Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5359

Search results for: available line transfer capability

5359 The Impact of System Cascading Collapse and Transmission Line Outages to the Transfer Capability Assessment

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan


Uncertainty of system operating conditions is one of the causative reasons which may render to the instability of a transmission system. This will encumber the performance of transmission system to efficiently transmit the electrical power between areas. For that reason, accurate assessment of Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) is essential in order to ensure effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of system uncertainties. The power transfer is also called as the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) in which it is the information required by the utilities and marketers to instigate selling and buying the electric energy. This paper proposes a computationally effective approach to estimate TRM and ATC by considering the uncertainties of system cascading collapse and transmission line outages which is identified as the main reasons in power system instability. In accordance to the results that have been obtained, the proposed method is essential for the transmission providers which could help the power marketers and planning sectors in the operation and reserving transmission services based on the ATC calculated.

Keywords: system cascading collapse, transmission line outages, transmission reliability margin, available transfer capability

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5358 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad Adam Asharaf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba


Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: performance, transmission system, real power efficiency, available transfer capability

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5357 ATC in Competitive Electricity Market Using TCSC

Authors: S. K. Gupta, Richa Bansal


In a deregulated power system structure, power producers, and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. All parties in this open access environment may try to purchase the energy from the cheaper source for greater profit margins, which may lead to overloading and congestion of certain corridors of the transmission network. This may result in violation of line flow, voltage and stability limits and thereby undermine the system security. Utilities therefore need to determine adequately their Available Transfer Capability (ATC) to ensure that system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of bilateral and multilateral transactions. This paper presents power transfer distribution factor based on AC load flow for the determination and enhancement of ATC. The study has been carried out for IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, power transfer distribution factors, electric

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5356 Transmission Line Congestion Management Using Hybrid Fish-Bee Algorithm with Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: P. Valsalal, S. Thangalakshmi


There is a widespread changeover in the electrical power industry universally from old-style monopolistic outline towards a horizontally distributed competitive structure to come across the demand of rising consumption. When the transmission lines of derestricted system are incapable to oblige the entire service needs, the lines are overloaded or congested. The governor between customer and power producer is nominated as Independent System Operator (ISO) to lessen the congestion without obstructing transmission line restrictions. Among the existing approaches for congestion management, the frequently used approaches are reorganizing the generation and load curbing. There is a boundary for reorganizing the generators, and further loads may not be supplemented with the prevailing resources unless more private power producers are added in the system by considerably raising the cost. Hence, congestion is relaxed by appropriate Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices which boost the existing transfer capacity of transmission lines. The FACTs device, namely, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is preferred, and the correct placement of UPFC is more vital and should be positioned in the highly congested line. Hence, the weak line is identified by using power flow performance index with the new objective function with proposed hybrid Fish – Bee algorithm. Further, the location of UPFC at appropriate line reduces the branch loading and minimizes the voltage deviation. The power transfer capacity of lines is determined with and without UPFC in the identified congested line of IEEE 30 bus structure and the simulated results are compared with prevailing algorithms. It is observed that the transfer capacity of existing line is increased with the presented algorithm and thus alleviating the congestion.

Keywords: available line transfer capability, congestion management, FACTS device, Hybrid Fish-Bee Algorithm, ISO, UPFC

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5355 Power Line Communication Integrated in a Wireless Power Transfer System: Feasibility of Surveillance Movement

Authors: M. Hemnath, S. Kannan, R. Kiran, K. Thanigaivelu


This paper is based on exploring the possible opportunities and applications using Power Line Communication (PLC) for security and surveillance operations. Various research works are done for introducing PLC into onboard vehicle communication and networking (CAN, LIN etc.) and various international standards have been developed. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is also an emerging technology which is studied and tested for recharging purposes. In this work we present a system which embeds the detection and the response into one which eliminates the need for dedicated network for data transmission. Also we check the feasibility for integrating wireless power transfer system into this proposed security system for transmission of power to detection unit wirelessly from the response unit.

Keywords: power line communication, wireless power transfer, surveillance

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5354 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar


In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model

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5353 Evaluation of Transfer Capability Considering Uncertainties of System Operating Condition and System Cascading Collapse

Authors: Nur Ashida Salim, Muhammad Murtadha Othman, Ismail Musirin, Mohd Salleh Serwan


Over the past few decades, the power system industry in many developing and developed countries has gone through a restructuring process of the industry where they are moving towards a deregulated power industry. This situation will lead to competition among the generation and distribution companies to achieve a certain objective which is to provide quality and efficient production of electric energy, which will reduce the price of electricity. Therefore it is important to obtain an accurate value of the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) and Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) in order to ensure the effective power transfer between areas during the occurrence of uncertainties in the system. In this paper, the TRM and ATC is determined by taking into consideration the uncertainties of the system operating condition and system cascading collapse by applying the bootstrap technique. A case study of the IEEE RTS-79 is employed to verify the robustness of the technique proposed in the determination of TRM and ATC.

