Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1661

Search results for: optimum stratification

1661 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao

Abstract:

In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: auxiliary variable, dynamic programming technique, nonlinear programming problem, optimum stratification, uniform distribution

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1660 Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

Authors: D. K. Rao, M. G. M. Khan, K. G. Reddy

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy is skewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details of the proposed method. The proposed technique is useful to obtain OSB and OSS for a Pareto type skewed population, which minimizes the variance of the estimate of population mean.

Keywords: stratified sampling, optimum strata boundaries, optimum sample size, pareto distribution, mathematical programming problem, dynamic programming technique

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1659 Social Stratification in Dubai and Its Effects on Higher Education

Authors: P. J. Moore-Jones

Abstract:

Emirati students studying at the University of the Emirates, one of three major public institutions of higher learning in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), have a wide demographic of faculty members teaching them an equally wide variety of courses. These faculty members bring with them their own cultural assumptions, methods, expectations, educational practices and use of language. The history of multiculturalism in the UAE coupled with the contemporary multiculturalism that exists in higher education Dubai create intriguing phenomena within the classroom. This study seeks to delve into students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the social stratification that exist in this context. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with both and analyzed from an interpretive perspective. Findings suggest the social stratification with is deeply-seeded in the multicultural history of the region and country are reflected in the everyday interworkings of education in modern day Dubai. The relevance of this research lies in that these findings can provide valuable insights into not only the attitudes and perceptions of these Emirati students might also be applicable to any of those student populations may exist.

Keywords: social stratification, intercultural competence, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

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1658 Egalitarianism and Social Stratification: An Overview of the Caste System among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka

Authors: Mohamed Faslan

Abstract:

This paper describes how caste-based differentiation functions among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka despite Islamic egalitarian principles. Such differences are not promoted by religious teachings, mosques, or the various Islamic religious denominations. Instead, it underpins a hereditary, hierarchical stratification in social structure. Since Islam is against social stratification and promotes egalitarianism, what are the persuasive social structures that organize the existing caste system among Southern Muslims? To answer this puzzle, this paper discusses and analyses the caste system under these five subsections: ancestry; marriage; geography; mosque ownership or trustees; and occupation. The study of caste in Sri Lanka is generally compartmentalized into separate Sinhala and Tamil systems. Most caste studies have focused on the characteristics, upward mobility, or discrimination of specific castes in relation to other castes within ethnic systems. As an operational definition, in this paper, by “southern” or the south of Sri Lanka, I refer to the Kalutara, Galle and Matara Districts. This research was conducted in these three districts, and the respondents were selected purposively. Community history interviews were used as a tool for collecting information, and grounded theory used for analysis. Caste stratification among the Southern Muslims of Sri Lanka is directly connected to whether they are descended from Arab or South Indian ancestors. Arab ancestors are considered upper caste and South Indian ancestors are considered lower caste. Endogamy is the most serious driving factor keeping caste system functioning among Muslims while the other factors—geography, mosques, and occupations—work as supporting factors.

Keywords: caste, social stratification, Sri Lanka Muslims, endogamy

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
1657 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
1656 Falling and Rising of Solid Particles in Thermally Stratified Fluid

Authors: Govind Sharma, Bahni Ray

Abstract:

Ubiquitous nature of particle settling is governed by the presence of the surrounding fluid medium. Thermally stratified fluid alters the settling phenomenon of particles as well as their interactions. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is carried out with an open-source library Immersed Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement (IBAMR) to quantify the fundamental mechanism based on Distributed Lagrangian Multiplier (DLM). The presence of background density gradient due to thermal stratification replaces the drafting-kissing-tumbling in a homogeneous fluid to drafting-kissing-separation behavior. Simulations are performed with a varying range of particle-fluid density ratios, and it is shown that the stratification effect on particle interactions varies with density ratio. It is observed that the combined role of buoyancy and inertia govern the physical mechanism of particle-particle interaction.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, distributed lagrangian multiplier, rigidity constraint, sedimentation, stratification

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1655 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

