Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16822

Search results for: environmental performance assessment

16822 Green Supply Chain Management and Corporate Performance: The Mediation Mechanism of Information Sharing among Firms

Authors: Seigo Matsuno, Yasuo Uchida, Shozo Tokinaga

Abstract:

This paper proposes and empirically tests a model of the relationships between green supply chain management (GSCM) activities and corporate performance. From the literature review, we identified five constructs, namely, environmental commitment, supplier collaboration, supplier assessment, information sharing among suppliers, and business process improvement. These explanatory variables are used to form a structural model explaining the environmental and economic performance. The model was analyzed using the data from a survey of a sample of manufacturing firms in Japan. The results suggest that the degree of supplier collaboration has an influence on the environmental performance directly. While, the impact of supplier assessment on the environmental performance is mediated by the information sharing and/or business process improvement. And the environmental performance has a positive relationship on the economic performance. Academic and managerial implications of our findings are discussed.

Keywords: corporate performance, empirical study, green supply chain management, path modeling

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16821 Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Binita Shah, Seema Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, ecological footprint, measuring sustainability, India

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16820 A Fuzzy Structural Equation Model for Development of a Safety Performance Index Assessment Tool in Construction Sites

Authors: Murat Gunduz, Mustafa Ozdemir

Abstract:

In this research, a framework is to be proposed to model the safety performance in construction sites. Determinants of safety performance are to be defined through extensive literature review and a multidimensional safety performance model is to be developed. In this context, a questionnaire is to be administered to construction companies with sites. The collected data through questionnaires including linguistic terms are then to be defuzzified to get concrete numbers by using fuzzy set theory which provides strong and significant instruments for the measurement of ambiguities and provides the opportunity to meaningfully represent concepts expressed in the natural language. The validity of the proposed safety performance model, relationships between determinants of safety performance are to be analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) which is a highly strong multi variable analysis technique that makes possible the evaluation of latent structures. After validation of the model, a safety performance index assessment tool is to be proposed by the help of software. The proposed safety performance assessment tool will be based on the empirically validated theoretical model.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, safety performance assessment, safety index, structural equation modeling (SEM), construction sites

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16819 Relation between Organizational Climate and Personnel Performance Assessment in a Tourist Service Company

Authors: Daniel A. Montoya, Marta L. Tostes

Abstract:

This investigation aims at analyzing and determining the relation between two very important variables in the human resource management: The organizational climate and the performance assessment. This study aims at contributing with knowledge in the search of the relation between the mentioned variables because the literature still does not provide solid evidence to this respect and the cases revised are incipient to reach conclusions enabling a typology about this relation.To this regard, a correlational and cross-sectional perspective was adopted in which quantitative and qualitative techniques were chosen with the total of the workers of the tourist service company PTS Peru. In order to measure the organizational climate, the OCQ (Organization Climate Questionnaire) from was used; it has 50 items and measures 9 dimensions of the Organizational Climate. Also, to assess performance, a questionnaire with 21 items and 6 dimensions was designed. As a means of assessment, a focus group was prepared and was applied to a worker in every area of the company. Additionally, interviews to human resources experts were conducted. The results of the investigation show a clear relation between the organizational climate and the personnel performance assessment as well as a relation between the nine dimensions of the organizational climate and the work performance in general and with some of its dimensions.

Keywords: job performance, job satisfaction, organization climate, performance assessment

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16818 Lean Impact Analysis Assessment Models: Development of a Lean Measurement Structural Model

Authors: Catherine Maware, Olufemi Adetunji

Abstract:

The paper is aimed at developing a model to measure the impact of Lean manufacturing deployment on organizational performance. The model will help industry practitioners to assess the impact of implementing Lean constructs on organizational performance. It will also harmonize the measurement models of Lean performance with the house of Lean that seems to have become the industry standard. The sheer number of measurement models for impact assessment of Lean implementation makes it difficult for new adopters to select an appropriate assessment model or deployment methodology. A literature review is conducted to classify the Lean performance model. Pareto analysis is used to select the Lean constructs for the development of the model. The model is further formalized through the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in defining the underlying latent structure of a Lean system. An impact assessment measurement model developed can be used to measure Lean performance and can be adopted by different industries.

