Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3295

Search results for: dynamic pricing (DP)

3295 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing: The Drivers, Benefits, and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Rashad Harb Riad Ismail

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the potential of Dynamic Pricing if deployed by mobile operators and analyse its effects from both operators and consumers side. Furthermore, to conclude, throughout the research study, the recommended conditions for successful Dynamic Pricing deployment, recommended factors identifying the type of markets where Dynamic Pricing can be effective, and proposal for a Dynamic Pricing stakeholders’ framework were presented. Currently, the mobile telecommunications industry is witnessing a dramatic growth rate in the data consumption, being fostered mainly by higher data speed technology as the 4G LTE and by the smart devices penetration rates. However, operators’ revenue from data services lags behind and is decupled from this data consumption growth. Pricing strategy is a key factor affecting this ecosystem. Since the introduction of the 4G LTE technology will increase the pace of data growth in multiples, consequently, if pricing strategies remain constant, then the revenue and usage gap will grow wider, risking the sustainability of the ecosystem. Therefore, this research study is focused on Dynamic Pricing for 4G LTE data services, researching the drivers, benefits and challenges of 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing and the feasibility of its deployment in practice from different perspectives including operators, regulators, consumers, and telecommunications equipment manufacturers point of views.

Keywords: LTE, dynamic pricing, EPC, research

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
3294 Potentials and Influencing Factors of Dynamic Pricing in Business: Empirical Insights of European Experts

Authors: Christopher Reichstein, Ralf-Christian Härting, Martina Häußler

Abstract:

With a continuously increasing speed of information exchange on the World Wide Web, retailers in the E-Commerce sector are faced with immense possibilities regarding different online purchase processes like dynamic price settings. By use of Dynamic Pricing, retailers are able to set short time price changes in order to optimize producer surplus. The empirical research illustrates the basics of Dynamic Pricing and identifies six influencing factors of Dynamic Pricing. The results of a structural equation modeling approach show five main drivers increasing the potential of dynamic price settings in the E-Commerce. Influencing factors are the knowledge of customers’ individual willingness to pay, rising sales, the possibility of customization, the data volume and the information about competitors’ pricing strategy.

Keywords: e-commerce, empirical research, experts, dynamic pricing (DP), influencing factors, potentials

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3293 Enhancing the Pricing Expertise of an Online Distribution Channel

Authors: Luis N. Pereira, Marco P. Carrasco

Abstract:

Dynamic pricing is a revenue management strategy in which hotel suppliers define, over time, flexible and different prices for their services for different potential customers, considering the profile of e-consumers and the demand and market supply. This means that the fundamentals of dynamic pricing are based on economic theory (price elasticity of demand) and market segmentation. This study aims to define a dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the e-consumers profile in order to improve the number of reservations of an online distribution channel. Segmentation methods (hierarchical and non-hierarchical) were used to identify and validate an optimal number of market segments. A profile of the market segments was studied, considering the characteristics of the e-consumers and the probability of reservation a room. In addition, the price elasticity of demand was estimated for each segment using econometric models. Finally, predictive models were used to define rules for classifying new e-consumers into pre-defined segments. The empirical study illustrates how it is possible to improve the intelligence of an online distribution channel system through an optimal dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the profile of each new e-consumer. A database of 11 million e-consumers of an online distribution channel was used in this study. The results suggest that an appropriate policy of market segmentation in using of online reservation systems is benefit for the service suppliers because it brings high probability of reservation and generates more profit than fixed pricing.

Keywords: dynamic pricing, e-consumers segmentation, online reservation systems, predictive analytics

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
3292 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics

Authors: Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim, Sharmila Karim

Abstract:

A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models such as the Black–Scholes model had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models were found focusing more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than empirical testing. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which comprises stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and illustrate the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.

Keywords: Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model, hybrid models, stochastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
3291 An Investigation for Information Asymmetry Nexus IPO Under-Pricing: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Saqib Mehmood, Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Asif Mehmood

Abstract:

This study intends to investigate the information asymmetry theories of IPO and under-pricing in Pakistan. The purpose of the study is to validate the information asymmetry about firm value which leads to under-pricing. A total of 55 IPOs listed from 2000-2011 were included in this study. OLS multiple regression was applied to achieve the objectives of this study. The findings of the study confirm the significance of information asymmetry on under-pricing in Pakistan. The findings have implications for issuing firms and prospective investors.

