was developed. The focus of this study is to evaluate the conceptual design model of iTVAdIP through expert review. As a result, the finding showed that majority of expert reviews agreed that the conceptual design model iTVAdIP is applicable to the development of interactive television advertising and it will increase the effectiveness of advertising. This study also shows the conceptual design model of iTVAdIP that has been reviewed.

Keywords: impulse purchase, interactive television advertising, persuasive

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
484 An Algorithm for Removal of Noise from X-Ray Images

Authors: Sajidullah Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Wang Yin Chai, Chai Soo See

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an approach to remove impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Many filters have been used for impulse noise removal from color and gray scale images with their own strengths and weaknesses but X-ray images contain Poisson noise and unfortunately there is no intelligent filter which can detect impulse and Poisson noise from X-ray images. Our proposed filter uses the upgraded layer discrimination approach to detect both Impulse and Poisson noise corrupted pixels in X-ray images and then restores only those detected pixels with a simple efficient and reliable one line equation. Our Proposed algorithms are very effective and much more efficient than all existing filters used only for Impulse noise removal. The proposed method uses a new powerful and efficient noise detection method to determine whether the pixel under observation is corrupted or noise free. Results from computer simulations are used to demonstrate pleasing performance of our proposed method.

Keywords: X-ray image de-noising, impulse noise, poisson noise, PRWF

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
483 Review on Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, Che-Yi Yang

Abstract:

Behaviors in sports have been one of the research focuses for long. The possible causes of these deviant behaviors should be deterred to diminish such behaviors. The studies on moral disengagement in sports gained great attention internationally since then however studies regarding such issue are rather scarce in Taiwan. Hence, the study adopted literature review approach to retrospect researches on moral disengagement in sport so forth, introduced current instruments available – moral disengagement in sports (six factors, 32 items), moral disengagement in sports –short (1 factor, 8 items), and two Chinese version scales. It has been proved that moral disengagement in sport would render antisocial behaviors in sport context. It is also found players in team contact sports (e.g. basketball, football, and hockey) have higher moral disengagement at play. Male athletes tend to have higher moral disengagement than their female counterparts. Athletes competing in higher level also show higher moral disengagement. The study also summarized that factors such as coaching styles, emotion, self-orientation, motivation, and personality traits may deter the severity of moral disengagement of athletes hence further spur the antisocial behaviors in sports. It is suggested that a measurement of moral disengagement adequate for Taiwanese athletes and effective strategies for improving the antisocial behaviors should be developed based on the knowledge of moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: antisocial behavior, attribution of blame, moral disengagement in sports measurement, nonresponsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
482 Evaluating the Effect of Nursing Ethics Education on Nursing Students' Sensitivity and Moral Judgments

Authors: Hsiao Lu Lee

Abstract:

This study was based Quasi-experimental design. The study explored the relationships of nursing ethics education, nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments in Taiwan. A total of 242 nursing students (NS) participated the study.The proposed teaching nursing ethics from 2 to 16 weeks. Three questionnaires were adopted in this study. First, Demographic of nursing students questionnaire; Second, the questionnaire is Taiwan’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire for Student Nurses (TMMSQ-SN); Third, Defining Issues Test (DIT). The pre-test data were collected during the first week, and the post-test data was collected during the 17ᵗʰ week of the semester. The purpose of the study is explored evaluating the effect of nursing ethics education on nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments. The results of the study showed that moral sensitivities and moral judgments have been significantly improved after 16 weeks (Pair-t=--11.10***; Pair-t=-7.393***). Moral sensitivities and moral judgments were significant in the pretest. There was a negative correlation, but there was no correlation between moral sensitivity and moral judgments in the post-test. There was a significant correlation between the moral judgments (DIT)and the hours of work and other ethical courses (r=.28**; r=.015*). Nursing ethics education is necessary for nursing students in Taiwan. The nursing ethics courses are necessary to improve nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgment (DIT).

