Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3312

Search results for: drift term

3312 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu


Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

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3311 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao


In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics

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3310 Concept Drifts Detection and Localisation in Process Mining

Authors: M. V. Manoj Kumar, Likewin Thomas, Annappa


Process mining provides methods and techniques for analyzing event logs recorded in modern information systems that support real-world operations. While analyzing an event-log, state-of-the-art techniques available in process mining believe that the operational process as a static entity (stationary). This is not often the case due to the possibility of occurrence of a phenomenon called concept drift. During the period of execution, the process can experience concept drift and can evolve with respect to any of its associated perspectives exhibiting various patterns-of-change with a different pace. Work presented in this paper discusses the main aspects to consider while addressing concept drift phenomenon and proposes a method for detecting and localizing the sudden concept drifts in control-flow perspective of the process by using features extracted by processing the traces in the process log. Our experimental results are promising in the direction of efficiently detecting and localizing concept drift in the context of process mining research discipline.

Keywords: abrupt drift, concept drift, sudden drift, control-flow perspective, detection and localization, process mining

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3309 A Study of Non Linear Partial Differential Equation with Random Initial Condition

Authors: Ayaz Ahmad


In this work, we present the effect of noise on the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) in three different setting. We shall first consider random initial condition for two nonlinear dispersive PDE the non linear Schrodinger equation and the Kortteweg –de vries equation and analyse their effect on some special solution , the soliton solutions.The second case considered a linear partial differential equation , the wave equation with random initial conditions allow to substantially decrease the computational and data storage costs of an algorithm to solve the inverse problem based on the boundary measurements of the solution of this equation. Finally, the third example considered is that of the linear transport equation with a singular drift term, when we shall show that the addition of a multiplicative noise term forbids the blow up of solutions under a very weak hypothesis for which we have finite time blow up of a solution in the deterministic case. Here we consider the problem of wave propagation, which is modelled by a nonlinear dispersive equation with noisy initial condition .As observed noise can also be introduced directly in the equations.

Keywords: drift term, finite time blow up, inverse problem, soliton solution

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3308 Estimation of Seismic Deformation Demands of Tall Buildings with Symmetric Setbacks

Authors: Amir Alirezaei, Shahram Vahdani


This study estimates the seismic demands of tall buildings with central symmetric setbacks by using nonlinear time history analysis. Three setback structures, all 60-story high with setback in three levels, are used for evaluation. The effects of irregularities occurred by setback, are evaluated by determination of global-drift, story-displacement and story drift. Story-displacement is modified by roof displacement and first story displacement and story drift is modified by global drift. All results are calculated at the center of mass and in x and y direction. Also the absolute values of these quantities are determined. The results show that increasing of vertical irregularities increases the global drift of the structure and enlarges the deformations in the height of the structure. It is also observed that the effects of geometry irregularity in the seismic deformations of setback structures are higher than those of mass irregularity.

Keywords: deformation demand, drift, setback, tall building

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3307 Estimation of Seismic Drift Demands for Inelastic Shear Frame Structures

Authors: Ali Etemadi, Polat H. Gulkan


The drift spectrum derived through the continuous shear-beam and wave propagation theory is known to be useful appliance to measure of the demand of pulse like near field ground motions on building structures. As regards, many of old frame buildings with poor or non-ductile column elements, pass the elastic limits and blurt the post yielding hysteresis degradation responses when subjected to such impulsive ground motions. The drift spectrum which, is based on a linear system cannot be predicted the overestimate drift demands arising from inelasticity in an elastic plastic systems. A simple procedure to estimate the drift demands in shear-type frames which, respond over the elastic limits is described and effect of hysteresis degradation behavior on seismic demands is clarified. Whereupon the modification factors are proposed to incorporate the hysteresis degradation effects parametrically. These factors are defined with respected to the linear systems. The method can be applicable for rapid assessment of existing poor detailed, non-ductile buildings.