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1654 Expected Present Value of Losses in the Computation of Optimum Seismic Design Parameters

Authors: J. García-Pérez

Abstract:

An approach to compute optimum seismic design parameters is presented. It is based on the optimization of the expected present value of the total cost, which includes the initial cost of structures as well as the cost due to earthquakes. Different types of seismicity models are considered, including one for characteristic earthquakes. Uncertainties are included in some variables to observe the influence on optimum values. Optimum seismic design coefficients are computed for three different structural types representing high, medium and low rise buildings, located near and far from the seismic sources. Ordinary and important structures are considered in the analysis. The results of optimum values show an important influence of seismicity models as well as of uncertainties on the variables.

Keywords: importance factors, optimum parameters, seismic losses, seismic risk, total cost

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1653 How to Applicate Knowledge Management in Security Environment within the Scope of Optimum Balance Model

Authors: Hakan Erol, Altan Elibol, Ömer Eryılmaz, Mehmet Şimşek

Abstract:

Organizations aim to manage information in a most possible effective way for sustainment and development. In doing so, they apply various procedures and methods. The very same situation is valid for each service of Armed Forces. During long-lasting endeavors such as shaping and maintaining security environment, supporting and securing peace, knowledge management is a crucial asset. Optimum Balance Model aims to promote the system from a decisive point to a higher decisive point. In this context, this paper analyses the application of optimum balance model to knowledge management in Armed Forces and tries to find answer to the question how Optimum Balance Model is integrated in knowledge management.

Keywords: optimum balance model, knowledge management, security environment, supporting peace

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1652 Crisis of Sinti (Gypsy) Ethnicity and Identity

Authors: Rinaldo Diricchardi

Abstract:

In this paper, author theoretically and empirically explores the ethnic identity of the descendants of the Indian travelers in Slovenia Sinti, who are in modern time, for the researchers, still a "tabula rasa". He investigates the extent to which Sinti ethnic particular identities (e.g. Sinti chiefs, Sinti’s individual political structure…), the Sinti language (dialect, which is topic and it is not allowed to be spoken in public), culture and habits still in the impact of anachronism, moreover, to what extent the community is still “tabula rasa” (to non–Sinti population). The relationships within the Sinti entity: "in se–intra se" is a mirror of duality of the relation of "extra se". Is it possible that the concepts of social/economical relationships are reflecting the Sinti community, moreover, the possible influence of minority from outside to inside? Is the stratification of their ethnicity and their language ethnicism? In addition, is the result of stratification of discourse still inherited and discounted the Indian caste system? In present article, author uses the word Gypsy with high respect and with a large measure of prudentiality, without negative connotations. At the first Gypsy World Congress in 1971 in London the Sinti did not accept unification with Romani, but Sinti and others Gypsies still keep the name Gypsy/Romanichals, Gypsy/Kale, Gypsy/Manouches, Gypsy/Manoesje, Gypsy/Xoraxano, Gypsy/Machaways and Gypsy/Kalderashe. In addition, all of the European documents taken into account respect and use the name Gypsy.

Keywords: Sinti, Gypsy, identity, stratification, inclusion, exclusion

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1651 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani

Abstract:

Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

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1650 A Comparative Analysis of Social Stratification in the Participation of Women in Agricultural Activity: A Case Study of District Khushab (Punjab) and D. I. Khan (KPK), Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Ahmad Umer

Abstract:

Since last few decades a question is raising on the subject of the importance of women in different societies of the world particularly in the developing societies of Asia and Africa. Female population constitutes almost 50% of the total population of the world and is playing a significant role in the economy with male population. In Pakistan, a developing country of Asia with majority of Muslim population, working women role is more focused. Women of rural background who are working as voluntary workers and their working hours are neither recorded nor recognized. Agricultural statistics shows that the female participation rate is below 40% while other sources claim them below 20%. Here in present study, another effort has been made to compare the women role in two different provinces of Pakistan to analyze the participation of women in agricultural activities like sowing, picking, irrigating the fields, harvesting and threshing of crops, caring and feeding of the animals, collecting the firewood and etc,as without these activities the farming would be incomplete. One hundred villages in the district Khushab (Punjab) and one hundred villages in district D.I.Khan (KPK) were selected and 33% of the families of each village have been interviewed to study their input in agriculture work. Another important feature is the social stratification therefore the contribution by different variables like the ownership, tenancy, education and caste has also been studied.