Keywords: information asymmetry, initial public offerings, under-pricing, firm value

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3290 Predatory Pricing at Services Markets: Incentives, Mechanisms, Standards of Proving, and Remedies

Authors: Mykola G. Boichuk

Abstract:

The paper concerns predatory pricing incentives and mechanisms in the markets of services, as well as its anti-competitive effects. As cost estimation at services markets is more complex in comparison to markets of goods, predatory pricing is more difficult to detect in the provision of services. For instance, this is often the case for professional services, which is analyzed in the paper. The special attention is given to employment markets as de-facto main supply markets for professional services markets. Also, the paper concerns such instances as travel agents' services, where predatory pricing may have implications not only on competition but on a wider range of public interest as well. Thus, the paper develops on effective ways to apply competition law rules on predatory pricing to the provision of services.

Keywords: employment markets, predatory pricing, services markets, unfair competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3289 Investigation on Cost Reflective Network Pricing and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing Methods for Transmission Service Charges

Authors: K. Iskandar, N. H. Radzi, R. Aziz, M. S. Kamaruddin, M. N. Abdullah, S. A. Jumaat

Abstract:

Nowadays many developing countries have been undergoing a restructuring process in the power electricity industry. This process has involved disaggregating former state-owned monopoly utilities both vertically and horizontally and introduced competition. The restructuring process has been implemented by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) started from 13 December 1998, began operating as a wholesale market for supply of electricity to retailers and end-users in Queensland, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria and South Australia. In this deregulated market, one of the important issues is the transmission pricing. Transmission pricing is a service that recovers existing and new cost of the transmission system. The regulation of the transmission pricing is important in determining whether the transmission service system is economically beneficial to both side of the users and utilities. Therefore, an efficient transmission pricing methodology plays an important role in the Australian NEM. In this paper, the transmission pricing methodologies that have been implemented by the Australian NEM which are the Cost Reflective Network Pricing (CRNP) and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing (MCRNP) methods are investigated for allocating the transmission service charges to the transmission users. A case study using 6-bus system is used in order to identify the best method that reflects a fair and equitable transmission service charge.

Keywords: cost-reflective network pricing method, modified cost-reflective network pricing method, restructuring process, transmission pricing

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
3288 Price Setting and the Role of Accounting Information

Authors: Chris Durden, Peter Lane

Abstract:

Cost accounting information potentially plays an important role in price setting. According to prior research fixed and variable cost information often is a key influence on pricing decisions. The literature highlights the benefits of applying systematic costing systems for enhanced price setting processes. This paper explores how costing systems are used for pricing decisions in the tourism and hospitality industry relative to other sources of price setting information. Pricing based on full cost information was found to have relatively greater importance and short-term survival and customer oriented objectives were found to be the more important pricing objectives. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a recent analysis of accounting’s role in price setting within the tourism and hospitality industry.

Keywords: cost accounting systems, pricing decisions, cost-plus pricing, market pricing, tourism industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
3287 Econophysics: The Use of Entropy Measures in Finance

Authors: Muhammad Sheraz, Vasile Preda, Silvia Dedu

Abstract:

Concepts of econophysics are usually used to solve problems related to uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics. In the theory of option pricing the risk neutral probabilities play very important role. The application of entropy in finance can be regarded as the extension of both information entropy and the probability entropy. It can be an important tool in various financial methods such as measure of risk, portfolio selection, option pricing and asset pricing. Gulko applied Entropy Pricing Theory (EPT) for pricing stock options and introduced an alternative framework of Black-Scholes model for pricing European stock option. In this article, we present solutions to maximum entropy problems based on Tsallis, Weighted-Tsallis, Kaniadakis, Weighted-Kaniadakies entropies, to obtain risk-neutral densities. We have also obtained the value of European call and put in this framework.