Keywords: defining issues test, moral judgments, moral sensitivity, nursing ethics education, nursing students

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
481 Athlete Burnout and Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, An-Hsu Chen

Abstract:

Burnout has been proved to be one of the factors that hinder the development and sport performances of athletes while moral disengagement is the psychological mechanism used by athletes to elevate the guilt caused by conducting the anti-social behaviors to gain competitive advantages and in sports which have both been discussed extensively. The sports devaluation in burnout may undermine the sportsmanship of athletes therefore may serve as one of factors of moral disengagement in sports. Nonetheless, the connection between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports is yet established. Hence, the study aims to investigate whether there is the correlation between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports. Participants of this study are 120 collegiate athletes who specialize in seven different sports (e.g., fence, boxing, taekwondo, and etc.) with average training hours of 3.7 per day and 4.5 days per week. Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Moral Disengagement in Sports – Short were administrated as the research instruments. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and step-wise regression. The results show, participants demonstrate mild to moderate burnout and moral disengagement in their perspective sports disciplines. Moreover, athletes specialize in different sports experience distinct burnout situations while there is no significant variation of moral disengagement in different sports. It is also found, moral disengagement in sports has significant and positive correlations with emotional and physical exhaustion as well as sports devaluation in athlete burnout. Furthermore, athlete burnout can positively predict moral disengagement in sports while sports devaluation plays an important role within. It can be concluded that, athlete burnout may contribute to their tendency of moral disengagement in sport. By relieving the burnout level may help improve their moral disengagement inclination in sports. The finding may contribute to the current literature regarding athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: athlete burnout, dehumanization, moral disengagement, reduced sense of accomplishment

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
480 Internet Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Yi-Jing Tsai

Abstract:

As the advance of e-commerce technologies, the consumers buying behavior have changed. The focus on consumer buying behavior has already shifted from physical space to the cyberspace, which impulse buying is a major issue of concern. This study examines the stimulus effect of web environment on the consumer's emotional states, and in turn, affecting the urge of impulse buying based on a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theory. Website ambiance and website service quality are the two stimulus variables. The study also explores the effects and the moderator effects of contextual variables and individual characteristic variables on the web environment, the emotional states and the urge of impulse buying. A total of 328 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that both website ambiance and website service quality have a positive effect on consumer emotion, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s trait of impulse buying has a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s hedonic motivation has a positive effect on both emotion state and the urge of impulse buying. On the other hand, the study found that money available for the consumer would positively affect consumer's emotion state and time available for the consumer would negatively affect the relationship between website service quality and consumer emotion. The result of this study validates Internet impulse buying behavior based on the S-O-R theory. This study also suggests that having a good website atmosphere and service quality is important to influencing consumers’ emotion and increasing the likelihood of consumer purchasing. The study could serve as a basis for the future research regarding online consumer behavior.

Keywords: emotion state, impulse buying, stimulus-organism-response, the urge of impulse buying

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
479 The Impacts of Negative Moral Characters on Health: An Article Review

Authors: Mansoor Aslamzai, Delaqa Del, Sayed Azam Sajid

Abstract:

Introduction: Though moral disorders have a high burden, there is no separate topic regarding this problem in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Along with the modification of WHO ICD-11, spirituality can prevent the rapid progress of such derangement as well. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of bad moral characters on health, as well as carried out the role of spirituality in the improvement of immorality. Method: This narrative article review was accomplished in 2020-2021 and the articles were searched through the Web of Science, PubMed, BMC, and Google scholar. Results: Based on the current review, most experimental and observational studies revealed significant negative effects of unwell moral characters on the overall aspects of health and well-being. Nowadays, a lot of studies established the positive role of spirituality in the improvement of health and moral disorder. The studies concluded, facilities must be available within schools, universities, and communities for everyone to learn the knowledge of spirituality and improve their unwell moral character world. Conclusion: Considering the negative relationship between unwell moral characters and well-being, the current study proposes the addition of moral disorder as a separate topic in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Based on this literature review, spirituality will improve moral disorder and establish excellent moral traits.

