Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9391

Search results for: energy transmission line

9391 Transient Voltage Distribution on the Single Phase Transmission Line under Short Circuit Fault Effect

Authors: A. Kojah, A. Nacaroğlu


Single phase transmission lines are used to transfer data or energy between two users. Transient conditions such as switching operations and short circuit faults cause the generation of the fluctuation on the waveform to be transmitted. Spatial voltage distribution on the single phase transmission line may change owing to the position and duration of the short circuit fault in the system. In this paper, the state space representation of the single phase transmission line for short circuit fault and for various types of terminations is given. Since the transmission line is modeled in time domain using distributed parametric elements, the mathematical representation of the event is given in state space (time domain) differential equation form. It also makes easy to solve the problem because of the time and space dependent characteristics of the voltage variations on the distributed parametrically modeled transmission line.

Keywords: energy transmission, transient effects, transmission line, transient voltage, RLC short circuit, single phase

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9390 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout


This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14%. A graphical representation of the line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes has been illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop

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9389 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park


Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: drones, transmission line, inspection, control system

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9388 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir


In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool

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9387 Analysis of Exponential Nonuniform Transmission Line Parameters

Authors: Mounir Belattar


In this paper the Analysis of voltage waves that propagate along a lossless exponential nonuniform line is presented. For this analysis the parameters of this line are assumed to be varying function of the distance x along the line from the source end. The approach is based on the tow-port networks cascading presentation to derive the ABDC parameters of transmission using Picard-Carson Method which is a powerful method in getting a power series solution for distributed network because it is easy to calculate poles and zeros and solves differential equations such as telegrapher equations by an iterative sequence. So the impedance, admittance voltage and current along the line are expanded as a Taylor series in x/l where l is the total length of the line to obtain at the end, the main transmission line parameters such as voltage response and transmission and reflexion coefficients represented by scattering parameters in frequency domain.

Keywords: ABCD parameters, characteristic impedance exponential nonuniform transmission line, Picard-Carson's method, S parameters, Taylor's series

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9386 A Practical Protection Method for Parallel Transmission-Lines Based on the Fault Travelling-Waves

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi


In new restructured power systems, swift fault detection is very important. The parallel transmission-lines are vastly used in this kind of power systems because of high amount of energy transferring. In this paper, a method based on the comparison of two schemes, i.e., i) maximum magnitude of travelling-wave (TW) energy ii) the instants of maximum energy occurrence at the circuits of parallel transmission-line is proposed. Using the travelling-wave of fault in order to faulted line identification this method has noticeable operation time. Moreover, the algorithm can cover for identification of faults as external or internal faults. For an internal fault, the exact location of the fault can be estimated confidently. A lot of simulations have been done with PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: travelling-wave, maximum energy, parallel transmission-line, fault location

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9385 The Impact of System Cascading Collapse and Transmission Line Outages to the Transfer Capability Assessment

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan


Uncertainty of system operating conditions is one of the causative reasons which may render to the instability of a transmission system. This will encumber the performance of transmission system to efficiently transmit the electrical power between areas. For that reason, accurate assessment of Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) is essential in order to ensure effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of system uncertainties. The power transfer is also called as the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) in which it is the information required by the utilities and marketers to instigate selling and buying the electric energy. This paper proposes a computationally effective approach to estimate TRM and ATC by considering the uncertainties of system cascading collapse and transmission line outages which is identified as the main reasons in power system instability. In accordance to the results that have been obtained, the proposed method is essential for the transmission providers which could help the power marketers and planning sectors in the operation and reserving transmission services based on the ATC calculated.

Keywords: system cascading collapse, transmission line outages, transmission reliability margin, available transfer capability

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9384 Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Lines with Shield Wire Segmentation against Atmospheric Discharges Using ATPDraw

Authors: Marcio S. da Silva, Jose Mauricio de B. Bezerra, Antonio E. de A. Nogueira