Keywords: drift spectrum, shear-type frame, stiffness and strength degradation, pinching, smooth hysteretic model, quasi static analysis

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3306 Improved Non-Ideal Effects in AlGaN/GaN-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors

Authors: Wei-Chou Hsu, Ching-Sung Lee, Han-Yin Liu


This work uses H2O2 oxidation technique to improve the pH sensitivity of the AlGaN/GaN-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). 10-nm-thick Al2O3 was grown on the surface of the AlGaN. It was found that the pH sensitivity was improved from 41.6 mV/pH to 55.2 mV/pH. Since the H2O2-grown Al2O3 was served as a passivation layer and the problem of Fermi-level pinning was suppressed for the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process. Hysteresis effect in the ISFET with the H2O2 treatment also became insignificant. The hysteresis effect was observed by dipping the ISFETs into different pH value solutions and comparing the voltage difference between the initial and final conditions. The hysteresis voltage (Vhys) of the ISFET with the H2O2 oxidation process was improved from 8.7 mV to 4.8 mV. The hysteresis effect is related to the buried binding sites which are related to the material defects like threading dislocations in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure which was grown by the hetero-epitaxy technique. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 passivate these material defects and the Al2O3 has less material defects. The long-term stability of the ISFET is estimated by the drift effect measurement. The drift measurement was conducted by dipping the ISFETs into a specific pH value solution for 12 hours and the ISFETs were operating at a specific quiescent point. The drift rate is estimated by the drift voltage divided by the total measuring time. It was found that the drift rate of the ISFET was improved from 10.1 mV/hour to 1.91 mV/hour in the pH 7 solution, from 14.06 mV/hour to 6.38 mV/pH in the pH 2 solution, and from 12.8 mV/hour to 5.48 mV/hour in the pH 12 solution. The drift effect results from the capacitance variation in the electric double layer. The H2O2-grown Al2O3 provides an additional capacitance connection in series with the electric double layer. Therefore, the capacitance variation of the electric double layer became insignificant. Generally, the H2O2 oxidation process is a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for the AlGaN/GaN-based ISFET. Furthermore, the performance of the AlGaN/GaN ISFET was improved effectively and the non-ideal effects were suppressed.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN, Al2O3, hysteresis effect, drift effect, reliability, passivation, pH sensors

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3305 Adaptive Online Object Tracking via Positive and Negative Models Matching

Authors: Shaomei Li, Yawen Wang, Chao Gao


To improve tracking drift which often occurs in adaptive tracking, an algorithm based on the fusion of tracking and detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, object tracking is posed as a binary classification problem and is modeled by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Secondly, tracking object frame by frame via particle filtering. Thirdly, validating the tracking reliability based on both positive and negative models matching. Finally, relocating the object based on SIFT features matching and voting when drift occurs. Object appearance model is updated at the same time. The algorithm cannot only sense tracking drift but also relocate the object whenever needed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on many challenging sequences.

Keywords: object tracking, tracking drift, partial least squares analysis, positive and negative models matching

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3304 The Estimation Method of Inter-Story Drift for Buildings Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to reduce seismic damage. The inter-story drift ratio which is the major index of the seismic capacity assessment is employed for estimating the seismic damage of buildings. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the structural responses of building demands significantly high computational cost due to increasing number of high-rise and large buildings. To estimate the inter-story drift ratio of buildings from the earthquake efficiently, this paper suggests the estimation method of inter-story drift for buildings using an artificial neural network (ANN). In the method, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is integrated with optimization algorithm to optimize the variable through evolutionary learning that refers to evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN). The estimation method estimates the inter-story drift without seismic response analysis when the new earthquakes are subjected to buildings. The effectiveness of the estimation method is verified through a simulation using multi-degree of freedom system.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, inter-story drift ratio, artificial neural network, radial basis function neural network, genetic algorithm

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3303 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir


History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

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3302 Integrated Navigation System Using Simplified Kalman Filter Algorithm