Keywords: bad moral characters, effect, health, spirituality and well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
478 Aristotle's Notion of Akratic Action through the Prism of Moral Psychology

Authors: Manik Konch

Abstract:

Actions are generally evaluated from moral point of view. Either the action is praised or condemned, but in all cases it involves the agent who performs it. The agent is held morally responsible for bringing out an action. This paper is an attempt to explore the Aristotle’s notion of action and its relation with moral development in response to modern philosophical moral psychology. Particularly, the distinction between voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary action in the Nicomachean Ethics with some basic problems from the perspective of moral psychology: the role of choice, moral responsibility, desire, and akrasia for an action. How to do a morally right action? Is there any role of virtue, character to do a moral action? These problems are analyzed and interpreted in order to show that the Aristotelian theory of action significantly contributes to the philosophical study of moral psychology. In this connection, the paper juxtaposes Aristotle’s theory of action with response from David Charles, John R. Searle’s, and Alfred Mele theorization of action in the mechanism of human moral behaviours. To achieve this addressed problem, we consider, how the recent moral philosophical moral psychology research can shed light on Aristotle's ethics by focusing on theory of action. In this connection, we argue that the desire is the only responsible for the akratic action. According to Aristotle, desire is primary source of action and it is the starting point of action and also the endpoint of an action. Therefore we are trying to see how desire can make a person incontinent and motivate to do such irrational actions. Is there any causes which we can say such actions are right or wrong? To measure an action we have need to see the consequences such act. Thus, we discuss the relationship between akrasia and action from the perspective of contemporary moral psychologists and philosophers whose are currently working on it.

Keywords: action, desire, moral psychology, Aristotle

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
477 A Behavioral Approach of Impulse Buying: Application to Algerian Food Stores

Authors: Amel Graa, Maachou Dani El Kebir

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impulse buying behavior of Algerian consumer. In that purpose, we try to better understand processes underlying impulsive buying experiences by examining the theoretical framework and using Mehrabian and Russell’s structure. A model is then proposed and tested on a sample of 1500 shoppers who were recruited among customers of food stores. This model aims to explain the role of some situational variables, personal variables, variables linked to the product characteristics and emotional states on the impulse buying behavior. Following to this empirical study, it was possible to conclude that Algerian consumer has a weak tendency toward impulse buying of food products. The results indicate that seller guidance has a significant impact on the impulse buying, whereas the price of the product was negatively related. According to the results; perception of crowding was associated with scarcity and it was positively linked with impulse buying behavior. This study can help marketers determine the in-store factors that impact purely spontaneous purchases of items that otherwise would not end up in the shopping cart. Our research findings offer important information for benchmarking managerial expectations with regard to product selection and merchandising decisions. As futures perspectives, we propose new research areas related to the impulse buying behavior such as studying different types of stores (for example supermarket), or other types of product (clothing), or studying consumption of food products in religious month of Muslims (Ramadan).

Keywords: impulse buying, situational variables, personal variables, emotional states, PAD model of Merhabian and Russell, Algerian consumer

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
476 Moral Reasoning among Croatian Adolescents with Different Levels of Education

Authors: Nataša Šimić, Ljiljana Gregov, Matilda Nikolić, Andrea Tokić, Ana Proroković

Abstract:

Moral development takes place in six phases which can be divided in a pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional level. Moral reasoning, as a key concept of moral development theories, involves a process of discernment/inference in doubtful situations. In research to date, education has proved to be a significant predictor of moral reasoning. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in moral reasoning and Kohlberg's phases of moral development between Croatian adolescents with different levels of education. In Study 1 comparisons between the group of secondary school students aged 17-18 (N=192) and the group of university students aged 21-25 (N=383) were made. Study 2 included comparison between university students group (N=69) and non-students group (N=43) aged from 21 to 24 (these two groups did not differ in age). In both studies, the Croatian Test of Moral Reasoning by Proroković was applied. As a measure of moral reasoning, the Index of Moral Reasoning (IMR) was calculated. This measure has some advantages compared to other measures of moral reasoning, and includes individual assessments of deviations from the ‘optimal profile’. Results of the Study 1 did not show differences in the IMR between secondary school students and university students. Both groups gave higher assessments to the arguments that correspond to higher phases of moral development. However, group differences were found for pre-conventional and conventional phases. As expected, secondary school students gave significantly higher assessments to the arguments that correspond to lower phases of moral development. Results of the Study 2 showed that university students, in relation to non-students, have higher IMR. Respecting to phases of moral development, both groups of participants gave higher assessments to the arguments that correspond to the post-conventional phase. Consistent with expectations and previous findings, results of both studies did not confirm gender differences in moral reasoning.