Keywords: available transfer capability, bootstrap technique, cascading collapse, transmission reliability margin

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5352 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout


This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14%. A graphical representation of the line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes has been illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop

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5351 Temperature Effect on Corrosion and Erosion in Transfer Line Exchange by CFD

Authors: S. Hehni Meidani Behzad, Mokhtari Karchegani Amir, Mabodi Samad


There are some TLE (Transfer Line Exchanger) that their lifetime reduced to 4 years instead of 30 years and after 4 years, we saw corroded area on one part of those T.L.E. that named Oval header and this happened in condition that other parts of those TLE were safe and perfect. By using of thickness measurement devices, we find that thickness reduces unusually on that part and after research and doing computer analysis with fluent software, it was recognized that on that part, we have high temperature and when this out of range temperature adds to bad quality of water, corrosion increased with high rate on that part and after more research it became obviously that it case by more excess air in furnace that located before this T.L.E. that this more air case to consuming more fuel to reach same furnace temperature so it concluded that inner coil fluid temperature increased and after received to T.L.E, this case happened and deflector condition, creep in coil and material analysis confirmed that condition.

Keywords: Transfer Line Exchanger (TLE), CFD, corrosion, erosion, tube, oval header

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5350 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

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5349 Diversity and Intensity of International Technology Transfer and their Impacts on Organizational Performance

Authors: Seongryong Kang, Woonjin Kim, Sungjoo Lee


Under the environment of fierce competition and globalized economy, international technology collaboration has gained increasing attention as a way to improve innovation efficiency. While international technology transfer helps a firm to acquire necessary technology in a short period of time, it also has a risk; embedding external technology from overseas partners may cause a transaction cost due to the regional, cultural and language barriers, which tend to offset the benefits of such transfer. Though a number of previous studies have focused on the effects of technology in-transfer on firm performance, few have conducted in the context of international technology transfer. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate the impact of international technology in-transfer on firm performance – both innovation and financial performance, with a particular emphasis on the diversity and intensity of such transfer. To do this, we adopted technology balance payment (TBP) data of Korean firms from 2010 to 2011, where an intermediate regression analysis was used to identify the intermediate effects of absorptive capacity. The analysis results indicate that i) the diversity and intensity of international technology transfer influence innovation performance by improving R&D capability positively; and ii) the diversity has a positive impact but the intensity has a negative impact on financial performance through the intermediation of R&D intensity. The research findings are expected to provide meaningful implications for establishing global technology strategy and developing policy programs to facilitate technology transfer.

Keywords: diversity, intensity, international technology acquisition, performance, technology transfer

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5348 Human Resource Practices and Organization Knowledge Capability: An Exploratory Study Applied to Private Organization

Authors: Mamoona Rasheed, Salman Iqbal, Muhammad Abdullah


Organizational capability, in terms of employees’ knowledge is valuable, and difficult to reproduce; and help to build sustainable competitive advantages. Knowledge capability is linked with human resource (HR) practices of an organization. This paper investigates the relationship between HR practices, knowledge management and organization capability. In an organization, employees play key role for the effective organizational performance by sharing their knowledge with management and co-workers that contributes towards organization capability. Pakistan being a developing country has different HR practices and culture. The business opportunities give rise to the discussion about the effect of HR practices on knowledge management and organization capability as innovation performance. An empirical study is conducted through questionnaires form the employees in private banks of Lahore, Pakistan. The data is collected via structured questionnaire with a sample of 120 cases. Data is analyzed using Structure Equation Modeling (SEM), and results are depicted using AMOS software. Results of this study are tabulated, interpreted and crosschecked with other studies. Findings suggest that there is a positive relationship of training & development along with incentives on knowledge management. On the other hand, employee’s participation has insignificant association with knowledge management. In addition, knowledge management has also positive association with organization capability. In line with the previous research, it is suggested that knowledge management is important for improving the organizational capability such as innovation performance and knowledge capacity of firm. Organization capability may improve significantly once specific HR practices are properly established and implemented by HR managers. This Study has key implications for knowledge management and innovation fields theoretically and practically.