Keywords: impact measurement model, lean bundles, lean manufacturing, organizational performance

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16817 Sustainable Maintenance Model for Infrastructure in Egypt

Authors: S. Hasan, I. Beshara

Abstract:

Infrastructure maintenance is a great challenge facing sustainable development of infrastructure assets due to the high cost of passive implementation of a sustainable maintenance plan. An assessment model of sustainable maintenance for highway infrastructure projects in Egypt is developed in this paper. It helps in improving the implementation of sustainable maintenance criteria. Thus, this paper has applied the analytical hierarchy processes (AHP) to rank and explore the weight of 26 assessment indicators using three hierarchy levels containing the main sustainable categories and subcategories with related indicators. Overall combined weight of each indicator for sustainable maintenance evaluation has been calculated to sum up to a sustainable maintenance performance index (SMI). The results show that the factor "Preventive maintenance cost" has the highest relative contribution factor among others (13.5%), while two factors of environmental performance have the least weights (0.7%). The developed model aims to provide decision makers with information about current maintenance performance and support them in the decision-making process regarding future directions of maintenance activities. It can be used as an assessment performance tool during the operation and maintenance stage. The developed indicators can be considered during designing the maintenance plan. Practices for successful implementation of the model are also presented.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, assessment performance Model, KPIs for sustainable maintenance, sustainable maintenance index

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16816 Sustainable Landscape Development Assessment Tools

Authors: Nur Azemah Aminludin, Osman Mohd Tahir

Abstract:

A dynamic landscape development is important for providing healthy ecosystem which supports all life. Nowadays, many initiatives towards sustainable development have been published. They lead to better living and more efficient use of natural resources in sustaining long-term ecological, economics and social benefits. To date, many assessment tools related to built environment have been established and practiced in this region, which mostly has the purpose assessing the environment performance of buildings. Hence, an assessment tool focusing on the sustainable landscape development itself is a necessity. This paper reviews the assessment criteria and indicators that are suitable for sustainable landscape development practices. The local and global assessment tools for landscape development are investigated, analyzed and discussed critically. Consideration also is given to the integration of the assessment tools with the surrounding environmental, social, and economical aspects. In addition, the assessment criteria and indicators for assessing the landscape development in Malaysia are also reviewed and discussed. In conclusion, this paper reviews, analyzes and discusses on available local and global landscape development assessment tools for sustainability.

Keywords: assessment tool, sustainable landscape development, assessment criteria, assessment indicator

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16815 Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol from Feedstocks in Thailand

Authors: Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

An analysis of mass balance, energy performance, and environmental impact assessment were performed to evaluate bioethanol production in Thailand. Thailand is an agricultural country. Thai government plans to increase the use of alternative energy to 20 percent by 2022. One of the primary campaigns is to promote a bioethanol production from abundant biomass resources such as bitter cassava, molasses and sugarcane. The bioethanol production is composed of three stages: cultivation, pretreatment, and bioethanol conversion. All of mass, material, fuel, and energy were calculated to determine the environmental impact of three types of bioethanol production: bioethanol production from cassava (CBP), bioethanol production from molasses (MBP), and bioethanol production from rice straw (RBP). The results showed that bioethanol production from cassava has the best environmental performance. CBP contributes less impact when compared to the other processes.

Keywords: bioethanol production, biofuel, LCA, chemical engineering

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16814 A Literature Review on Sustainability Appraisal Methods for Highway Infrastructure Projects

Authors: S. Kaira, S. Mohamed, A. Rahman

Abstract:

Traditionally, highway infrastructure projects are initiated based on their economic benefits, thereafter environmental, social and governance impacts are addressed discretely for the selected project from a set of pre-determined alternatives. When opting for cost-benefit analysis (CBA), multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been used as the default assessment tool. But this tool has been critiqued as it does not mimic the real-world dynamic environment. Indeed, it is because of the fact that public sector projects like highways have to experience intense exposure to dynamic environments. Therefore, it is essential to appreciate the impacts of various dynamic factors (factors that change or progress with the system) on project performance. Thus, this paper presents various sustainability assessment tools that have been globally developed to determine sustainability performance of infrastructure projects during the design, procurement and commissioning phase. Indeed, identification of the current gaps in the available assessment methods provides a potential to add prominent part of knowledge in the field of ‘road project development systems and procedures’ that are generally used by road agencies.