Keywords: education, index of moral reasoning, Kohlberg's theory of moral development, moral reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
475 Moral Hazard under the Effect of Bailout and Bailin Events: A Markov Switching Model

Authors: Amira Kaddour

Abstract:

To curb the problem of liquidity in times of financial crises, two cases arise; the Bailout or Bailin, two opposite choices that elicit the analysis of their effect on moral hazard. This paper attempts to empirically analyze the effect of these two types of events on the behavior of investors. For this end, we use the Emerging Market Bonds Index (EMBI-JP Morgan), and its excess of return, to detect the change in the risk premia through a Markov switching model. The results showed the transition to two types of regime and an effect on moral hazard; Bailout is an incentive of moral hazard, Bailin effectiveness remains subject of credibility.

Keywords: Bailout, Bailin, Moral hazard, financial crisis, Markov switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
474 Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Singular Value Decomposition of an Impulse Response Function

Authors: Rogelio Luck, Yucheng Liu

Abstract:

This paper proposes the continuous-time singular value decomposition (SVD) for the impulse response function, a special kind of Green’s functions e⁻⁽ᵗ⁻ ᵀ⁾, in order to find a set of singular functions and singular values so that the convolutions of such function with the set of singular functions on a specified domain are the solutions to the inhomogeneous differential equations for those singular functions. A numerical example was illustrated to verify the proposed method. Besides the continuous-time SVD, a discrete-time SVD is also presented for the impulse response function, which is modeled using a Toeplitz matrix in the discrete system. The proposed method has broad applications in signal processing, dynamic system analysis, acoustic analysis, thermal analysis, as well as macroeconomic modeling.

Keywords: singular value decomposition, impulse response function, Green’s function , Toeplitz matrix , Hankel matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
473 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi

Abstract:

Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
472 A Qualitative South African Study on Exploration of the Moral Identity of Nurses

Authors: Yolanda Havenga

Abstract:

Being a competent nurse requires clinical, general, and moral competencies. Moral competence is a culmination of moral perceptions, moral judgment, moral behaviour, and moral identity. Moral identity is the values, images, and fundamental principles held in the collective minds and memories of nurses about what it means to be a ‘good nurse’. It is important to explore and describe South African nurses’ moral identities and excavate the post-colonial counter-narrative to nurses moral identities as a better understanding of these identities will enable means to positively address nurses’ moral behaviours. This study explored the moral identity of nurses within the South African context. A qualitative approach was followed triangulating with phenomenological and narrative designs with the same purposively sampled group of professional nurses. In-depth interviews were conducted until saturation of data occurred about the sampled nurses lived experiences of being a nurse in South Africa. They were probed about their core personal-, social-, and professional values. Data were analysed based on the steps used by Colaizzi. These nurses were then asked to write a narrative telling a personal story that portrayed a significant time in their professional career that defines their identity as a nurse. This data were analysed using a critical narrative approach and findings of the two sets of data were merged. Ethical approval was obtained and approval from all relevant gate keepers. In the findings, themes emerged related to personal, social and professional values, images and fundamental principles of being a nurse within the South African context. The findings of this study will inform a future national study including a representative sample of South African nurses.

Keywords: moral behaviour, moral identity, nurses, qualitative research

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
471 An Experimental Study on the Positive Streamer Leader Propagation under Slow Front Impulse Voltages in a 10m Rod-Plane Air Gap

Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He

Abstract:

In this work, we performed a large-scale investigation into leader development in a 10 m rod-plane gap under a long front positive impulse. To describe the leader propagation under slow front impulse voltages, we recorded the leader propagation with a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) camera. It is important to figure out this phenomenon to deepen our understanding of leader discharge. The observation results showed that the leader mechanism is a very complex physical phenomenon; it could be categorized into two types of leader process, namely, continuous and the discontinuous leader streamer-leader propagation. Furthermore, we studied the continuous leader development parameters, including two-dimensional (2-D) leader length, injected charge, and final jump stage, as well as leader velocity for rod–plane configuration. We observed that the discontinuous leader makes an important contribution to the appearance of channel re-illuminations of the positive leader. The comparative study shows better results in terms of standard switch impulse and long front positive impulse. Finally, the results are presented with a view toward improving our understanding of propagation mechanisms related to restrike phenomena, which are rarely reported. To clarify the above doubts under long front cases, we carried out extensive experiments in this study.