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh


GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) have complementary qualities that make them ideal use for sensor fusion. The limitations of GPS include occasional high noise content, outages when satellite signals are blocked, interference and low bandwidth. The strengths of GPS include its long-term stability and its capacity to function as a stand-alone navigation system. In contrast, INS is not subject to interference or outages, have high bandwidth and good short-term noise characteristics, but have long-term drift errors and require external information for initialization. A combined system of GPS and INS subsystems can exhibit the robustness, higher bandwidth and better noise characteristics of the inertial system with the long-term stability of GPS. The most common estimation algorithm used in integrated INS/GPS is the Kalman Filter (KF). KF is able to take advantages of these characteristics to provide a common integrated navigation implementation with performance superior to that of either subsystem (GPS or INS). This paper presents a simplified KF algorithm for land vehicle navigation application. In this integration scheme, the GPS derived positions and velocities are used as the update measurements for the INS derived PVA. The KF error state vector in this case includes the navigation parameters as well as the accelerometer and gyroscope error states.

Keywords: GPS, INS, Kalman filter, inertial navigation system

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3301 Transport of Inertial Finite-Size Floating Plastic Pollution by Ocean Surface Waves

Authors: Ross Calvert, Colin Whittaker, Alison Raby, Alistair G. L. Borthwick, Ton S. van den Bremer


Large concentrations of plastic have polluted the seas in the last half century, with harmful effects on marine wildlife and potentially to human health. Plastic pollution will have lasting effects because it is expected to take hundreds or thousands of years for plastic to decay in the ocean. The question arises how waves transport plastic in the ocean. The predominant motion induced by waves creates ellipsoid orbits. However, these orbits do not close, resulting in a drift. This is defined as Stokes drift. If a particle is infinitesimally small and the same density as water, it will behave exactly as the water does, i.e., as a purely Lagrangian tracer. However, as the particle grows in size or changes density, it will behave differently. The particle will then have its own inertia, the fluid will exert drag on the particle, because there is relative velocity, and it will rise or sink depending on the density and whether it is on the free surface. Previously, plastic pollution has all been considered to be purely Lagrangian. However, the steepness of waves in the ocean is small, normally about α = k₀a = 0.1 (where k₀ is the wavenumber and a is the wave amplitude), this means that the mean drift flows are of the order of ten times smaller than the oscillatory velocities (Stokes drift is proportional to steepness squared, whilst the oscillatory velocities are proportional to the steepness). Thus, the particle motion must have the forces of the full motion, oscillatory and mean flow, as well as a dynamic buoyancy term to account for the free surface, to determine whether inertia is important. To track the motion of a floating inertial particle under wave action requires the fluid velocities, which form the forcing, and the full equations of motion of a particle to be solved. Starting with the equation of motion of a sphere in unsteady flow with viscous drag. Terms can added then be added to the equation of motion to better model floating plastic: a dynamic buoyancy to model a particle floating on the free surface, quadratic drag for larger particles and a slope sliding term. Using perturbation methods to order the equation of motion into sequentially solvable parts allows a parametric equation for the transport of inertial finite-sized floating particles to be derived. This parametric equation can then be validated using numerical simulations of the equation of motion and flume experiments. This paper presents a parametric equation for the transport of inertial floating finite-size particles by ocean waves. The equation shows an increase in Stokes drift for larger, less dense particles. The equation has been validated using numerical solutions of the equation of motion and laboratory flume experiments. The difference in the particle transport equation and a purely Lagrangian tracer is illustrated using worlds maps of the induced transport. This parametric transport equation would allow ocean-scale numerical models to include inertial effects of floating plastic when predicting or tracing the transport of pollutants.

Keywords: perturbation methods, plastic pollution transport, Stokes drift, wave flume experiments, wave-induced mean flow

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3300 Drift-Wave Turbulence in a Tokamak Edge Plasma

Authors: S. Belgherras Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, S. M. A. Bekkouche


Tokamak plasma is far from having a stable background. The study of turbulent transport is an important part of the current research and advanced scenarios were devised to minimize it. To do this, we used a three-wave interaction model which allows to investigate the occurrence drift-wave turbulence driven by pressure gradients in the edge plasma of a tokamak. In order to simulate the energy redistribution among different modes, the growth/decay rates for the three waves was added. After a numerical simulation, we can determine certain aspects of the temporal dynamics exhibited by the model. Indeed for a wide range of the wave decay rate, an intermittent transition from periodic behavior to chaos is observed. Then, a control strategy of chaos was introduced with the aim of reducing or eliminating the weak turbulence.