Keywords: dynamic impact factors, micro and macro factors, sustainability assessment framework, sustainability performance

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16813 Life Cycle Assessment-Based Environmental Assessment of the Production and Maintenance of Wooden Windows

Authors: Pamela Del Rosario, Elisabetta Palumbo, Marzia Traverso

Abstract:

The building sector plays an important role in addressing pressing environmental issues such as climate change and resource scarcity. The energy performance of buildings is considerably affected by the external envelope. In fact, a considerable proportion of the building energy demand is due to energy losses through the windows. Nevertheless, according to literature, to pay attention only to the contribution of windows to the building energy performance, i.e., their influence on energy use during building operation, could result in a partial evaluation. Hence, it is important to consider not only the building energy performance but also the environmental performance of windows, and this not only during the operational stage but along its complete life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006+A1:2018 is one of the most adopted and robust methods to evaluate the environmental performance of products throughout their complete life cycle. This life-cycle based approach avoids the shift of environmental impacts of a life cycle stage to another, allowing to allocate them to the stage in which they originated and to adopt measures that optimize the environmental performance of the product. Moreover, the LCA method is widely implemented in the construction sector to assess whole buildings as well as construction products and materials. LCA is regulated by the European Standards EN 15978:2011, at the building level, and EN 15804:2012+A2:2019, at the level of construction products and materials. In this work, the environmental performance of wooden windows was assessed by implementing the LCA method and adopting primary data. More specifically, the emphasis is given to embedded and operational impacts. Furthermore, correlations are made between these environmental impacts and aspects such as type of wood and window transmittance. In the particular case of the operational impacts, special attention is set on the definition of suitable maintenance scenarios that consider the potential climate influence on the environmental impacts. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted, and expert consultation was carried out. The study underlined the variability of the embedded environmental impacts of wooden windows by considering different wood types and transmittance values. The results also highlighted the need to define appropriate maintenance scenarios for precise assessment results. It was found that both the service life and the window maintenance requirements in terms of treatment and its frequency are highly dependent not only on the wood type and its treatment during the manufacturing process but also on the weather conditions of the place where the window is installed. In particular, it became evident that maintenance-related environmental impacts were the highest for climate regions with the lowest temperatures and the greatest amount of precipitation.

Keywords: embedded impacts, environmental performance, life cycle assessment, LCA, maintenance stage, operational impacts, wooden windows

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16812 A Proposal for Developing a Post Occupancy Evaluation Sustainability Assessment Tool for Refurbished Historic Government Buildings

Authors: Hasnizan Aksah, Adi Irfan Che Ani

Abstract:

Refurbished historic government buildings should perform as intended to support the organization’s goals that enhance occupant satisfaction. However, these buildings may have issues associated with functional performance evaluation. The aim of this study is to develop a Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) sustainability assessment tool for functional performance evaluation of refurbished historic government buildings. Developing an assessment tool requires a strategic methodology for a logical and cohesive tool that incorporating relevant theories and practical experiences. In this study, mixed method approaches use to collect all necessary data to achieve the objectives of this study. The design of sampling involves are interviews and survey questionnaires to relevant professionals in order to evaluate the criteria and problem encircled in functional performance evaluation. Then, the involvement of expert panels is required in establishing the assessment tool. During the process of investigation on the functional performance criteria, it was discovered that is seen to be critical in aspects of comfort, safety, and services. The proposed assessment tool has a significant role in providing opportunities for the improvement of building performance especially on functional performance for the future historic government building refurbishment project. It is hoped that the tool developed from this study will give benefits to related professionals, public agencies, local municipality, and relevant interested parties in historic building management.