This paper aims to make a performance analysis of shield wire transmission lines against atmospheric discharges when it is made the option of sectioning the shield wire and verify if the tolerability of the change. As a goal of this work, it was established to make complete modeling of a transmission line in the ATPDraw program with shield wire grounded in all the towers and in some towers. The methodology used to make the proposed evaluation was to choose an actual transmission line that served as a case study. From the choice of transmission line and verification of all its topology and materials, complete modeling of the line using the ATPDraw software was performed. Then several atmospheric discharges were simulated by striking the grounded shield wires in each tower. These simulations served to identify the behavior of the existing line against atmospheric discharges. After this first analysis, the same line was reconsidered with shield wire segmentation. The shielding wire segmentation technique aims to reduce induced losses in shield wires and is adopted in some transmission lines in Brazil. With the same conditions of atmospheric discharge the transmission line, this time with shield wire segmentation was again evaluated. The results obtained showed that it is possible to obtain similar performances against atmospheric discharges between a shield wired line in multiple towers and the same line with shield wire segmentation if some precautions are adopted as verification of the ground resistance of the wire segmented shield, adequacy of the maximum length of the segmented gap, evaluation of the separation length of the electrodes of the insulator spark, among others. As a conclusion, it is verified that since the correct assessment and adopted the correct criteria of adjustment a transmission line with shielded wire segmentation can perform very similar to the traditional use with multiple earths. This solution contributes in a very important way to the reduction of energy losses in transmission lines.

Keywords: atmospheric discharges, ATPDraw, shield wire, transmission lines

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9383 Study of Ground Level Electric Field under 800 kV HVDC Unipolar Laboratory level Transmission line

Authors: K. Urukundu, K. A. Aravind, Pradeep M. Nirgude, K. Sandhya


Transmission of bulk power over a long distance through HVDC transmission lines is gaining importance. This is because the transfer of bulk power through HVDC, from generating stations to load centers over long distances is more economical. However, these HVDC transmission lines create environmental and interference effects under the right of way of the line due to the ionization of the surrounding atmosphere in the vicinity of HVDC lines. The measurement of ground-level electric field and ionic current density is essential for the evaluation of human effects due to electromagnetic interference of the HVDC transmission line. In this paper, experimental laboratory results of the ground-level electric field under the miniature model of 800 kV monopole HVDC line of length 8 meters are presented in lateral configuration with different heights of the conductor from the ground plane. The results are compared with the simulated test results obtained through Finite Element based software.

Keywords: bundle, conductor, hexagonal, transmission line, ground-level electric field

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9382 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya


The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.

Keywords: interline power flow controller, transmission pricing, unified power flow controller, cost allocation

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9381 An Investigation on Electric Field Distribution around 380 kV Transmission Line for Various Pylon Models

Authors: C. F. Kumru, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan


In this study, electric field distribution analyses for three pylon models are carried out by a Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Analyses are performed in both stationary and time domains to observe instantaneous values along with the effective ones. Considering the results of the study, different line geometries is considerably affecting the magnitude and distribution of electric field although the line voltages are the same. Furthermore, it is observed that maximum values of instantaneous electric field obtained in time domain analysis are quite higher than the effective ones in stationary mode. In consequence, electric field distribution analyses should be individually made for each different line model and the limit exposure values or distances to residential buildings should be defined according to the results obtained.

Keywords: electric field, energy transmission line, finite element method, pylon

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9380 A Model for Analysis the Induced Voltage of 115 kV On-Line Acting on Neighboring 22 kV Off-Line

Authors: Sakhon Woothipatanapan, Surasit Prakobkit


This paper presents a model for analysis the induced voltage of transmission lines (energized) acting on neighboring distribution lines (de-energized). From environmental restrictions, 22 kV distribution lines need to be installed under 115 kV transmission lines. With the installation of the two parallel circuits like this, they make the induced voltage which can cause harm to operators. This work was performed with the ATP-EMTP modeling to analyze such phenomenon before field testing. Simulation results are used to find solutions to prevent danger to operators who are on the pole.

Keywords: transmission system, distribution system, induced voltage, off-line operation

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9379 Novel Technique for calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors

Authors: Sudip Sudhir Godbole


In transmission line surface potential gradient is a critical design parameter for planning overhead line, as it determines the level of corona loss (CL), radio interference (RI) and audible noise (AN).With increase of transmission line voltage level bulk power transfer is possible, using bundle conductor configuration used, it is more complex to find accurate surface stress in bundle configuration. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculations are based on analytical methods which restrict their application in simulating complex surface geometry. This paper proposes a novel technique which utilizes both analytical and numerical procedure to predict the surface gradient. One of 400 kV transmission line configurations has been selected as an example to compare the results for different methods. The different strand shapes are a key variable in determining.

