Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1823

Search results for: endogenous variable

1823 Endogenous Development and Sustainable Perspectives: The Case of Traditional Communities Located around the Area of Management of Precious Wood Amazon

Authors: Débora Ramos Santiago


Endogenous development usually apresent a deep approach to locational aspects, considering the potential, knowledge and the workforce, as encouragement to articulate the entire productive activity of a community. In the case of communities located around the area of management of the company Precious Wood Amazon (PWA), their endogenous development is subject to the dynamic of this company, which operates a certified way, seeking alternatives to mitigate and compensate the damages caused by its activities. This article soughts to present the socio-economic and environmental challenges to promote of the endogenous development of these communities, identifying the relationship of the PWA in this process. The communities analyzed emerge with poor socioeconomic conditions, futhermore, their ecosystem characteristics differ spatially from each other, which modifies the entire production dynamics. The family agriculture was an important source of income, but needs investment and technical assistance. The participation of PWA in the promotion of the endogenous development of the communities was proved significant, because of the intense sustainable actions practice by PWA. Many are the challenges that exist in these communities, so its fundamental to elaborate public policies to these specific areas.

Keywords: endogenous development, traditional communities, Amazon, PWA

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1822 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao


In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: auxiliary variable, dynamic programming technique, nonlinear programming problem, optimum stratification, uniform distribution

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1821 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Arjun K., Arumugam Sankaran, Sanjay Kumar, Mousumi Das


The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: demographic dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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1820 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine

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1819 Dynamic Effects of Charitable Giving in a Ramsey Model

Authors: Riham Barbar


This paper studies the dynamic effects of charitable giving in a Ramsey model à la Becker and Foias (1994), such that heterogeneity is reduced to two types of agents: rich and poor. It is assumed that rich show a great concern for poor and enjoy giving. The introduction of charitable giving in this paper is inspired from the notion of Zakat (borrowed from the Islamic Economics) and is defined according to the warm-glow of Andreoni (1990). In this framework, we prove the existence of a steady state where only the patient agent holds capital. Furthermore, we show that local indetermincay appears. While moderate values of charitable-giving elasticity makes the appearance of endogenous fluctuations due to self-fulfilling expectations more likely, high values of this elasticity stabilizes endogenous fluctuations, by narrowing down the range of parameter values compatible with local indeterminacy and may rule out expectations-driven fluctuations if it exceeds certain threshold. Finally, cycles of period two emerge. However, charitable-giving makes it less likely for these cycles to emerge.

Keywords: charitable giving, warm-glow, bifurcations, heterogeneous agents, indeterminacy, self-fulfilling expectations, endogenous fluctuations

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1818 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

Authors: Shoji Katagiri, Hugang Han


This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in Economic Growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

Keywords: endogenous economic growth, ICT, intensity, capital accumulation

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1817 Efficient Variable Modulation Scheme Based on Codebook in the MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


Because current wireless communication requires high reliability in a limited bandwidth environment, this paper proposes the variable modulation scheme based on the codebook. The variable modulation scheme adjusts transmission power using the codebook in accordance with hannel state. Also, if the codebook is composed of many bits, the reliability is more improved by the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the performance of proposed scheme has better reliability than the the performance of conventional scheme.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, variable modulation, codebook, channel state

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1816 Impact of Endogenous Risk Factors on Risk Cost in KSA PPP Projects

Authors: Saleh Alzahrani, Halim Boussabaine


The Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts are produced taking into account the reason that the configuration, development, operation, and financing of an open undertaking is to be recompensed to a private gathering inside a solitary contractual structure. PPP venture dangers are ordinarily connected with the improvement and development of another resource and in addition its operation for a considerable length of time. Without a doubt, the most genuine outcomes of dangers amid the development period are value and time overwhelms. These occasions are amongst the most extensively utilized situations as a part of worth for cash investigation dangers. The wellsprings of danger change over the life cycle of a PPP venture. In customary acquirement, the general population segment ordinarily needs to cover all value trouble from these dangers. At any rate there is bounty confirmation to recommend that cost pain is a standard in a percentage of the tasks that are conveyed under customary obtainment. This paper means to research the effect of endogenous dangers on expense overwhelm in KSA PPP ventures. The paper displays a brief writing survey on PPP danger evaluating systems, and after that presents an affiliation model between danger occasions and expense invade in KSA. The paper finishes up with considerations for future examination.