Keywords: refurbished historic government buildings, functional performance, Post Occupancy Evaluation, sustainability

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16811 Serious Game as a Performance Assessment Tool that Reduces Examination Anxiety

Authors: R. Ajith, Kamal Bijlani

Abstract:

Over the past few years, tremendous evolutions have happened in the educational discipline. Serious game, which is regarded as one of the most important inventions is being widely for learning purposes. Serious games can be used to negate the various drawbacks that the current evaluation and assessment methods have, like examination anxiety and the lack of proper feedback given to the learners. This paper proposes serious game as a tool for conducting evaluations and assessments. The examination anxiety faced by learners can be reduced, as they are provided with a game as an examination. The serious game also tracks learner’s actions, records them and provide feedback based on the predefined set of actions according to the course objectives. The appropriate feedback given to the learner will help in developmental activities in the learning process.

Keywords: serious games, evaluation, performance assessment, examination anxiety, performance feedback

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16810 A Case Study on Post-Occupancy Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Higher Educational Buildings

Authors: Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang, Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang

Abstract:

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a systematic approach to assess the actual building performance after the building has been occupied for some time. In this paper, a structured POE assessment was conducted using the building use survey (BUS) methodology in two higher educational buildings in the United Kingdom. This study aims to help close the building performance gap, provide optimized building operation suggestions, and to improve occupants’ satisfaction level. In this research, the questionnaire survey investigated the influences of environmental factors on user satisfaction from the main aspects of building overall design, thermal comfort, perceived control, indoor environment quality for noise, lighting, ventilation, and other non-environmental factors, such as the background information about age, sex, time in buildings, workgroup size, and so on. The results indicate that the occupant satisfaction level with the main aspects of building overall design, indoor environment quality, and thermal comfort in summer and winter on both two buildings, which is lower than the benchmark data. The feedback of this POE assessment has been reported to the building management team to allow managers to develop high-performance building operation plans. Finally, this research provided improvement suggestions to the building operation system to narrow down the performance gap and improve the user work experience satisfaction and productivity level.

Keywords: building performance assessment systems, higher educational buildings, post-occupancy evaluation, user satisfaction

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16809 Student Performance and Confidence Analysis on Education Virtual Environments through Different Assessment Strategies

Authors: Rubén Manrique, Delio Balcázar, José Parrado, Sebastián Rodríguez

Abstract:

Hand in hand with the evolution of technology, education systems have moved to virtual environments to provide increased coverage and facilitate the access to education. However, measuring student performance in virtual environments presents significant challenges to ensure students are acquiring the expected skills. In this study, the confidence and performance of engineering students in virtual environments is analyzed through different evaluation strategies. The effect of the assessment strategy in student confidence is identified using educational data mining techniques. Four assessment strategies were used. First, a conventional multiple choice test; second, a multiple choice test with feedback; third, a multiple choice test with a second chance; and fourth; a multiple choice test with feedback and second chance. Our results show that applying testing with online feedback strategies can influence positively student confidence.

Keywords: assessment strategies, educational data mining, student performance, student confidence

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16808 An Empirical Study of Performance Management System: Implementation of Performance Management Cycle to Achieve High-Performance Culture at Pertamina Company, Indonesia

Authors: Arif Budiman

Abstract:

Any organization or company that wishes to achieve vision, mission, and goals of the organization is required to implement a performance management system or known as the Performance Management System (PMS) in every part of the whole organization. PMS is a tool to help visualize the direction and work program of the organization to achieve the goal. The challenge is PMS should not stop merely as a visualization tool to achieve the vision and mission of the organization, but PMS should also be able to create a high-performance culture that is inherent in each individual of the organization. Establishment of a culture within an organization requires the support of top leaders and also requires a system or governance that encourages every individual in the organization to be involved in any work program of the organization. Keywords of creating a high-performance culture are the formation of communication pattern involving the whole individual, either vertically or horizontally, and performed consistently and persistently by all individuals in each line of the organization. PT Pertamina (Persero) as the state-owned national energy company holds a system to internalize the culture of high performance through a system called Performance Management System Cycle (PMS Cycle). This system has 7 stages of the cycle, those are: (1) defining vision, mission and strategic plan of the company, (2) defining key performance indicator of each line and the individual (‘expectation setting conversation’), (3) defining performance target and performance agreement, (4) monitoring performance on a monthly regular basis (‘pulse check’), (5) implementing performance dialogue between leaders and staffs periodically every 3 months (‘performance dialogue’), (6) defining rewards and consequences based on the achievement of the performance of each line and the individual, and (7) calculating the final performance value achieved by each line and individual from one period of the current year. Perform PMS is a continual communication running throughout the year, that is why any three performance discussion that should be performed, include expectation setting conversations, pulse check and performance dialogue. In addition, another significant point and necessary undertaken to complete the assessment of individual performance assessment is soft competencies through 360-degree assessment by leaders, staffs, and peers.