Keywords: option pricing, Black-Scholes model, Tsallis entropy, Kaniadakis entropy, weighted entropy, risk-neutral density

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
3286 Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options

Authors: Mimi Hafizah Abdullah, Hanani Farhah Harun, Nik Ruzni Nik Idris

Abstract:

With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the implied adjusted volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian index options market covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007. The implied adjusted volatility was found to escalate approximately triple the rate prior the crisis.

Keywords: implied adjusted volatility, financial crisis, Leland option pricing models, Australian index options

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
3285 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3284 A Theoretical Framework of Multifactor Systematic Risks in Equity Market: Behavioral Finance Paradigm

Authors: Jasman Tuyon, Zamri Ahmad

Abstract:

Behavioral asset pricing research has been gaining momentum since in 1990s. However, it is still incomplete and has been criticized for some philosophical, theoretical and model specification limitations. Due to these drawbacks, investors’ behaviors as a source of risk in behavioral asset pricing modeling still remains disputable. This paper aims to address these issues with an alternative perspective based on behavioral finance paradigm. Specifically, this paper proposes a theoretical linkages of both fundamental and behavioral risks on stock prices formation and an extension of the multifactor stock pricing model by combining multi-factor fundamentals and behavioral risks factors.

Keywords: behavioral finance, multifactor asset pricing, behavioral risks, fundamental risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
3283 Derivation of Fractional Black-Scholes Equations Driven by Fractional G-Brownian Motion and Their Application in European Option Pricing

Authors: Changhong Guo, Shaomei Fang, Yong He

Abstract:

In this paper, fractional Black-Scholes models for the European option pricing were established based on the fractional G-Brownian motion (fGBm), which generalizes the concepts of the classical Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion and the G-Brownian motion, and that can be used to be a tool for considering the long range dependence and uncertain volatility for the financial markets simultaneously. A generalized fractional Black-Scholes equation (FBSE) was derived by using the Taylor’s series of fractional order and the theory of absence of arbitrage. Finally, some explicit option pricing formulas for the European call option and put option under the FBSE were also solved, which extended the classical option pricing formulas given by F. Black and M. Scholes.

Keywords: European option pricing, fractional Black-Scholes equations, fractional g-Brownian motion, Taylor's series of fractional order, uncertain volatility

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3282 Option Pricing Theory Applied to the Service Sector

Authors: Luke Miller

Abstract:

This paper develops an options pricing methodology to value strategic pricing strategies in the services sector. More specifically, this study provides a unifying taxonomy of current service sector pricing practices, frames these pricing decisions as strategic real options, demonstrates accepted option valuation techniques to assess service sector pricing decisions, and suggests future research areas where pricing decisions and real options overlap. Enhancing revenue in the service sector requires proactive decision making in a world of uncertainty. In an effort to strategically price service products, revenue enhancement necessitates a careful study of the service costs, customer base, competition, legalities, and shared economies with the market. Pricing decisions involve the quality of inputs, manpower, and best practices to maintain superior service. These decisions further hinge on identifying relevant pricing strategies and understanding how these strategies impact a firm’s value. A relatively new area of research applies option pricing theory to investments in real assets and is commonly known as real options. The real options approach is based on the premise that many corporate decisions to invest or divest in assets are simply an option wherein the firm has the right to make an investment without any obligation to act. The decision maker, therefore, has more flexibility and the value of this operating flexibility should be taken into consideration. The real options framework has already been applied to numerous areas including manufacturing, inventory, natural resources, research and development, strategic decisions, technology, and stock valuation. Additionally, numerous surveys have identified a growing need for the real options decision framework within all areas of corporate decision-making. Despite the wide applicability of real options, no study has been carried out linking service sector pricing decisions and real options. This is surprising given the service sector comprises 80% of the US employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Identifying real options as a practical tool to value different service sector pricing strategies is believed to have a significant impact on firm decisions. This paper identifies and discusses four distinct pricing strategies available to the service sector from an options’ perspective: (1) Cost-based profit margin, (2) Increased customer base, (3) Platform pricing, and (4) Buffet pricing. Within each strategy lie several pricing tactics available to the service firm. These tactics can be viewed as options the decision maker has to best manage a strategic position in the market. To demonstrate the effectiveness of including flexibility in the pricing decision, a series of pricing strategies were developed and valued using a real options binomial lattice structure. The options pricing approach discussed in this study allows service firms to directly incorporate market-driven perspectives into the decision process and thus synchronizing service operations with organizational economic goals.