Keywords: PPP, risk pricing, impact of risk, Endogenous risks

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1815 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi


This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: variable stiffness, coil spring, vibration control, computer science

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1814 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran


Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

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1813 System Response of a Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

Authors: Daniel E. Martin, Chenghai Yang


Variable-rate aerial application systems are becoming more readily available; however, aerial applicators typically only use the systems for constant-rate application of materials, allowing the systems to compensate for upwind and downwind ground speed variations. Much of the resistance to variable-rate aerial application system adoption in the U.S. pertains to applicator’s trust in the systems to turn on and off automatically as desired. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system under field conditions to demonstrate both the response and accuracy of the system to desired application rate inputs. This study involved planting oats in a 35-acre fallow field during the winter months to establish a uniform green backdrop in early spring. A binary (on/off) prescription application map was generated and a variable-rate aerial application of glyphosate was made to the field. Airborne multispectral imagery taken before and two weeks after the application documented actual field deposition and efficacy of the glyphosate. When compared to the prescription application map, these data provided application system response and accuracy information. The results of this study will be useful for quantifying and documenting the response and accuracy of a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system so that aerial applicators can be more confident in their capabilities and the use of these systems can increase, taking advantage of all that aerial variable-rate technologies have to offer.

Keywords: variable-rate, aerial application, remote sensing, precision application

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1812 LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes NSCLC Progression through Acting as a ceRNA of miR-377-3p

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li


Recently, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 has been identified as an oncogenic gene in multiple cancer types and elevated expression of NEAT1 was tightly linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for this observation has not been characterized in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our studies, we identified NEAT1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients and was a novel regulator of NSCLC progression. Patients whose tumors had high NEAT1 expression had a shorter overall survival than patients whose tumors had low NEAT1 expression. Further, NEAT1 significantly accelerates NSCLC cell growth and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Additionally, by using bioinformatics study and RNA pull down combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that NEAT1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for has-miR-377-3p, antagonized its functions and led to the de-repression of its endogenous targets E2F3, which was a core oncogene in promoting NSCLC progression. Taken together, these observations imply that the NEAT1 modulated the expression of E2F3 gene by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may build up the missing link between the regulatory miRNA network and NSCLC progression.

Keywords: long non-coding RNA NEAT1, hsa-miRNA-377-3p, E2F3, non-small cell lung cancer, tumorigenesis

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1811 Biological Regulation of Endogenous Enzymatic Activity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) with Protease Inhibitors Chickpea in Model Systems

Authors: Delgado-Meza M., Minor-Pérez H.


Protease is the generic name of enzymes that hydrolyze proteins. These are classified in the subgroup EC3.4.11-99X of the classification enzymes. In food technology the proteolysis is used to modify functional and nutritional properties of food, and in some cases this proteolysis may cause food spoilage. In general, seafood and rainbow trout have accelerated decomposition process once it has done its capture, due to various factors such as the endogenous enzymatic activity that can result in loss of structure, shape and firmness, besides the release of amino acid precursors of biogenic amines. Some studies suggest the use of protease inhibitors from legume as biological regulators of proteolytic activity. The enzyme inhibitors are any substance that reduces the rate of a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the proteolytic activity of enzymes in extracts of rainbow trout with protease inhibitors obtained from chickpea flour. Different proportions of rainbow trout enzyme extract (75%, 50% and 25%) and extract chickpea enzyme inhibitors were evaluated. Chickpea inhibitors were obtained by mixing 5 g of flour in 30 mL of pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. The sample was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was stored at -15°C. Likewise, 20 g of rainbow trout were ground in 20 mL of phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 and the mixture was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was used for the study. In each treatment was determined the specific enzymatic activity with the technique of Kunitz, using hemoglobin as substrate for the enzymes acid fraction and casein for basic enzymes. Also biuret protein was quantified for each treatment. The results showed for fraction of basic enzymes in the treatments evaluated, that were inhibition of endogenous enzymatic activity. Inhibition values compared to control were 51.05%, 56.59% and 59.29% when the proportions of endogenous enzymes extract rainbow trout were 75%, 50% and 25% and the remaining volume used was extract with inhibitors. Treatments with acid enzymes showed no reduction in enzyme activity. In conclusion chickpea flour reduced the endogenous enzymatic activity of rainbow trout, which may favor its application to increase the half-life of this food. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: rainbouw trout, enzyme inhibitors, proteolysis, enzyme activity

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1810 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers


The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, morphine, opiorphin

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1809 Endogeneity between Shari'ah Governance and Board Governance and Its Impact on Financial Stability

Authors: Sabur Mollah, Asma Mobarek


This study aims to explore the endogenous relationship between Shari’ah governance and board governance for Islamic banks to identify complementary or substituting relationship between these governance parameters. By using a sample of 161 Islamic Banks from 24 countries for the period of 2005-2013, we show an endogenous relationship between Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) and Board of Directors (BoD). In this relationship, SSB and BoD complement each other. We also show that this complementary relationship between SSB and BoD helps enhance both management and asset quality, but mitigates capital adequacy, earnings, and liquidity in Islamic banks. The study has important implications for financial stability in the Islamic banking system.

Keywords: Shari’ah Supervisory Board, Boards of Directors, Islamic banking, financial stability

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1808 The Investigation of Endogenous Intoxication and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Giardiasis Before and After Treatment

Authors: R. H. Begaydarova, B. Zh. Kultanov, B. T. Esilbaeva, G. E. Nasakaeva, Y. Yukhnevich, G. K. Alshynbekova, A. E. Dyusembaeva


Background: The level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) allows to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease and is a criterion for the effectiveness of the treatment. The detection the products of lipidperoxidation cascade, such as conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde in biological material, has an important role in the development of pathogenesis, the diagnosis and prognosis in different parasitic diseases. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of endogenous intoxication and indicators of lipid peroxidation in patients with giardiasis before and after treatment. Materials and methods: Endogenous intoxication was evaluated in patients with giardiasis in the level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) in the blood. The amount of MMP and products of lipid peroxidation were determined in the blood of 198 patients with giardiasis, 129 of them were women (65%), 69 were men (35%). The MMP level was detected for comparison in the blood of 84 healthy volunteers. The lipid peroxidation were determined in 40 healthy men and women without giardiasis and history of chronic diseases. Data were processed by conventional methods of variation statistics, we calculated the arithmetic mean (M) and standard dispersion (m). t-test (t) was used to assess differences. Results: The level of MMP in the blood was significantly higher in patients with giardiasis in comparison with group of healthy men and women. MMP concentration in the blood of women with Giardia was 2.5 times greater than that of the comparison groups of women. The level of MMP exceeds more than 6 times in men with giardiasis. The decrease in the intensity of endogenous intoxication was two weeks after antigiardia therapy, both men and women. According to the study, a statistically significant increase in the level of all the studied parameters lipid peroxidation cascade was observed in the blood of men with giardiasis, with the exception of the total primary production (NGN). The treatment of giardiasis helped to stabilize the level of almost all metabolites of lipid peroxidation cascade. The exception was level of malondialdehyde, it was significantly elevated to compare with the control group and after treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the MMP level was significantly higher in blood of patients with giardiasis than in comparison group. This is evidence of severe endogenous intoxication caused by giardia infection. The accumulation of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in the blood of men and women. These processes tend to be more active in men than in women. Antigiardiasis therapy contributed to the normalization of almost all the studied indicators of lipid peroxidation in the blood of participants, except the level malondialdehyde in the blood of men.

Keywords: enzymes of antioxidant protection, giardiasis, blood, treatment

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1807 Bayesian Variable Selection in Quantile Regression with Application to the Health and Retirement Study

Authors: Priya Kedia, Kiranmoy Das


There is a rich literature on variable selection in regression setting. However, most of these methods assume normality for the response variable under consideration for implementing the methodology and establishing the statistical properties of the estimates. In many real applications, the distribution for the response variable may be non-Gaussian, and one might be interested in finding the best subset of covariates at some predetermined quantile level. We develop dynamic Bayesian approach for variable selection in quantile regression framework. We use a zero-inflated mixture prior for the regression coefficients, and consider the asymmetric Laplace distribution for the response variable for modeling different quantiles of its distribution. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for our computation. Our proposed approach is assessed through extensive simulation studies, and real application of the proposed approach is also illustrated. We consider the data from health and retirement study conducted by the University of Michigan, and select the important predictors when the outcome of interest is out-of-pocket medical cost, which is considered as an important measure for financial risk. Our analysis finds important predictors at different quantiles of the outcome, and thus enhance our understanding on the effects of different predictors on the out-of-pocket medical cost.