Keywords: 360-degree assessment, expectation setting conversation, performance management system cycle, performance dialogue, pulse check

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16807 A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Approach for Assessing the Sustainability Index of Building Façades

Authors: Golshid Gilani, Albert De La Fuente, Ana Blanco

Abstract:

Sustainability assessment of new and existing buildings has generated a growing interest due to the evident environmental, social and economic impacts during their construction and service life. Façades, as one of the most important exterior elements of a building, may contribute to the building sustainability by reducing the amount of energy consumption and providing thermal comfort for the inhabitants, thus minimizing the environmental impact on both the building and on the environment. Various methods have been used for the sustainability assessment of buildings due to the importance of this issue. However, most of the existing methods mainly concentrate on environmental and economic aspects, disregarding the third pillar of sustainability, which is the social aspect. Besides, there is a little focus on comprehensive sustainability assessment of facades, as an important element of a building. This confirms the need of developing methods for assessing the sustainable performance of building façades as an important step in achieving building sustainability. In this respect, this paper aims at presenting a model for assessing the global sustainability of façade systems. for that purpose, the Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES), a Multi-Criteria Decision Making model that integrates the main sustainability requirements (economic, environmental and social) and includes the concept of value functions, used as an assessment tool.

Keywords: façade, MCDM, MIVES, sustainability

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16806 Concept-Based Assessment in Curriculum

Authors: Nandu C. Nair, Kamal Bijlani

Abstract:

This paper proposes a concept-based assessment to track the performance of the students. The idea behind this approach is to map the exam questions with the concepts learned in the course. So at the end of the course, each student will know how well he learned each concept. This system will give a self assessment for the students as well as instructor. By analyzing the score of all students, instructor can decide some concepts need to be teaching again or not. The system’s efficiency is proved using three courses from M-tech program in E-Learning technologies and results show that the concept-wise assessment improved the score in final exam of majority students on various courses.

Keywords: assessment, concept, examination, question, score

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16805 The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance

Authors: Hossein Emari, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Hashem Nikoo Maram

Abstract:

This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, social responsibility, green intellectual capital, financial performance

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16804 Dental Students’ Self-Assessment of Their Performance in a Preclinical Endodontic Practice

Authors: Minseock Seo

Abstract:

Dental education consists of both theoretical and practical learning for students. When dental students encounter practical courses as a new educational experience, they must also learn to evaluate themselves. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-assessment scores of third-year dental students and compare with the scores graded by the faculty in preclinical endodontic practice in a dental school in Korea. Faculty- and student-assigned scores were calculated from preclinical endodontic practice performed on phantom patients. The students were formally instructed on grading procedures for endodontic treatment. After each step, each item was assessed by the student. The students’ self-assessment score was then compared to the score by the faculty. The students were divided into 4 groups by analyzing the scores of self-assessment and faculty-assessment and statistically analyzed by summing the theoretical and practical examination scores. In the theoretical exam score, the group who over-estimated their performance (H group) was lower than the group with lower evaluation (L group). When comparing the first and last score determined by the faculty, H groups didn’t show any improvement, while the other group did. In H group, the less improvement of the self-assessment, the higher the theoretical exam score. In L group, the higher improvement of the self-assessment, the better the theoretical exam score. The results point to the need to develop students’ self-insight with more exercises and practical training.