Keywords: surface gradient, Maxwell potential coefficient method, market and Mengele’s method, successive images method, charge simulation method, finite element method

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9378 Application of Support Vector Machines in Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Power Transmission Lines

Authors: I. A. Farhat, M. Bin Hasan


A developed approach for the protection of power transmission lines using Support Vector Machines (SVM) technique is presented. In this paper, the SVM technique is utilized for the classification and isolation of faults in power transmission lines. Accurate fault classification and location results are obtained for all possible types of short circuit faults. As in distance protection, the approach utilizes the voltage and current post-fault samples as inputs. The main advantage of the method introduced here is that the method could easily be extended to any power transmission line.

Keywords: fault detection, classification, diagnosis, power transmission line protection, support vector machines (SVM)

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9377 Research Trends in High Voltage Power Transmission

Authors: Tlotlollo Sidwell Hlalele, Shengzhi Du


High voltage transmission is the most pivotal process in the electrical power industry. It requires a robust infrastructure that can last for decades without causing impairment in human life. Due to the so-called global warming, power transmission system has started to experience some challenges which could presumably escalate more in future. These challenges are earthquake resistance, transmission power losses, and high electromagnetic field. In this paper, research efforts aim to address these challenges are discussed. We focus in particular on the research in regenerative electric energy such as: wind, hydropower, biomass and sea-waves based on the energy storage and transmission possibility. We conclude by drawing attention to specific areas that we believe need more research.

Keywords: power transmission, regenerative energy, power quality, energy storage

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9376 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura


This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

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9375 Examining the Change of Power Transmission Line in Urban Regeneration with Geographical Information System

Authors: C. Yagci, F. Iscan


In this study, spatial differences of Power Transmission Line (PTL) and effects of the situation before and after the urban regeneration are studied by using Geographical Information System (GIS). In addition, a questionable and analyzable structure is acquired by developed system. In the study area many parcels on the PTL were analyzed. The amount of the parcels, which are affected by the negativity of PTL is clearly seen with the aid of generated maps. Some kind of changes are exhibited in the system, which are created by GIS, for instance before urban regeneration PTL was very close to people’s private properties and huge parts of PTL were among the buildings, however; after urban regeneration electricity lines were changed their locations to the underground. According to the results, GIS can be used as a device in planning and managing of PTL in urban regeneration projects and can be used for analyses. By the help of GIS technology, necessary investigations should be carried out in urban regeneration applications for creating sustainable cities.

Keywords: GIS, power transmission line, technology, urban regeneration

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9374 Feature Evaluation and Applications of Various Advanced Conductors with High Conductivity and Low Flash in Overhead Lines

Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Homayoun Bakhtiari


In power transmission lines, electricity conductors are main tools to carry electric power. Thus, other devices such as shield wires, insulators, towers, foundations etc. should be designed in a way that the conductors be able to successfully do their task which is appropriate power delivery to the customers. Non-stop increase of energy demand has led to saturated capacity of transmission lines which, in turn, causing line flash to exceed acceptable limits in some points. An approach which may be used to solve this issue is replacement of current conductors with new ones having the capability of withstanding higher heating such that reduced flash would be observed when heating increases. These novel conductors are able to transfer higher currents and operate in higher heating conditions while line flash will remain within standard limits. In this paper, we will attempt to introduce three types of advanced overhead conductors and analyze the replacement of current conductors by new ones technically and economically in transmission lines. In this regard, progressive conductors of transmission lines are introduced such as ACC (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core), AAAC-UHC (Ultra High Conductivity, All Aluminum Alloy Conductors), and G(Z)TACSR-Gap Type.