Keywords: variable selection, quantile regression, Gibbs sampler, asymmetric Laplace distribution

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1806 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian


Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

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1805 The Effect of Non-Normality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim


The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are non-normal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and non-normality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under non-normality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, normality conditions, non-normality, PLS-SEM

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1804 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju


Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

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1803 Rd-PLS Regression: From the Analysis of Two Blocks of Variables to Path Modeling

Authors: E. Tchandao Mangamana, V. Cariou, E. Vigneau, R. Glele Kakai, E. M. Qannari


A new definition of a latent variable associated with a dataset makes it possible to propose variants of the PLS2 regression and the multi-block PLS (MB-PLS). We shall refer to these variants as Rd-PLS regression and Rd-MB-PLS respectively because they are inspired by both Redundancy analysis and PLS regression. Usually, a latent variable t associated with a dataset Z is defined as a linear combination of the variables of Z with the constraint that the length of the loading weights vector equals 1. Formally, t=Zw with ‖w‖=1. Denoting by Z' the transpose of Z, we define herein, a latent variable by t=ZZ’q with the constraint that the auxiliary variable q has a norm equal to 1. This new definition of a latent variable entails that, as previously, t is a linear combination of the variables in Z and, in addition, the loading vector w=Z’q is constrained to be a linear combination of the rows of Z. More importantly, t could be interpreted as a kind of projection of the auxiliary variable q onto the space generated by the variables in Z, since it is collinear to the first PLS1 component of q onto Z. Consider the situation in which we aim to predict a dataset Y from another dataset X. These two datasets relate to the same individuals and are assumed to be centered. Let us consider a latent variable u=YY’q to which we associate the variable t= XX’YY’q. Rd-PLS consists in seeking q (and therefore u and t) so that the covariance between t and u is maximum. The solution to this problem is straightforward and consists in setting q to the eigenvector of YY’XX’YY’ associated with the largest eigenvalue. For the determination of higher order components, we deflate X and Y with respect to the latent variable t. Extending Rd-PLS to the context of multi-block data is relatively easy. Starting from a latent variable u=YY’q, we consider its ‘projection’ on the space generated by the variables of each block Xk (k=1, ..., K) namely, tk= XkXk'YY’q. Thereafter, Rd-MB-PLS seeks q in order to maximize the average of the covariances of u with tk (k=1, ..., K). The solution to this problem is given by q, eigenvector of YY’XX’YY’, where X is the dataset obtained by horizontally merging datasets Xk (k=1, ..., K). For the determination of latent variables of order higher than 1, we use a deflation of Y and Xk with respect to the variable t= XX’YY’q. In the same vein, extending Rd-MB-PLS to the path modeling setting is straightforward. Methods are illustrated on the basis of case studies and performance of Rd-PLS and Rd-MB-PLS in terms of prediction is compared to that of PLS2 and MB-PLS.

Keywords: multiblock data analysis, partial least squares regression, path modeling, redundancy analysis

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1802 Thermal Fracture Analysis of Fibrous Composites with Variable Fiber Spacing Using Jk-Integral

Authors: Farid Saeidi, Serkan Dag


In this study, fracture analysis of a fibrous composite laminate with variable fiber spacing is carried out using Jk-integral method. The laminate is assumed to be under thermal loading. Jk-integral is formulated by using the constitutive relations of plane orthotropic thermoelasticity. Developed domain independent form of the Jk-integral is then integrated into the general purpose finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical results are generated so as to assess the influence of variable fiber spacing on mode I and II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and T-stress. For verification, some of the results are compared to those obtained using displacement correlation technique (DCT).

Keywords: Jk-integral, Variable Fiber Spacing, Thermoelasticity, T-stress, Finite Element Method, Fibrous Composite.

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1801 A Two-Stage Bayesian Variable Selection Method with the Extension of Lasso for Geo-Referenced Data

Authors: Georgiana Onicescu, Yuqian Shen


Due to the complex nature of geo-referenced data, multicollinearity of the risk factors in public health spatial studies is a commonly encountered issue, which leads to low parameter estimation accuracy because it inflates the variance in the regression analysis. To address this issue, we proposed a two-stage variable selection method by extending the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to the Bayesian spatial setting, investigating the impact of risk factors to health outcomes. Specifically, in stage I, we performed the variable selection using Bayesian Lasso and several other variable selection approaches. Then, in stage II, we performed the model selection with only the selected variables from stage I and compared again the methods. To evaluate the performance of the two-stage variable selection methods, we conducted a simulation study with different distributions for the risk factors, using geo-referenced count data as the outcome and Michigan as the research region. We considered the cases when all candidate risk factors are independently normally distributed, or follow a multivariate normal distribution with different correlation levels. Two other Bayesian variable selection methods, Binary indicator, and the combination of Binary indicator and Lasso were considered and compared as alternative methods. The simulation results indicated that the proposed two-stage Bayesian Lasso variable selection method has the best performance for both independent and dependent cases considered. When compared with the one-stage approach, and the other two alternative methods, the two-stage Bayesian Lasso approach provides the highest estimation accuracy in all scenarios considered.