Keywords: dental students, endodontic, preclinical practice, self-assessment

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16803 Risk Tolerance and Individual Worthiness Based on Simultaneous Analysis of the Cognitive Performance and Emotional Response to a Multivariate Situational Risk Assessment

Authors: Frederic Jumelle, Kelvin So, Didan Deng

Abstract:

A method and system for neuropsychological performance test, comprising a mobile terminal, used to interact with a cloud server which stores user information and is logged into by the user through the terminal device; the user information is directly accessed through the terminal device and is processed by artificial neural network, and the user information comprises user facial emotions information, performance test answers information and user chronometrics. This assessment is used to evaluate the cognitive performance and emotional response of the subject to a series of dichotomous questions describing various situations of daily life and challenging the users' knowledge, values, ethics, and principles. In industrial applications, the timing of this assessment will depend on the users' need to obtain a service from a provider, such as opening a bank account, getting a mortgage or an insurance policy, authenticating clearance at work, or securing online payments.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neurofinance, neuropsychology, risk management

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16802 Performance of the Kindergarten Teachers and Its Relation to Pupils Achievement in Different Learning Areas

Authors: Mary Luna Mancao Ninal

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers and its relation to pupils’ achievement in different learning areas in the Division of Kabankalan City. Using the standardized assessment and evaluation of the Department of Education secondary data, 100 kinder teachers and 2901 kinder pupils were investigated to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers based on their Competency–Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers and the periodic assessment of kinder pupils collected as secondary data. Weighted mean, Pearson–r, chi-square, Analysis of Variance were used in the study. Findings revealed that the kindergarten teacher respondents were 26-31 years old and most of them were female and married; they spent teaching for two years and less and passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers. They were very satisfactory as to instructional competences, school, and home and community involvement, personal, social, and professional characteristics. It also revealed that performance of the kindergarten pupils on their period of assessment shows that they were slightly advanced in their development. It also shows that domain as to performance of the kindergarten pupils were average overall development. Based on the results, it is recommended that Kindergarten teacher must augment their educational qualification and pursue their graduate studies and must develop the total personality of the children for them to achieve high advanced development to become productive individual.

Keywords: performance, kindergarten teacher, learning areas, professional, pupil

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16801 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Roofing System for Abu Dhabi

Authors: Iyasu Eibedingil

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the major factors responsible for causing a negative impact on the environment. It has the largest share in the use of natural resources including land use, material extraction, and greenhouse gases emissions. For this reason, it is imperative to reduce its environmental impact through the construction of sustainable buildings with less impact. These days, it is possible to measure the environmental impact by using different tools such as the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Given this premise, this study explored the environmental impact of two types of roofing systems through comparative life cycle assessment approach. The tiles were analyzed to select the most environmentally friendly roofing system for the villa at Khalifa City A, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. These products are available in various forms; however, in this study concrete roof tiles and clay roof tiles were considered. The results showed that concrete roof tiles have lower environmental impact. In all scenarios considered, manufacturing the roof tiles locally, using recovered fuels for firing clay tiles, and using renewable energy (electricity from PV plant) showed that the concrete roof tiles were found to be excellent in terms of its embodied carbon, embodied the energy and various other environmental performance indicators.

Keywords: clay roof tile, concrete roof tile, life cycle assessment, sensitivity analysis

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16800 Environmental Assessment of Roll-to-Roll Printed Smart Label

Authors: M. Torres, A. Moulay, M. Zhuldybina, M. Rozel, N. D. Trinh, C. Bois

Abstract:

Printed electronics are a fast-growing market as their applications cover a large range of industrial needs, their production cost is low, and the additive printing techniques consume less materials than subtractive manufacturing methods used in traditional electronics. With the growing demand for printed electronics, there are concerns about their harmful and irreversible contribution to the environment. Indeed, it is estimated that 80% of the environmental load of a product is determined by the choices made at the conception stage. Therefore, examination through a life cycle approach at the developing stage of a novel product is the best way to identify potential environmental issues and make proactive decisions. Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a comprehensive scientific method to assess the environmental impacts of a product in its different stages of life: extraction of raw materials, manufacture and distribution, use, and end-of-life. Impacts and major hotspots are identified and evaluated through a broad range of environmental impact categories of the ReCiPe (H) middle point method. At the conception stage, the LCA is a tool that provides an environmental point of view on the choice of materials and processes and weights-in on the balance between performance materials and eco-friendly materials. Using the life cycle approach, the current work aims to provide a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of a roll-to-roll hybrid printed smart label designed for the food cold chain. Furthermore, this presentation will present the environmental impact of metallic conductive inks, a comparison with promising conductive polymers, evaluation of energy vs. performance of industrial printing processes, a full assessment of the impact from the smart label applied on a cellulosic-based substrate during the recycling process and the possible recovery of precious metals and rare earth elements.

Keywords: Eco-design, label, life cycle assessment, printed electronics

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16799 Reviewing Performance Assessment Frameworks for Urban Sanitation Services in India

Authors: Gaurav Vaidya, N. R. Mandal

Abstract:

UN Summit, 2000 had resolved to provide access to sanitation to whole humanity as part of ‘Millennium Development Goals -2015’. However, more than one third of world’s population still did not have the access to basic sanitation facilities by 2015. Therefore, it will be a gigantic challenge to achieve goal-6 of ‘UN Sustainable Development Goal’ to ensure availability and sustainable management of sanitation for all by the year 2030. Countries attempt to find out own ways of meeting this challenge of providing access to safe sanitation and as part of monitoring the actions have prepared varied types of ‘performance assessment frameworks (PAF)’. India introduced Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) in 2010 to set targets and achieve the goals of NUSP. Further, a method of reviewing performance was introduced as ‘Swachh Sarvekshan’ (Cleanliness Surveys) in 2016 and in 2017 guidelines for the same was revised. This study, as a first step, reviews the documents in use in India with a conclusion that the frameworks adopted are based on target setting, financial allocation and performance in achieving the targets set. However, it does not focus upon sanitation needs holistically i.e., areas and aspects not targeted through projects are not covered in the performance assessment. In this context, as a second step, this study reviews literature available on performance assessment frameworks for urban sanitation in selected other countries and compares the same with that in India. The outcome of the comparative review resulted in identification of unaddressed aspects as well as inadequacy of parameters in Indian context. Thirdly, in an attempt to restructure the performance assessment process and develop an index in urban sanitation, researches done in other urban services such as health and education were studied focusing on methods of measuring under-performance. As a fourth step, a tentative modified framework is suggested with the help of understanding drawn from above for urban sanitation using stages of Urban Sanitation Service Chain Management (SSCM) and modified set of parameters drawn from the literature review in the first and second steps. This paper reviews existing literature on SSCM procedures, Performance Index in sanitation and other urban services and identifies a tentative list of parameters and a framework for measuring under-performance in sanitation services. This may aid in preparation of a Service Delivery Under-performance Index (SDUI) in future.

Keywords: assessment, performance, sanitation, services

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16798 Seismic Performance Assessment of Pre-70 RC Frame Buildings with FEMA P-58

Authors: D. Cardone

Abstract:

Past earthquakes have shown that seismic events may incur large economic losses in buildings. FEMA P-58 provides engineers a practical tool for the performance seismic assessment of buildings. In this study, FEMA P-58 is applied to two typical Italian pre-1970 reinforced concrete frame buildings, characterized by plain rebars as steel reinforcement and masonry infills and partitions. Given that suitable tools for these buildings are missing in FEMA P- 58, specific fragility curves and loss functions are first developed. Next, building performance is evaluated following a time-based assessment approach. Finally, expected annual losses for the selected buildings are derived and compared with past applications to old RC frame buildings representative of the US building stock. 