Keywords: employee participation, incentives, knowledge management, organization capability, training and development

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5347 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir


In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool

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5346 Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube

Authors: Shengjun Zhang, Xu Cheng, Feng Shen


The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.

Keywords: non-condensable gas, condensation, heat transfer coefficient, heat and mass transfer analogy

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5345 Numerical Simulations of Electronic Cooling with In-Line and Staggered Pin Fin Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Hsiang-Wen Tang, Jian-Zhang Yin, Chao-Han Wu


Three-dimensional incompressible turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer of pin fin heat sinks using air as a cooling fluid are numerically studied in this study. Two different kinds of pin fins are compared in the thermal performance, including circular and square cross sections, both are in-line and staggered arrangements. The turbulent governing equations are solved using a control-volume- based finite-difference method. Subsequently, numerical computations are performed with the realizable k - ԑ turbulence for the parameters studied, the fin height H, fin diameter D, and Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 7 ≤ H ≤ 10, 0.75 ≤ D ≤ 2, 2000 ≤ Re ≤ 126000 respectively. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data in the literature and good agreement has been found. It indicates that circular pin fins are streamlined in comparing with the square pin fins, the pressure drop is small than that of square pin fins, and heat transfer is not as good as the square pin fins. The thermal performance of the staggered pin fins is better than that of in-line pin fins because the staggered arrangements produce large disturbance. Both in-line and staggered arrangements show the same behavior for thermal resistance, pressure drop, and the entropy generation.

Keywords: pin-fin, heat sinks, simulations, turbulent flow

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5344 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho


Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes

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5343 Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence

Authors: Rafik Bouakkaz


A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, heat transfer, square cylinder, inclination angle

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5342 Transient Voltage Distribution on the Single Phase Transmission Line under Short Circuit Fault Effect

Authors: A. Kojah, A. Nacaroğlu


Single phase transmission lines are used to transfer data or energy between two users. Transient conditions such as switching operations and short circuit faults cause the generation of the fluctuation on the waveform to be transmitted. Spatial voltage distribution on the single phase transmission line may change owing to the position and duration of the short circuit fault in the system. In this paper, the state space representation of the single phase transmission line for short circuit fault and for various types of terminations is given. Since the transmission line is modeled in time domain using distributed parametric elements, the mathematical representation of the event is given in state space (time domain) differential equation form. It also makes easy to solve the problem because of the time and space dependent characteristics of the voltage variations on the distributed parametrically modeled transmission line.

Keywords: energy transmission, transient effects, transmission line, transient voltage, RLC short circuit, single phase

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5341 Novel Technique for calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors

Authors: Sudip Sudhir Godbole


In transmission line surface potential gradient is a critical design parameter for planning overhead line, as it determines the level of corona loss (CL), radio interference (RI) and audible noise (AN).With increase of transmission line voltage level bulk power transfer is possible, using bundle conductor configuration used, it is more complex to find accurate surface stress in bundle configuration. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculations are based on analytical methods which restrict their application in simulating complex surface geometry. This paper proposes a novel technique which utilizes both analytical and numerical procedure to predict the surface gradient. One of 400 kV transmission line configurations has been selected as an example to compare the results for different methods. The different strand shapes are a key variable in determining.

Keywords: surface gradient, Maxwell potential coefficient method, market and Mengele’s method, successive images method, charge simulation method, finite element method

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5340 Feature Evaluation and Applications of Various Advanced Conductors with High Conductivity and Low Flash in Overhead Lines

Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Homayoun Bakhtiari


In power transmission lines, electricity conductors are main tools to carry electric power. Thus, other devices such as shield wires, insulators, towers, foundations etc. should be designed in a way that the conductors be able to successfully do their task which is appropriate power delivery to the customers. Non-stop increase of energy demand has led to saturated capacity of transmission lines which, in turn, causing line flash to exceed acceptable limits in some points. An approach which may be used to solve this issue is replacement of current conductors with new ones having the capability of withstanding higher heating such that reduced flash would be observed when heating increases. These novel conductors are able to transfer higher currents and operate in higher heating conditions while line flash will remain within standard limits. In this paper, we will attempt to introduce three types of advanced overhead conductors and analyze the replacement of current conductors by new ones technically and economically in transmission lines. In this regard, progressive conductors of transmission lines are introduced such as ACC (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core), AAAC-UHC (Ultra High Conductivity, All Aluminum Alloy Conductors), and G(Z)TACSR-Gap Type.