Keywords: caste, social stratification, tenancy, voluntary workers

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1649 Determination of Optimum Water Consumptive Using Deficit Irrigation Model for Barely: A Case Study in Arak, Iran

Authors: Mohsen Najarchi

Abstract:

This research was carried out in five fields (5-15 hectares) in Arak located in center of Iran, to determine optimum level of water consumed for Barely in four stages growth (vegetative, yield formation, flowering, and ripening). Actual evapotranspiration was calculated using measured water requirement in the fields. Five levels of water requirement equal to 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 percents formed the treatments. To determine the optimum level of water requirement linear programming was used. The study showed 60 percent water requirement (40 percent deficit irrigation) has been the optimum level of irrigation for winter wheat in four stages of growth. Comparison between all of the treatments indicated above with normal condition (100% water requirement) shows increasing in water use efficiency. Although 40% deficit irrigation treatment lead to decrease of 38% in yield, net benefit was increasing in 11.37%. Furthermore, in comparison with normal condition, 70% of water requirement increased water use efficiency as 30%.

Keywords: optimum, deficit irrigation, water use efficiency, evapotranspiration

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1648 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: nuclear reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von-Misses stress

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1647 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian

Abstract:

Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1646 Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

Authors: Alper Akin, Ibrahim Aydogdu

Abstract:

This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: optimum structural design, hybrid techniques, teaching-learning based optimization, harmony search algorithm, minimum weight, steel space frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
1645 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal

Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Add to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similarly to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance

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1644 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: catalase-peroxidase, enzyme production, peroxidase, polymerase chain reaction, proteobacteria

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1643 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Hanifa Taher, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Yousef Haik, Mohammed Farid

Abstract:

Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae is a promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. The effect of extraction variables (temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate) and reaction variables (enzyme loading, incubation time, methanol to lipids molar ratio and temperature) were considered. Process parameters and their effects were studied using a full factorial analysis of both. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was used to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction and reaction steps. For extraction, the optimum conditions were 53 °C and 500 bar, whereas for the reaction the optimum conditions were 35% enzyme loading, 4 h reaction, 9:1 molar ratio and 50 oC. At these optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82 %. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: biodiesel, lipase, supercritical CO2, standards

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1642 Simulation of Optimum Sculling Angle for Adaptive Rowing

Authors: Pornthep Rachnavy

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we believe that there are a significant relationship between sculling angle and sculling style among adaptive rowing. Second, we introduce a methodology used for adaptive rowing, namely simulation, to identify effectiveness of adaptive rowing. For our study we simulate the arms only single scull of adaptive rowing. The method for rowing fastest under the 1000 meter was investigated by study sculling angle using the simulation modeling. A simulation model of a rowing system was developed using the Matlab software package base on equations of motion consist of many variation for moving the boat such as oars length, blade velocity and sculling style. The boat speed, power and energy consumption on the system were compute. This simulation modeling can predict the force acting on the boat. The optimum sculling angle was performing by computer simulation for compute the solution. Input to the model are sculling style of each rower and sculling angle. Outputs of the model are boat velocity at 1000 meter. The present study suggests that the optimum sculling angle exist depends on sculling styles. The optimum angle for blade entry and release with respect to the perpendicular through the pin of the first style is -57.00 and 22.0 degree. The optimum angle for blade entry and release with respect to the perpendicular through the pin of the second style is -57.00 and 22.0 degree. The optimum angle for blade entry and release with respect to the perpendicular through the pin of the third style is -51.57 and 28.65 degree. The optimum angle for blade entry and release with respect to the perpendicular through the pin of the fourth style is -45.84 and 34.38 degree. A theoretical simulation for rowing has been developed and presented. The results suggest that it may be advantageous for the rowers to select the sculling angles proper to sculling styles. The optimum sculling angles of the rower depends on the sculling styles made by each rower. The investigated of this paper can be concludes in three directions: 1;. There is the optimum sculling angle in arms only single scull of adaptive rowing. 2. The optimum sculling angles depend on the sculling styles. 3. Computer simulation of rowing can identify opportunities for improving rowing performance by utilizing the kinematic description of rowing. The freedom to explore alternatives in speed, thrust and timing with the computer simulation will provide the coach with a tool for systematic assessments of rowing technique In addition, the ability to use the computer to examine the very complex movements during rowing will help both the rower and the coach to conceptualize the components of movements that may have been previously unclear or even undefined.