Keywords: FEMA P-58, RC frame buildings, plain rebars, Masonry infills, fragility functions, loss functions, expected annual loss

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16797 Effect of Migraine on Functional Performance and Reported Symptoms in Children with Concussion

Authors: Abdulaziz Alkathiry

Abstract:

Concussion is a common brain injury that affect physical and cognitive performance. While several studies indicated that adolescents are more likely to develop concussion, in the last decade concussion has been mainly explored in adults. Migraine has been identified as a common symptom reported after concussion and was tied with worse prognoses. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of migraine on functional performance and self-reported symptoms in children with concussion. This cross-sectional study involved 35 symptomatic children aged 9 – 17 years recruited within 1 year from their concussion injury at a tertiary balance center. Participants’ symptoms and functional performance were assessed using the post-concussion symptoms scale (PCSS) and the functional gait assessment (FGA) respectively. Concussed children with migraine showed significantly worse symptoms including fatigue, sleeping impairment, difficulty concentrating, and visual problems (P < 0.05). Functional performance didn’t show differences between concussed children with and without migraine. Although concussed children with and without migraine didn’t show any differences on functional performance, worse cognitive symptoms were found in concussed children with migraine. A customized treatment approach is indicated in the presence of migraine for the management of children with concussion. Keywords: Concussion; Migraine; Balance; Post-Concussion Symptoms Scale; Functional Gait Assessment

Keywords: concussion, migraine, post-concussion symptoms scale, functional gait assessment, balance

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16796 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniques

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16795 The Role of Self-Regulation and Assessment Feedback on Creative Performance

Authors: Sylvie Studente, Filia J. Garivaldis

Abstract:

The emotions and cognitions that underpin creative performance have been of interest for decades if not centuries, however, research evidence has still not conclusively offered reliable predictors of creativity. It is unclear whether stressors are detrimental to creative thinking, or whether some stress imposes necessary constraints to facilitate the creative process. The present research aims to examine the role of individual differences in self-regulation in influencing the links between emotions, cognitions, and creativity. Self-regulation is the capacity to disengage from moods that inhibit goal progress, and cope with failure, focus on impending intentions, and enhance the intrinsic appeal of tasks. Therefore, it is anticipated that individuals with an intuitive ability in self-regulation are able to harness their emotions and cognitions, to perform well on a creative task. In contrast, individuals with a deficiency in self-regulation will experience difficulty in such a task. Furthermore, stress in the form of positive and negative assessment feedback in the context of education will be manipulated to explore the interactive effects of environmental and individual difference factors on creative performance. The results will provide insight into the underlying factors associated with emotions and creativity, and inform future research in individual differences in cognition and emotion, and environmental triggers of creativity.

Keywords: creativity, feedback, self-regulation, stress

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16794 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

Abstract:

Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce a large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH is found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings

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16793 Teachers' Assessment Practices in Lower Secondary Schools in Tanzania: The Potential and Opportunities for Formative Assessment Practice Implementation

Authors: Joyce Joas Kahembe

Abstract:

The implementation of education assessment reforms in developing countries has been claimed to be problematic and difficult. The socio-economic teaching and learning environment has pointed to constraints in the education reform process. Nevertheless, there are existing assessment practices that if enhanced, can have potential to foster formative assessment practices in those contexts. The present study used the sociocultural perspective to explore teachers’ assessment practices and factors influencing them in Tanzania. Specifically, the sociocultural perspective helped to trace social, economic and political histories imparted to teachers’ assessment practices. The ethnographic oriented methods like interviews, observations and document reviews was used in this exploration. Teachers used assessment practices, such as questioning and answering, tests, assignments and examinations, for evaluating, monitoring and diagnosing students’ understanding, achievement and performance and standards and quality of instruction practices. The obtained assessment information functioned as feedback for improving students’ understanding, performance, and the standard and quality of teaching instruction and materials. For example, teachers acknowledged, praised, approved, disapproved, denied, graded, or marked students’ responses to give students feedback and aid learning. Moreover, teachers clarified and corrected or repeated students’ responses with worded/added words to improve students’ mastery of the subject content. Teachers’ assessment practices were influenced by the high demands of passing marks in the high stakes examinations and the contexts of the social economic teaching environment. There is a need to ally education assessment reforms with existing socio-economic teaching environments and society and institutional demands of assessment to make assessment reforms meaningful and sustainable. This presentation ought to contribute on ongoing strategies for contextualizing assessment practices for formative uses.

Keywords: assessment, feedback, practices, formative assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 409