Keywords: wave interaction, plasma drift waves, wave turbulence, tokamak, edge plasma, chaos

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3299 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: ductility, equivalent viscous damping, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, stiffness

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3298 Development of a Non-Dispersive Infrared Multi Gas Analyzer for a TMS

Authors: T. V. Dinh, I. Y. Choi, J. W. Ahn, Y. H. Oh, G. Bo, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim


A Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) multi-gas analyzer has been developed to monitor the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from various industries. The NDIR technique for gas measurement is based on the wavelength absorption in the infrared spectrum as a way to detect particular gasses. NDIR analyzers have popularly applied in the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS). The advantage of the NDIR analyzer is low energy consumption and cost compared with other spectroscopy methods. However, zero/span drift and interference are its urgent issues to be solved. Multi-pathway technique based on optical White cell was employed to improve the sensitivity of the analyzer in this work. A pyroelectric detector was used to detect the Infrared radiation. The analytical range of the analyzer was 0 ~ 200 ppm. The instrument response time was < 2 min. The detection limits of CO and SO2 were < 4 ppm and < 6 ppm, respectively. The zero and span drift of 24 h was less than 3%. The linearity of the analyzer was less than 2.5% of reference values. The precision and accuracy of both CO and SO2 channels were < 2.5% of relative standard deviation. In general, the analyzer performed well. However, the detection limit and 24h drift should be improved to be a more competitive instrument.

Keywords: analyzer, CEMS, monitoring, NDIR, TMS

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3297 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language

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3296 An Assessment into the Drift in Direction of International Migration of Labor: Changing Aspirations for Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Rabia Zulfiqar


This paper attempts to trace the determining factor- as far as individual preferences and expectations are concerned- of what causes the direction of international migration to drift in certain ways owing to factors such as Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation. The narrative on migration has graduated from the age long ‘push/pull’ debate to that of complex factors that may vary across each individual. We explore the longstanding factor of religiosity widely acknowledged in mentioned literature as a key variable in the assessment of migration, wherein the impact of religiosity in the form of a drift into the intent of migration has been analyzed. A more conventional factor cultural assimilation is used in a contemporary way to estimate how it plays a role in affecting the drift in direction. In particular what our research aims at achieving is to isolate the effect our key variables: Cultural Assimilation and Religiosity have on direction of migration, and to explore how they interplay as a composite unit- and how we may be able to justify the change in behavior displayed by these key variables. In order to establish a true sense of what drives individual choices we employ the method of survey research and use a questionnaire to conduct primary research. The questionnaire was divided into six sections covering subjects including household characteristics, perceptions and inclinations of the respondents relevant to our study. Religiosity was quantified using a proxy of Migration Network that utilized secondary data to estimate religious hubs in recipient countries. To estimate the relationship between Intent of Migration and its variants three competing econometric models namely: the Ordered Probit Model, the Ordered Logit Model and the Tobit Model were employed. For every model that included our key variables, a highly significant relationship with the intent of migration was estimated.

Keywords: international migration, drift in direction, cultural assimilation, religiosity, ordered probit model

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3295 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri


The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: age, gender, short-term memory, working memory

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3294 Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on RDPSO and Crowding Distance Sorting

Authors: Yiqiong Yuan, Jun Sun, Dongmei Zhou, Jianan Sun


In this paper, we presented a Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MORDPSO-CD) based on RDPSO and crowding distance sorting to improve the convergence and distribution with less computation cost. MORDPSO-CD makes the most of RDPSO to approach the true Pareto optimal solutions fast. We adopt the crowding distance sorting technique to update and maintain the archived optimal solutions. Introducing the crowding distance technique into MORDPSO can make the leader particles find the true Pareto solution ultimately. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm has better convergence and distribution