Keywords: simulation, sculling, adaptive, rowing

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1641 Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows

Authors: S. Pradhan, V. Kumaran

Abstract:

Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O (1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter. In this study, we have obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the secondary flows generated at the cylinder curved surface and at the end-caps due to linear wall temperature gradient and external gas inflow/outflow at the axis of the cylinder. The effect of sources of mass, momentum and energy within the flow domain are also analyzed. The results of the analytical solutions are compared with the results of DSMC simulations for three types of forcing, a wall temperature gradient, inflow/outflow of gas along the axis, and mass/momentum input due to inserts within the flow. The comparison reveals that the boundary conditions in the simulations and analysis have to be matched with care. The commonly used diffuse reflection boundary conditions at solid walls in DSMC simulations result in a non-zero slip velocity as well as a temperature slip (gas temperature at the wall is different from wall temperature). These have to be incorporated in the analysis in order to make quantitative predictions. In the case of mass/momentum/energy sources within the flow, it is necessary to ensure that the homogeneous boundary conditions are accurately satisfied in the simulations. When these precautions are taken, there is excellent agreement between analysis and simulations, to within 10 %, even when the stratification parameter is as low as 0.707, the Reynolds number is as low as 100 and the aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylinder is as low as 2, and the secondary flow velocity is as high as 0.2 times the maximum base flow velocity.

Keywords: rotating flows, generalized onsager and carrier-Maslen model, DSMC simulations, rarefied gas flow

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1640 Seismic Analysis of Adjacent Buildings Connected with Dampers

Authors: Devyani D. Samarth, Sachin V. Bakre, Ratnesh Kumar

Abstract:

This work deals with two buildings adjacent to each other connected with dampers. The “Imperial Valley Earthquake - El Centro", "May 18, 1940 earthquake time history is used for dynamic analysis of the system in the time domain. The effectiveness of fluid joint dampers is then investigated in terms of the reduction of displacement, acceleration and base shear responses of adjacent buildings. Finally, an extensive parametric study is carried out to find optimum damper properties like stiffness (Kd) and damping coefficient (Cd) for adjacent buildings. Results show that using fluid dampers to connect the adjacent buildings of different fundamental frequencies can effectively reduce earthquake-induced responses of either building if damper optimum properties are selected.

Keywords: energy dissipation devices, time history analysis, viscous damper, optimum parameters

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1639 Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Processes and Water Resources Management

Authors: Walid K. M. Bani Salameh, Hesham Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Shannag

Abstract:

In Jordan having deficit atmospheric precipitation, an increase in water demand during summer months . Jordan can be regarded with a relatively high potential for waste water recycling and reuse. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of Total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill waste water (OMW) by the electrocoagulation (EC) process. In the combination of electrocoagulation by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes the optimum working pH was found to be in range 6. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD about 82.5% and 47.5% respectively at 45 mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. These results showed that the optimum TSS and COD removal was obtained at the optimum experimental parameters such as current density, pH, and reaction time.