Keywords: ACC, AAAC-UHC, gap type, transmission lines

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5339 Study of Ground Level Electric Field under 800 kV HVDC Unipolar Laboratory level Transmission line

Authors: K. Urukundu, K. A. Aravind, Pradeep M. Nirgude, K. Sandhya


Transmission of bulk power over a long distance through HVDC transmission lines is gaining importance. This is because the transfer of bulk power through HVDC, from generating stations to load centers over long distances is more economical. However, these HVDC transmission lines create environmental and interference effects under the right of way of the line due to the ionization of the surrounding atmosphere in the vicinity of HVDC lines. The measurement of ground-level electric field and ionic current density is essential for the evaluation of human effects due to electromagnetic interference of the HVDC transmission line. In this paper, experimental laboratory results of the ground-level electric field under the miniature model of 800 kV monopole HVDC line of length 8 meters are presented in lateral configuration with different heights of the conductor from the ground plane. The results are compared with the simulated test results obtained through Finite Element based software.

Keywords: bundle, conductor, hexagonal, transmission line, ground-level electric field

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5338 Research Review: The Mediating Role of Innovation Capability from Year 2010-2016

Authors: Logaiswari Indiran, Noraindah Abdullah Fahim, Zainab Khalifah, Rohaizat Baharun, Kamariah Ismail


Innovation capability is believed to give an important impact on organization’s sustainability and high performance. For instance, innovation capability able to transform technology into a specific organization’s operation, managerial, and transaction which increase organizational performance and economic growth of a country. In fact, research on high level of various antecedents has also shown positive impact on innovation capability. However, there are lacking studies explored on various kinds of antecedents which relate innovation capability’s role as mediator in the relationship. Thus, the purpose of this study is to specifically exhibit the mediation role of innovation capability between variety of antecedents and with different outcomes of an organization across industries. This study reviewed previous literature that has identified 'innovation capability' as mediator between the period of 2010 – 2016 and carries out a literature-based analysis of the findings in each article. From our review, innovation capability has been seen as a key role to mediate the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable in various industry. As the role of innovation capability as mediator is significant, new researchers should focus on varieties of independent variables. The review of this study will be useful for practitioners and researchers to understand and apply innovation capability as mediator to increase organizational success and innovativeness.

Keywords: innovation capability, mediator, organization performance, antecedents

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5337 Analysis and Improvement of Efficiency for Food Processing Assembly Lines

Authors: Mehmet Savsar


Several factors affect productivity of Food Processing Assembly Lines (FPAL). Engineers and line managers usually do not recognize some of these factors and underutilize their production/assembly lines. In this paper, a special food processing assembly line is studied in detail, and procedures are presented to illustrate how productivity and efficiency of such lines can be increased. The assembly line considered produces ten different types of freshly prepared salads on the same line, which is called mixed model assembly line. Problems causing delays and inefficiencies on the line are identified. Line balancing and related tools are used to increase line efficiency and minimize balance delays. The procedure and the approach utilized in this paper can be useful for the operation managers and industrial engineers dealing with similar assembly lines in food processing industry.

Keywords: assembly lines, line balancing, production efficiency, bottleneck

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5336 The Capability of Organizational Leadership: Development of Conceptual Framework

Authors: Kurmet Kivipõld, Maaja Vadi


Current paper develops the conceptual framework for organizational leadership capability. Organizational leadership here is understood as collective multi-level phenomenon which has been embedded into organizational processes as a capability at the level of the entire organization. The paper analyses and systematises the theo¬retical approaches to multi-level leadership in existing literature. This analysis marks the foundation of collective leadership at the organizational level, which forms the basis for the development of the conceptual framework of organi¬zational leadership capability. The developed conceptual framework of organiza¬tional leadership capability is formed from the synthesis of the three groups of base theories – traditional leadership theories, the resource-based view from strategic management and complexity theory from system theories. These conceptual sources present the main characteristics that determine the nature of organizational leadership capability and are the basis for its mea¬surement.

Keywords: leadership, organizational capability, organizational leadership, resource-based view, system theory

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5335 The Significance of Intellectual Capital and Strategic Orientations on Innovation Capability in Malaysian ICTSMEs

Authors: Juliana Osman, David Gilbert, Caroline Tan


Innovation capability is recognized as a critical factor that contributes to promoting firm growth and wealth creation. While studies on innovation are in abundance, few empirical studies have been undertaken to examine the relationships of intellectual capital with innovation capability, and research investigating the combinations of strategic orientation dimensions is limited and virtually nothing in regard to the Malaysian context. This research investigates the impact of intellectual capital and three strategic orientations on the innovation capability and firm performance of Malaysian ICT SMEs. Data was collected from 213 firms relating to intellectual capital and the three strategic orientations; market orientation, learning orientation and technology orientation. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse the data, results indicate that while market orientation has a direct negative relationship to firm performance, it is positively related to performance through the mediating effect of innovation capability. Learning orientation and technology orientation are mediated by innovation capability, while intellectual capital was found to be partially mediated by innovation capability. Findings indicate that firm performance is positively and significantly related to innovation capability and that market orientation, learning orientation, technology orientation and intellectual capital are all significant and positively related to innovation capability. The developed model indicates that Malaysian ICT SMEs would perform better with greater emphasis on developing innovation capability through enhancement of intellectual capital and the strategic orientations measured in this study.