Keywords: continuous and discontinuous leader, high-speed photographs, long air gap, positive long front impulse, restrike phenomena

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
470 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage

Abstract:

Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
469 The Mobilizing Role of Moral Obligation and Collective Action Frames in Two Types of Protest

Authors: Monica Alzate, Marcos Dono, Jose Manuel Sabucedo

Abstract:

As long as collective action and its predictors constitute a big body of work in the field of political psychology, context-dependent studies and moral variables are a relatively new issue. The main goal of this presentation is to examine the differences in the predictors of collective action when taking into account two different types of protest, and also focus on the role of moral obligation as a predictor of collective action. To do so, we sampled both protesters and non-protesters from two mobilizations (N=376; N=563) of different nature (catalan Independence, and an 'indignados' march) and performed a logistic regression and a 2x2 MANOVA analysis. Results showed that the predictive variables that were more discriminative between protesters and non-protesters were identity, injustice, efficacy and moral obligation for the catalan Diada and injustice and moral obligation for the 'indignados'. Also while the catalans scored higher in the identification and efficacy variables, the indignados did so in injustice and moral obligation. Differences are evidenced between two types of collective action that coexist within the same protest cycle. The frames of injustice and moral obligation gain strength in the post-2010 mobilizations, a fact probably associated with the combination of materialist and post-materialist values that distinguish the movement. All of this emphasizes the need of studying protest from a contextual point of view. Besides, moral obligation emerges as key predictor of collective action engagement.

Keywords: collective action, identity, moral obligation, protest

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
468 Moderating Role of Psychological Contract in Relationship between Moral Disengagement and Counterproductive Work Behavior

Authors: Afsheen Masood, Sumaira Rashid, Nadia Ijaz, Shama Mazahir

Abstract:

The current study examined the relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that there is likely to be a significant relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that moral disengagement is likely to significantly predict counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that psychological contract is likely to moderate the relationship between moral disengagement, and counterproductive work behavior. Cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 500 middle managers, age ranging between 30-45 years working in private and public sector. The measures used were Moral Disengagement Scale, Psychological Contract Scale, and Counterproductive Work Behavior. Series of Correlation analyses, Regression analysis, moderation analysis and t-test was run in order to execute descriptive and inferential analyses. The findings revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. Psychological contract significantly mediated the relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. There were significant gender differences reported in psychological contract and counterproductive work behaviors. The insightful findings carry significant implication for organizational psychologists and organizational stakeholders.

Keywords: psychological contract, moral disengagement, counterproductive work behaviors, mediation analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
467 Moral Identity and Moral Attentiveness as Predictors of Ethical Leadership in Financial Sector

Authors: Pilar Gamarra Gamarra, Michele Girotto

Abstract:

In the expanding field of leaders’ ethical behavior research, little attention has been paid to the association between finance leaders’ ethical traits (beyond personality) and ethical leadership, and more importantly, how these ethical characteristics can be predictors of ethical behavior at the leadership level in the financial sector. In this study, we tested a theoretical model based on uponsocial cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and the cognitive-developmental model (Piaget, 1932) to examine leaders’ moral identity and moral attentiveness as antecedents of ethical leadership. After the 2008 economic crisis, the marketplace has awakened to the potential dangers of unethical behavior. The unethical behavior of the leaders of the financial sector was identified as guilty of this economic catastrophe. For that reason, it seems increasingly prudent for organizations to have leaders who are cognitively inclined toward ethical behavior. This evidence suggests that moral attentiveness and moral identity is perhaps one way of identifying those kinds of leaders. For leaders who are morally attentive and have a high moral identity, themes of ethics interventions are consistent with their way of seeing the word. As a result, these leaders could become critical components of change in organizations and could provide the energy and skills necessary for these efforts to be successful. Ethical behavior of leader from the financial sector and marketing sectors must be joined to manage the change. In this study, a leader’s moral identity, leader’s moral attentiveness, and self-importance of Ethical Leadership are measured for financial and marketing leaders to be compared to determine the relationship between the three variables in each sector. Other conclusion related to gender, educational level or generation are obtained.