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, random drift particle swarm optimization, crowding distance sorting, pareto optimal solution

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3293 Defining the Term of Strategy within Military Point of View

Authors: Ismail Menderes Sema, Murat Sözen, M. K. Barış


The strategy is about winning or preventing your enemy from winning. The origin of the term comes from the military. After utilizing the strategy for limited military purposes in early ages, soldiers and statesmen used the term together to achieve the goals of states. In ancient times, those people who made strategy and implemented it was the same. With the industrial revolution, the strategy changed like everything and the term “grand strategy” came forward. Today, from business to economy, management to philosophy there is a broad using of the term strategy. Economic strategy, business strategy, trade strategy, irrigation strategy, and even recruitment strategy are used by professionals. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the strategy and clarify actually what is about.

Keywords: strategy, military, art, grand strategy, strategist

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3292 Optimization of Temperature Coefficients for MEMS Based Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Jaspreet Singh, Manoj Wadhwa


Piezo-resistive pressure sensors were one of the first developed micromechanical system (MEMS) devices and still display a significant growth prompted by the advancements in micromachining techniques and material technology. In MEMS based piezo-resistive pressure sensors, temperature can be considered as the main environmental condition which affects the system performance. The study of the thermal behavior of these sensors is essential to define the parameters that cause the output characteristics to drift. In this work, a study on the effects of temperature and doping concentration in a boron implanted piezoresistor for a silicon-based pressure sensor is discussed. We have optimized the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and temperature coefficient of sensitivity (TCS) values to determine the effect of temperature drift on the sensor performance. To be more precise, in order to reduce the temperature drift, a high doping concentration is needed. And it is well known that the Wheatstone bridge in a pressure sensor is supplied with a constant voltage or a constant current input supply. With a constant voltage supply, the thermal drift can be compensated along with an external compensation circuit, whereas the thermal drift in the constant current supply can be directly compensated by the bridge itself. But it would be beneficial to also compensate the temperature coefficient of piezoresistors so as to further reduce the temperature drift. So, with a current supply, the TCS is dependent on both the TCπ and TCR. As TCπ is a negative quantity and TCR is a positive quantity, it is possible to choose an appropriate doping concentration at which both of them cancel each other. An exact cancellation of TCR and TCπ values is not readily attainable; therefore, an adjustable approach is generally used in practical applications. Thus, one goal of this work has been to better understand the origin of temperature drift in pressure sensor devices so that the temperature effects can be minimized or eliminated. This paper describes the optimum doping levels for the piezoresistors where the TCS of the pressure transducers will be zero due to the cancellation of TCR and TCπ values. Also, the fabrication and characterization of the pressure sensor are carried out. The optimized TCR value obtained for the fabricated die is 2300 ± 100ppm/ᵒC, for which the piezoresistors are implanted at a doping concentration of 5E13 ions/cm³ and the TCS value of -2100ppm/ᵒC is achieved. Therefore, the desired TCR and TCS value is achieved, which are approximately equal to each other, so the thermal effects are considerably reduced. Finally, we have calculated the effect of temperature and doping concentration on the output characteristics of the sensor. This study allows us to predict the sensor behavior against temperature and to minimize this effect by optimizing the doping concentration.

Keywords: piezo-resistive, pressure sensor, doping concentration, TCR, TCS

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3291 Development of Precise Ephemeris Generation Module for Thaichote Satellite Operations

Authors: Manop Aorpimai, Ponthep Navakitkanok


In this paper, the development of the ephemeris generation module used for the Thaichote satellite operations is presented. It is a vital part of the flight dynamics system, which comprises, the orbit determination, orbit propagation, event prediction and station-keeping maneuver modules. In the generation of the spacecraft ephemeris data, the estimated orbital state vector from the orbit determination module is used as an initial condition. The equations of motion are then integrated forward in time to predict the satellite states. The higher geopotential harmonics, as well as other disturbing forces, are taken into account to resemble the environment in low-earth orbit. Using a highly accurate numerical integrator based on the Burlish-Stoer algorithm the ephemeris data can be generated for long-term predictions, by using a relatively small computation burden and short calculation time. Some events occurring during the prediction course that are related to the mission operations, such as the satellite’s rise/set viewed from the ground station, Earth and Moon eclipses, the drift in ground track as well as the drift in the local solar time of the orbital plane are all detected and reported. When combined with other modules to form a flight dynamics system, this application is aimed to be applied for the Thaichote satellite and successive Thailand’s Earth-observation missions.