Keywords: ACC, AAAC-UHC, gap type, transmission lines

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9373 Transmission Line Congestion Management Using Hybrid Fish-Bee Algorithm with Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: P. Valsalal, S. Thangalakshmi


There is a widespread changeover in the electrical power industry universally from old-style monopolistic outline towards a horizontally distributed competitive structure to come across the demand of rising consumption. When the transmission lines of derestricted system are incapable to oblige the entire service needs, the lines are overloaded or congested. The governor between customer and power producer is nominated as Independent System Operator (ISO) to lessen the congestion without obstructing transmission line restrictions. Among the existing approaches for congestion management, the frequently used approaches are reorganizing the generation and load curbing. There is a boundary for reorganizing the generators, and further loads may not be supplemented with the prevailing resources unless more private power producers are added in the system by considerably raising the cost. Hence, congestion is relaxed by appropriate Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices which boost the existing transfer capacity of transmission lines. The FACTs device, namely, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is preferred, and the correct placement of UPFC is more vital and should be positioned in the highly congested line. Hence, the weak line is identified by using power flow performance index with the new objective function with proposed hybrid Fish – Bee algorithm. Further, the location of UPFC at appropriate line reduces the branch loading and minimizes the voltage deviation. The power transfer capacity of lines is determined with and without UPFC in the identified congested line of IEEE 30 bus structure and the simulated results are compared with prevailing algorithms. It is observed that the transfer capacity of existing line is increased with the presented algorithm and thus alleviating the congestion.

Keywords: available line transfer capability, congestion management, FACTS device, Hybrid Fish-Bee Algorithm, ISO, UPFC

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9372 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad Adam Asharaf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba


Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: performance, transmission system, real power efficiency, available transfer capability

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9371 Time-Domain Analysis of Pulse Parameters Effects on Crosstalk in High-Speed Circuits

Authors: Loubna Tani, Nabih Elouzzani


Crosstalk among interconnects and printed-circuit board (PCB) traces is a major limiting factor of signal quality in high-speed digital and communication equipments especially when fast data buses are involved. Such a bus is considered as a planar multiconductor transmission line. This paper will demonstrate how the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method provides an exact solution of the transmission-line equations to analyze the near end and the far end crosstalk. In addition, this study makes it possible to analyze the rise time effect on the near and far end voltages of the victim conductor. The paper also discusses a statistical analysis, based upon a set of several simulations. Such analysis leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon and yields useful information.

Keywords: multiconductor transmission line, crosstalk, finite difference time domain (FDTD), printed-circuit board (PCB), rise time, statistical analysis

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9370 Power Line Communication Integrated in a Wireless Power Transfer System: Feasibility of Surveillance Movement

Authors: M. Hemnath, S. Kannan, R. Kiran, K. Thanigaivelu


This paper is based on exploring the possible opportunities and applications using Power Line Communication (PLC) for security and surveillance operations. Various research works are done for introducing PLC into onboard vehicle communication and networking (CAN, LIN etc.) and various international standards have been developed. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is also an emerging technology which is studied and tested for recharging purposes. In this work we present a system which embeds the detection and the response into one which eliminates the need for dedicated network for data transmission. Also we check the feasibility for integrating wireless power transfer system into this proposed security system for transmission of power to detection unit wirelessly from the response unit.

Keywords: power line communication, wireless power transfer, surveillance

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9369 Cooperative Communication of Energy Harvesting Synchronized-OOK IR-UWB Based Tags

Authors: M. A. Mulatu, L. C. Chang, Y. S. Han


Energy harvesting tags with cooperative communication capabilities are emerging as possible infrastructure for internet of things (IoT) applications. This paper studies about the \ cooperative transmission strategy for a network of energy harvesting active networked tags (EnHANTs), that is adapted to the available energy resource and identification request. We consider a network of EnHANT-equipped objects to communicate with the destination either directly or by cooperating with neighboring objects. We formulate the the problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) under synchronised On/Off keying (S-OOK) pulse modulation format. The simulation results are provided to show the the performance of the cooperative transmission policy and compared against the greedy and conservative policies of single-link transmission.

Keywords: cooperative communication, transmission strategy, energy harvesting, Markov decision process, value iteration

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9368 Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Line Towers

Authors: L. Srikanth, D. Neelima Satyam


The transmission line towers are one of the important life line structures in the distribution of power from the source to the various places for several purposes. The predominant external loads which act on these towers are wind and earthquake loads. In this present study tower is analyzed using Indian Standards IS: 875:1987 (Wind Load), IS: 802:1995 (Structural Steel), IS:1893:2002 (Earthquake) and dynamic analysis of tower has been performed considering ground motion of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (India). The dynamic analysis was performed considering a tower system consisting two towers spaced 800m apart and 35m height each. This analysis has been performed using numerical time stepping finite difference method which is central difference method were employed by a developed MATLAB program to get the normalized ground motion parameters includes acceleration, frequency, velocity which are important in designing the tower. The tower is analyzed using response spectrum analysis.