Keywords: olive mill wastewater, electrode, electrocoagulation (EC), TSS, COD

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1638 Optimum Design of Grillage Systems Using Firefly Algorithm Optimization Method

Authors: F. Erdal, E. Dogan, F. E. Uz

Abstract:

In this study, firefly optimization based optimum design algorithm is presented for the grillage systems. Naming of the algorithm is derived from the fireflies, whose sense of movement is taken as a model in the development of the algorithm. Fireflies’ being unisex and attraction between each other constitute the basis of the algorithm. The design algorithm considers the displacement and strength constraints which are implemented from LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance Factor Design-American Institute of Steel Construction). It selects the appropriate W (Wide Flange)-sections for the transverse and longitudinal beams of the grillage system among 272 discrete W-section designations given in LRFD-AISC so that the design limitations described in LRFD are satisfied and the weight of the system is confined to be minimal. Number of design examples is considered to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm presented.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, steel grillage systems, optimum design, stochastic search techniques

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1637 Landfill Leachate Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Process

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Narumon Soparatana, Supinya Sutthima, Worapong Pattayawan, Saroj Klangkongsub, Songkiat Roddang, Pluek Wongpanich

Abstract:

The leachate wastewater is high contaminant water; hence it needs to be treated. The objective of this research was to determine the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, Phosphate (PO₄³⁻), Ammonia (NH₃) and color in leachate wastewater in the landfill area. The experiments were carried out in the optimum condition by pH, the Fenton reagent dosage (concentration of dosing Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂). The optimum pH is 3, the optimum [Fe²⁺]/[COD] and [H₂O₂]/[COD₀] = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio can be adjusted to 1 for landfill leachate wastewater (BOD₅/COD = 0.11). From the results, the Fenton process shall be investigated further to achieve the removal of phosphates in addition to COD and color.

Keywords: landfill leachate treatment, open dumpsite, Fenton process, wastewater treatment

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1636 Meta Model for Optimum Design Objective Function of Steel Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ali S. Mahdi

Abstract:

Except for simple problems of statically determinate structures, optimum design problems in structural engineering have implicit objective functions where structural analysis and design are essential within each searching loop. With these implicit functions, the structural engineer is usually enforced to write his/her own computer code for analysis, design, and searching for optimum design among many feasible candidates and cannot take advantage of available software for structural analysis, design, and searching for the optimum solution. The meta-model is a regression model used to transform an implicit objective function into objective one and leads in turn to decouple the structural analysis and design processes from the optimum searching process. With the meta-model, well-known software for structural analysis and design can be used in sequence with optimum searching software. In this paper, the meta-model has been used to develop an explicit objective function for plane steel frames subjected to dead, live, and seismic forces. Frame topology is assumed as predefined based on architectural and functional requirements. Columns and beams sections and different connections details are the main design variables in this study. Columns and beams are grouped to reduce the number of design variables and to make the problem similar to that adopted in engineering practice. Data for the implicit objective function have been generated based on analysis and assessment for many design proposals with CSI SAP software. These data have been used later in SPSS software to develop a pure quadratic nonlinear regression model for the explicit objective function. Good correlations with a coefficient, R2, in the range from 0.88 to 0.99 have been noted between the original implicit functions and the corresponding explicit functions generated with meta-model.

Keywords: meta-modal, objective function, steel frames, seismic analysis, design

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1635 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti

Abstract:

Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: cream, stability, In vitro, In vivo

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1634 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1633 On the Stability Exact Analysis of Tall Buildings with Outrigger System

Authors: Mahrooz Abed, Amir R. Masoodi

Abstract:

Many structural lateral systems are used in tall buildings such as rigid frames, braced frames, shear walls, tubular structures and core structures. Some efficient structures for drift control and base moment reduction in tall buildings is outrigger and belt truss systems. When adopting outrigger beams in building design, their location should be in an optimum position for an economical design. A range of different strategies has been employed to identify the optimum locations of these outrigger beams under wind load. However, there is an absence of scientific research or case studies dealing with optimum outrigger location using buckling analysis. In this paper, one outrigger system is considered at the middle of height of structure. The optimum location of outrigger will be found based on the buckling load limitation. The core of structure is modeled by a clamped tapered beam. The exact stiffness matrix of tapered beam is formulated based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. Finally, based on the buckling load of structure, the optimal location of outrigger will be found.

Keywords: tall buildings, outrigger system, buckling load, second-order effects, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1632 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 257