Keywords: Lasso, Bayesian analysis, spatial analysis, variable selection

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1800 DEA-Based Variable Structure Position Control of DC Servo Motor

Authors: Ladan Maijama’a, Jibril D. Jiya, Ejike C. Anene


This paper presents Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) based Variable Structure Position Control (VSPC) of Laboratory DC servomotor (LDCSM). DEA is employed for the optimal tuning of Variable Structure Control (VSC) parameters for position control of a DC servomotor. The VSC combines the techniques of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) that gives the advantages of small overshoot, improved step response characteristics, faster dynamic response and adaptability to plant parameter variations, suppressed influences of disturbances and uncertainties in system behavior. The results of the simulation responses of the VSC parameters adjustment by DEA were performed in Matlab Version 2010a platform and yield better dynamic performance compared with the untuned VSC designed.

Keywords: differential evolution algorithm, laboratory DC servomotor, sliding mode control, variable structure control

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1799 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat


The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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1798 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

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1797 IL-33 Production in Murine Macrophages via PGE2-E Prostanoid Receptor 2/4 Signaling

Authors: Sachin K. Samuchiwal, Barbara Balestrieri, Amanda Paskavitz, Hannah Raff, Joshua A. Boyce


IL-33, a recently discovered member of the IL-1 cytokine family, binds to the TLR/IL1R super family receptor ST2 and induces type 2 immune responses. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in structural cells at barrier sites such as skin, lung, and intestine, and also inducibly expressed by hematopoietic cells including macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce de novo IL-33 expression, and also causes the production of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Because PGE2 can regulate macrophage functions through both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, the potential interplay of endogenous PGE2 on IL-33 production was explored. Bone-marrow derived murine macrophages (bmMF) that lack either mPGES-1 or EP2 receptor expression were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of exogenous PGE2 along with pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The study results demonstrate that endogenous PGE2 markedly enhances LPS-induced IL-33 production by bmMFs via EP2 receptors. Moreover, exogenous PGE2 can amplify LPS-induced IL-33 expression dominantly by EP2 and partly by EP4 receptors by a pathway involving cAMP and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), but not protein kinase A (PKA). Though both IL-33 production and PGE2 generation in response to LPS require activation of both p38 MAPK and NF-κB, PGE2 did not influence this activation. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that endogenous PGE2 signaling through EP2 and EP4 receptors is a prerequisite for LPS-induced IL-33 production in bmMFs and the underlying cAMP mediated pathway involves EPAC. Since IL-33 is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine in various pathological disorders, this PGE2-EP2/EP4-cAMP mediated pathway can be exploited to intervene in IL-33 driven pathologies.

Keywords: bone marrow macrophages, EPAC, IL-33, PGE2

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1796 Solution to Riemann Hypothesis Critical Strip Zone Using Non-Linear Complex Variable Functions

Authors: Manojkumar Sabanayagam


The Riemann hypothesis is an unsolved millennium problem and the search for a solution to the Riemann hypothesis is to study the pattern of prime number distribution. The scope of this paper is to identify the solution for the critical strip and the critical line axis, which has the non-trivial zero solutions using complex plane functions. The Riemann graphical plot is constructed using a linear complex variable function (X+iY) and is applicable only when X>1. But the investigation shows that complex variable behavior has two zones. The first zone is the transformation zone, where the definition of the complex plane should be a non-linear variable which is the critical strip zone in the graph (X=0 to 1). The second zone is the transformed zone (X>1) defined using linear variables conventionally. This paper deals with the Non-linear function in the transformation zone derived using cosine and sinusoidal time lag w.r.t imaginary number ‘i’. The alternate complex variable (Cosθ+i Sinθ) is used to understand the variables in the critical strip zone. It is concluded that the non-trivial zeros present in the Real part 0.5 are because the linear function is not the correct approach in the critical strip. This paper provides the solution to Reimann's hypothesis.