Keywords: response spectra, dynamic analysis, central difference method, transmission tower

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9367 Analysis and Experimental Research on the Influence of Lubricating Oil on the Transmission Efficiency of New Energy Vehicle Gearbox

Authors: Chen Yong, Bi Wangyang, Zang Libin, Li Jinkai, Cheng Xiaowei, Liu Jinmin, Yu Miao


New energy vehicle power transmission systems continue to develop in the direction of high torque, high speed, and high efficiency. The cooling and lubrication of the motor and the transmission system are integrated, and new requirements are placed on the lubricants for the transmission system. The effects of traditional lubricants and special lubricants for new energy vehicles on transmission efficiency were studied through experiments and simulation methods. A mathematical model of the transmission efficiency of the lubricating oil in the gearbox was established. The power loss of each part was analyzed according to the working conditions. The relationship between the speed and the characteristics of different lubricating oil products on the power loss of the stirring oil was discussed. The minimum oil film thickness was required for the life of the gearbox. The accuracy of the calculation results was verified by the transmission efficiency test conducted on the two-motor integrated test bench. The results show that the efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase of the speed and decreases with the increase of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant. The increase of the kinematic viscosity amplifies the transmission power loss caused by the high speed. New energy vehicle special lubricants have less attenuation of transmission efficiency in the range above mid-speed. The research results provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the evaluation and selection of transmission efficiency of gearbox lubricants for new energy vehicles.

Keywords: new energy vehicles, lubricants, transmission efficiency, kinematic viscosity, test and simulation

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9366 Protection of the Valves against AC Faults Using the Fast-Acting HVDC Controls

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine


Short circuit causes important damage in power systems. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the effect of short circuit at the AC side inverter in HVDC transmission line. The cutoff of HVDC transmission line implies important economic losses. In this paper it is proposed an efficient procedure which can protect and eliminate the fault quickly. The theoretical development and simulation are well detailed and illustrated.

Keywords: AC inverter, HVDC, short circuit, switcher gate, power system

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9365 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

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9364 Composite Distributed Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Security

Authors: Amir Lotfi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini


During the recent past, due to the increase of electrical energy demand and governmental resources constraints in creating additional capacity in the generation, transmission, and distribution, privatization, and restructuring in electrical industry have been considered. So, in most of the countries, different parts of electrical industry like generation, transmission, and distribution have been separated in order to create competition. Considering these changes, environmental issues, energy growth, investment of private equity in energy generation units and difficulties of transmission lines expansion, distributed generation (DG) units have been used in power systems. Moreover, reduction in the need for transmission and distribution, the increase of reliability, improvement of power quality, and reduction of power loss have caused DG to be placed in power systems. On the other hand, considering low liquidity need, private investors tend to spend their money for DGs. In this project, the main goal is to offer an algorithm for planning and placing DGs in order to reduce the need for transmission and distribution network.

Keywords: planning, transmission, distributed generation, power security, power systems

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9363 Wideband Planar Antenna Based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission-Line (CRLH-TL) for Operation across UHF/L/S-Bands

Authors: Mohammad Alibakhshikenari, Ernesto Limiti, Bal S. Virdee


The paper presents a miniature wideband antenna using composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) metamaterial. The proposed planar antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 100% and is designed to operate in several frequency bands from 800MHz to 2.40GHz. The antenna is constructed using just two CRLH-TL unit cells comprising of two T-shaped slots that are inverted. The slots contribute towards generating the series left-handed (LH) capacitance CL. The rectangular patch on which the slots are created is grounded with spiral shaped high impedance stubs that contribute towards LH inductance LL. The antenna has a size of 14×6×1.6mm3 (0.037λ0×0.016λ0× 0.004λ0, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 800MHz). The peak gain and efficiency of the antenna are 1.5 dBi and ~75%, respectively, at 1.6GHz. Proposed antenna is suitable for use in wireless systems working at UHF/L/S-bands, in particular, AMPS, GSM, WCDMA, UMTS, PCS, cellular, DCS, IMT-2000, JCDMA, KPCS, GPS, lower band of WiMAX.

Keywords: miniature antenna, composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL), wideband antenna, communication transceiver, metamaterials

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9362 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho


Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

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