Keywords: flight dynamics system, orbit propagation, satellite ephemeris, Thailand’s Earth Observation Satellite

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3290 High Frequency Memristor-Based BFSK and 8QAM Demodulators

Authors: Nahla Elazab, Mohamed Aboudina, Ghada Ibrahim, Hossam Fahmy, Ahmed Khalil


This paper presents the developed memristor based demodulators for eight circular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) operating at relatively high frequency. In our implementations, the experimental-based ‘nonlinear’ dopant drift model is adopted along with the proposed circuits providing incorporation of all known non-idealities of practically realized memristor and gaining high operation frequency. The suggested designs leverage the distinctive characteristics of the memristor device, definitely, its changeable average memristance versus the frequency, phase and amplitude of the periodic excitation input. The proposed demodulators feature small integration area, low power consumption, and easy implementation. Moreover, the proposed QAM demodulator precludes the requirement for the carrier recovery circuits. In doing so, the designs were validated by transient simulations using the nonlinear dopant drift memristor model. The simulations results show high agreement with the theory presented.

Keywords: BFSK, demodulator, high frequency memristor applications, memristor based analog circuits, nonlinear dopant drift model, QAM

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3289 The Term Spread Impact on Economic Activity for Transition Economies: Case of Georgia

Authors: L. Totladze


The role of financial sector in supporting economic growth and development is well acknowledged. The term spread (the difference between the yields on long-term and short-term Treasury securities) has been found useful for predicting economic variables as output growth, inflation, industrial production, consumption. The temp spread is one of the leading economic indicators according to NBER methodology. Leading economic indicators are widely used in forecasting of economic activity. Many empirical studies find that the term spread predicts future economic activity. The article shortly explains how the term spread might predict future economic activity. This paper analyses the dynamics of the spread between short and long-term interest rates in countries with transition economies. The research paper analyses term spread dynamics in Georgia and compare it with post-communist countries and transition economies spread dynamics. In Georgia, the banking sector plays an important and dominant role in the financial sector, especially with respect to the mobilization of savings and provision of credit and may impact on economic activity. For this purpose, we study the impact of the term spread on economic growth in Georgia.

Keywords: forecasting, leading economic indicators, term spread, transition economies

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3288 Development and Adaptation of a LGBM Machine Learning Model, with a Suitable Concept Drift Detection and Adaptation Technique, for Barcelona Household Electric Load Forecasting During Covid-19 Pandemic Periods (Pre-Pandemic and Strict Lockdown)