Keywords: Reimann hypothesis, critical strip, complex plane, transformation zone

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1795 Institutional and Economic Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Comparative Analysis of Three Clusters of Countries

Authors: Ismatilla Mardanov


There are three types of countries, the first of which is willing to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) in enormous amounts and do whatever it takes to make this happen. Therefore, FDI pours into such countries. In the second cluster of countries, even if the country is suffering tremendously from the shortage of investments, the governments are hesitant to attract investments because they are at the hands of local oligarchs/cartels. Therefore, FDI inflows are moderate to low in such countries. The third type is countries whose companies prefer investing in the most efficient locations globally and are hesitant to invest in the homeland. Sorting countries into such clusters, the present study examines the essential institutions and economic factors that make these countries different. Past literature has discussed various determinants of FDI in all kinds of countries. However, it did not classify countries based on government motivation, institutional setup, and economic factors. A specific approach to each target country is vital for corporate foreign direct investment risk analysis and decisions. The research questions are 1. What specific institutional and economic factors paint the pictures of the three clusters; 2. What specific institutional and economic factors are determinants of FDI; 3. Which of the determinants are endogenous and exogenous variables? 4. How can institutions and economic and political variables impact corporate investment decisions Hypothesis 1: In the first type, country institutions and economic factors will be favorable for FDI. Hypothesis 2: In the second type, even if country economic factors favor FDI, institutions will not. Hypothesis 3: In the third type, even if country institutions favorFDI, economic factors will not favor domestic investments. Therefore, FDI outflows occur in large amounts. Methods: Data come from open sources of the World Bank, the Fraser Institute, the Heritage Foundation, and other reliable sources. The dependent variable is FDI inflows. The independent variables are institutions (economic and political freedom indices) and economic factors (natural, material, and labor resources, government consumption, infrastructure, minimum wage, education, unemployment, tax rates, consumer price index, inflation, and others), the endogeneity or exogeneity of which are tested in the instrumental variable estimation. Political rights and civil liberties are used as instrumental variables. Results indicate that in the first type, both country institutions and economic factors, specifically labor and logistics/infrastructure/energy intensity, are favorable for potential investors. In the second category of countries, the risk of loss of assets is very high due to governmentshijacked by local oligarchs/cartels/special interest groups. In the third category of countries, the local economic factors are unfavorable for domestic investment even if the institutions are well acceptable. Cluster analysis and instrumental variable estimation were used to reveal cause-effect patterns in each of the clusters.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, economy, institutions, instrumental variable estimation

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1794 Productivity and Household Welfare Impact of Technology Adoption: A Microeconometric Analysis

Authors: Tigist Mekonnen Melesse


Since rural households are basically entitled to food through own production, improving productivity might lead to enhance the welfare of rural population through higher food availability at the household level and lowering the price of agricultural products. Increasing agricultural productivity through the use of improved technology is one of the desired outcomes from sensible food security and agricultural policy. The ultimate objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of improved agricultural technology adoption on smallholders’ crop productivity and welfare. The study is conducted in Ethiopia covering 1500 rural households drawn from four regions and 15 rural villages based on data collected by Ethiopian Rural Household Survey. Endogenous treatment effect model is employed in order to account for the selection bias on adoption decision that is expected from the self-selection of households in technology adoption. The treatment indicator, technology adoption is a binary variable indicating whether the household used improved seeds and chemical fertilizer or not. The outcome variables were cereal crop productivity, measured in real value of production and welfare of households, measured in real per capita consumption expenditure. Results of the analysis indicate that there is positive and significant effect of improved technology use on rural households’ crop productivity and welfare in Ethiopia. Adoption of improved seeds and chemical fertilizer alone will increase the crop productivity by 7.38 and 6.32 percent per year of each. Adoption of such technologies is also found to improve households’ welfare by 1.17 and 0.25 percent per month of each. The combined effect of both technologies when adopted jointly is increasing crop productivity by 5.82 percent and improving welfare by 0.42 percent. Besides, educational level of household head, farm size, labor use, participation in extension program, expenditure for input and number of oxen positively affect crop productivity and household welfare, while large household size negatively affect welfare of households. In our estimation, the average treatment effect of technology adoption (average treatment effect on the treated, ATET) is the same as the average treatment effect (ATE). This implies that the average predicted outcome for the treatment group is similar to the average predicted outcome for the whole population.

Keywords: Endogenous treatment effect, technologies, productivity, welfare, Ethiopia

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