Keywords: ethical leadership, moral identity, moral attentiveness, financial leaders, marketing leaders, ethical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
466 Document Analysis for Modelling iTV Advertising towards Impulse Purchase

Authors: Azizah Che Omar

Abstract:

The study provides a systematic literature review which analyzed the literature for the purpose of looking for concepts, theories, approaches and guidelines in order to propose a conceptual design model of interactive television advertising toward impulse purchase (iTVAdIP). An extensive review of literature was purposely carried out to understand the concepts of interactive television (iTV). Therefore, some elements; iTV guidelines, advertising theories, persuasive approaches, and the impulse purchase elements were analyzed to reach the scope of this work. The extensive review was also a necessity to achieve the objective of this study, which was to determine the concept of iTVAdIP design model. Through systematic review analysis, this study discovered that all the previous models did not emphasize the conceptual design model of interactive television advertising. As a result, the finding showed that the concept of the proposed model should contain the iTV guidelines, advertising theory, persuasive approach and impulse purchase elements. In addition, a summary diagram for the development of the proposed model is depicted to provide clearer understanding towards the concepts of conceptual design model of iTVAdIP.

Keywords: impulse purchase, interactive television advertising, human computer interaction, advertising theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
465 Moral Brand Machines: Towards a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Khaled Ibrahim, Mathew Parackal, Damien Mather, Paul Hansen

Abstract:

The integration between marketing and technology has given brands unprecedented opportunities to reach accurate customer data and competence to change customers' behaviour. Technology has generated a transformation within brands from traditional branding to algorithmic branding. However, brands have utilised customer data in non-cognitive programmatic targeting. This algorithmic persuasion may be effective in reaching the targeted audience. But it may encounter a moral conflict simultaneously, as it might not consider our social principles. Moral branding is a critical topic; particularly, with the increasing interest in commercial settings to teaching machines human morals, e.g., autonomous vehicles and chatbots; however, it is understudied in the marketing literature. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the recent moral branding literature. Furthermore, applying human-like mind theory as initial framing to this paper explores a more comprehensive concept involving human morals, machine behaviour, and branding.

Keywords: brand machines, conceptual framework, moral branding, moral machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
464 Definition, Barriers to and Facilitators of Moral Distress as Perceived by Neonatal Intensive Care Physicians

Authors: M. Deligianni, P. Voultsos, E. Tsamadou

Abstract:

Background/Introduction: Moral distress is a common occurrence for health professionals working in neonatal critical care. Despite a growing number of critically ill neonatal and pediatric patients, only a few articles related to moral distress as experienced by neonatal physicians have been published over the last years. Objectives/Aims: The aim of this study was to define and identify barriers to and facilitators of moral distress based on the perceptions and experiences of neonatal physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This pilot study is a part of a larger nationwide project. Methods: A multicenter qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology was conducted. In-depth interviews lasting 45 to 60 minutes were audio-recorded. Once data were transcribed, conventional content analysis was used to develop the definition and categories, as well as to identify the barriers to and facilitators of moral distress. Results: Participants defined moral distress broadly in the context of neonatal critical care. A wide variation of definitions was displayed. The physicians' responses to moral distress included different feelings and other situations. The overarching categories that emerged from the data were patient-related, family-related, and physician-related factors. Moreover, organizational factors may constitute major facilitators of moral distress among neonatal physicians in NICUs. Note, however, that moral distress may be regarded as an essential component to caring for neonates in critical care. The present study provides further insight into the moral distress experienced by physicians working in Greek NICUs. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding how neonatal and pediatric critical care nurses define moral distress and what contributes to its development is foundational to developing targeted strategies for mitigating the prevalence of moral distress among neonate physicians in the context of NICUs.

Keywords: critical care, moral distress, neonatal physician, neonatal intensive care unit, NICU

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
463 Maternal Parenting Style and Moral Development of Primary School Students: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Ghulam Zahra

Abstract:

Parenting style affects the morality of their children. There is plenty of evidence to support the effect of parenting styles on the morality of their children. Therefore, this research is considered essential and suitable. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between the parenting style of mothers and the moral development of primary school students. The population consisted of all primary school students enrolled in the province of Punjab. The sample was comprised of twelve hundred thirty-nine primary school students. One questionnaire was adapted to explore the parenting styles of mothers and to assess the level of students’ level of morality; a moral development scale was adopted. The conclusions showed that there was a significant correlation exist among authoritarian parenting style, permissive parenting, and moral developments. Based on findings, it is recommended that parents should follow a warm style of parenting for the sake of the moral development of their children.

Keywords: maternal parenting style, moral development, authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting

Procedia PDF Downloads 7