Authors: Eric Pla Erra, Mariana Jimenez Martinez


While aggregated loads at a community level tend to be easier to predict, individual household load forecasting present more challenges with higher volatility and uncertainty. Furthermore, the drastic changes that our behavior patterns have suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic have modified our daily electrical consumption curves and, therefore, further complicated the forecasting methods used to predict short-term electric load. Load forecasting is vital for the smooth and optimized planning and operation of our electric grids, but it also plays a crucial role for individual domestic consumers that rely on a HEMS (Home Energy Management Systems) to optimize their energy usage through self-generation, storage, or smart appliances management. An accurate forecasting leads to higher energy savings and overall energy efficiency of the household when paired with a proper HEMS. In order to study how COVID-19 has affected the accuracy of forecasting methods, an evaluation of the performance of a state-of-the-art LGBM (Light Gradient Boosting Model) will be conducted during the transition between pre-pandemic and lockdowns periods, considering day-ahead electric load forecasting. LGBM improves the capabilities of standard Decision Tree models in both speed and reduction of memory consumption, but it still offers a high accuracy. Even though LGBM has complex non-linear modelling capabilities, it has proven to be a competitive method under challenging forecasting scenarios such as short series, heterogeneous series, or data patterns with minimal prior knowledge. An adaptation of the LGBM model – called “resilient LGBM” – will be also tested, incorporating a concept drift detection technique for time series analysis, with the purpose to evaluate its capabilities to improve the model’s accuracy during extreme events such as COVID-19 lockdowns. The results for the LGBM and resilient LGBM will be compared using standard RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error) as the main performance metric. The models’ performance will be evaluated over a set of real households’ hourly electricity consumption data measured before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. All households are located in the city of Barcelona, Spain, and present different consumption profiles. This study is carried out under the ComMit-20 project, financed by AGAUR (Agència de Gestiód’AjutsUniversitaris), which aims to determine the short and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on building energy consumption, incrementing the resilience of electrical systems through the use of tools such as HEMS and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: concept drift, forecasting, home energy management system (HEMS), light gradient boosting model (LGBM)

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3287 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

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3286 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar


In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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3285 A Case Study on the Collapse Assessment of the Steel Moment-Frame Setback High-Rise Tower

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Rasoul Mirghaderi


This paper describes collapse assessments of a steel moment-frame high-rise tower with setback irregularity, designed per the 2010 ASCE7 code, under spectral-matched ground motion records. To estimate a safety margin against life-threatening collapse, an analytical model of the tower is subjected to a suite of ground motions with incremental intensities from maximum considered earthquake hazard level to the incipient collapse level. Capability of the structural system to collapse prevention is evaluated based on the similar methodology reported in FEMA P695. Structural performance parameters in terms of maximum/mean inter-story drift ratios, residual drift ratios, and maximum plastic hinge rotations are also compared to the acceptance criteria recommended by the TBI Guidelines. The results demonstrate that the structural system satisfactorily safeguards the building against collapse. Moreover, for this tower, the code-specified requirements in ASCE7-10 are reasonably adequate to satisfy seismic performance criteria developed in the TBI Guidelines for the maximum considered earthquake hazard level.

Keywords: high-rise buildings, set back, residual drift, seismic performance

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3284 1/Sigma Term Weighting Scheme for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Hanan Alshaher, Jinsheng Xu


Large amounts of data on the web can provide valuable information. For example, product reviews help business owners measure customer satisfaction. Sentiment analysis classifies texts into two polarities: positive and negative. This paper examines movie reviews and tweets using a new term weighting scheme, called one-over-sigma (1/sigma), on benchmark datasets for sentiment classification. The proposed method aims to improve the performance of sentiment classification. The results show that 1/sigma is more accurate than the popular term weighting schemes. In order to verify if the entropy reflects the discriminating power of terms, we report a comparison of entropy values for different term weighting schemes.

Keywords: 1/sigma, natural language processing, sentiment analysis, term weighting scheme, text classification

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3283 Exploring Long-Term Care Support Networks and Social Capital for Family Caregivers

Authors: Liu Yi-Hui, Chiu Fan-Yun, Lin Yu Fang, Jhang Yu Cih, He You Jing


The demand for care support has been rising with the aging of society and the advancement of medical science and technology. To meet rising demand, the Taiwanese government promoted the “Long Term Care Ten-Year Plan 2.0” in 2017. However, this policy and its related services failed to be fully implemented because of the ignorance of the public, and their lack of desire, fear, or discomfort in using them, which is a major obstacle to the promotion of long-term care services. Given the above context, this research objectives included the following: (1) to understand the current situation and predicament of family caregivers; (2) to reveal the actual use and assistance of government’s long-term care resources for family caregivers; and (3) to explore the support and impact of social capital on family caregivers. A semi-structured in-depth interview with five family caregivers to understand long-term care networks and social capital for family caregivers.

Keywords: family caregivers, long-term care, social capital

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