Keywords: innovation capability, intellectual capital, strategic orientations, PLS-SEM

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5334 Embedment Design Concept of Signature Tower in Chennai

Authors: M. Gobinath, S. Balaji


Assumptions in model inputs: Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for slab), Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for shear wall), Grade of Structural steel (plate girder)=350 N/mm2 (yield strength), Ultimate strength of structural steel=490 N/mm2, Grade of rebar=500 N/mm2 (yield strength), Applied Load=1716 kN (un-factored). Following assumptions are made for the mathematical modelling of RCC with steel embedment: (1) The bond between the structural steel and concrete is neglected. (2) The stiffener is provided with shear studs to transfer the shear force. Hence nodal connectivity is established between solid nodes (concrete) and shell elements (stiffener) at those locations. (3) As the end reinforcements transfer either tension/compression, it is modeled as line element and connected to solid nodes. (4) In order to capture the bearing of bottom flange on to the concrete, the line element of plan size of solid equal to the cross section of line elements is connected between solid and shell elements below for bottom flange and above for top flange. (5) As the concrete cannot resist tension at the interface (i.e., between structural steel and RCC), the tensile stiffness is assigned as zero and only compressive stiffness is enabled to take. Hence, non-linear static analysis option is invoked.

Keywords: structure, construction, signature tower, embedment design concept

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5333 Partial Knowledge Transfer Between the Source Problem and the Target Problem in Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Terence Soule, Tami Al Ghamdi


To study how the partial knowledge transfer may affect the Genetic Algorithm (GA) performance, we model the Transfer Learning (TL) process using GA as the model solver. The objective of the TL is to transfer the knowledge from one problem to another related problem. This process imitates how humans think in their daily life. In this paper, we proposed to study a case where the knowledge transferred from the S problem has less information than what the T problem needs. We sampled the transferred population using different strategies of TL. The results showed transfer part of the knowledge is helpful and speeds the GA process of finding a solution to the problem.

Keywords: transfer learning, partial transfer, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithm

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5332 Establishing Digital Forensics Capability and Capacity among Malaysia's Law Enforcement Agencies: Issues, Challenges and Recommendations

Authors: Sarah Taylor, Nor Zarina Zainal Abidin, Mohd Zabri Adil Talib


Although cybercrime is on the rise, yet many Law Enforcement Agencies in Malaysia faces difficulty in establishing own digital forensics capability and capacity. The main reasons are undoubtedly because of the high cost and difficulty in convincing their management. A survey has been conducted among Malaysia’s Law Enforcement Agencies owning a digital forensics laboratory to understand their history of building digital forensics capacity and capability, the challenges and the impact of having own laboratory to their case investigation. The result of the study shall be used by other Law Enforcement Agencies in justifying to their management to establish own digital forensics capability and capacity.

Keywords: digital forensics, digital forensics capacity and capability, laboratory, law enforcement agency

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5331 Introduction of Robust Multivariate Process Capability Indices

Authors: Behrooz Khalilloo, Hamid Shahriari, Emad Roghanian


Process capability indices (PCIs) are important concepts of statistical quality control and measure the capability of processes and how much processes are meeting certain specifications. An important issue in statistical quality control is parameter estimation. Under the assumption of multivariate normality, the distribution parameters, mean vector and variance-covariance matrix must be estimated, when they are unknown. Classic estimation methods like method of moment estimation (MME) or maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) makes good estimation of the population parameters when data are not contaminated. But when outliers exist in the data, MME and MLE make weak estimators of the population parameters. So we need some estimators which have good estimation in the presence of outliers. In this work robust M-estimators for estimating these parameters are used and based on robust parameter estimators, robust process capability indices are introduced. The performances of these robust estimators in the presence of outliers and their effects on process capability indices are evaluated by real and simulated multivariate data. The results indicate that the proposed robust capability indices perform much better than the existing process capability indices.

Keywords: multivariate process capability indices, robust M-estimator, outlier, multivariate quality control, statistical quality control

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5330 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez


The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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