Keywords: option pricing theory, real options, service sector, valuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3281 Optimal Pricing Mechanism for Non-Storable Goods: The Power of Opaque Products

Authors: Juana M. Alonso, M. Pilar Socorro

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to analyze firms’ optimal pricing mechanism for non-storable goods. With non-storable goods, firms may be interested in introducing opaque products in order to have two different markets: the transparent market and the opaque market. This may allow firms to sell all their non-storable goods, discriminate prices between markets, and maximize revenues. We prove that in a situation of low demand in the transparent market, if all consumers are risk neutral or risk loving, introducing opaque products is always the most profitable strategy for the firm. However, if consumers are risk averse, the firm needs to offer opaque products with an additional discount. We analyze under which circumstances selling opaque products with such a discount is the optimal pricing strategy. Throughout the paper, we use airlines’ pricing strategy as an application for non-storable goods (flights), opaque products (blind tickets), and continuously changing demand (as it is nowadays the case in the air transport industry due to the Covid-19 pandemic).

Keywords: opaque products, risk attitude, expected utility, pricing strategy

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3280 Airlines Seat Pricing with Seat Upgrading

Authors: Ahmadreza Mahmoudzadeh

Abstract:

Pricing optimization is key to airlines’ profitability.Usually, the premium cabin demand falls short of the seat capacity, making economy cabin seat upgrading a common practice. The common procedure in the airline industry solves the revenue management optimization for premium cabin first and then to determine the number of seats left for lower cabin upgrading, which, together with the lower cabin seat capacity, allows to solve the lower (Economy) cabin optimization. In comparison, this paper develops models to combine all the cabin (Economic, Premium (Business and (or) First)) capacities and solve the optimization simultaneously. The models consider cases with deterministic and random demand, respectively. Numerical tests used actual production data and indicate that the proposed models outperform the current practices.

Keywords: air revenue management, pricing management, stochastic, integer programming, seat pricing, seat upgrading

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3279 Decomposition of Funds Transfer Pricing Components in Islamic Bank: The Exposure Effect of Shariah Non-Compliant Event Rectification Process

Authors: Azrul Azlan Iskandar Mirza

Abstract:

The purpose of Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) for Islamic Bank is to promote prudent liquidity risk-taking behavior of business units. The acquirer of stable deposits will be rewarded whilst a business unit that generates long-term assets will be charged for added liquidity funding risks. In the end, it promotes risk-adjusted pricing by incorporating profit rate risk and liquidity risk component in the product pricing. However, in the event of Shariah non-compliant (SNCE), FTP components will be examined in the rectification plan especially when Islamic banks need to purify the non-compliance income. The finding shows that the determination between actual and provision cost will defer the decision among Shariah committee in Islamic banks. This paper will review each of FTP components to ensure the classification of actual and provision costs reflect the decision on rectification process on SNCE. This will benefit future decision and its consistency of Islamic banks.

Keywords: fund transfer pricing, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, shariah non-compliant event

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3278 Nonparametric Estimation of Risk-Neutral Densities via Empirical Esscher Transform

Authors: Manoel Pereira, Alvaro Veiga, Camila Epprecht, Renato Costa

Abstract:

This paper introduces an empirical version of the Esscher transform for risk-neutral option pricing. Traditional parametric methods require the formulation of an explicit risk-neutral model and are operational only for a few probability distributions for the returns of the underlying. In our proposal, we make only mild assumptions on the pricing kernel and there is no need for the formulation of the risk-neutral model for the returns. First, we simulate sample paths for the returns under the physical distribution. Then, based on the empirical Esscher transform, the sample is reweighted, giving rise to a risk-neutralized sample from which derivative prices can be obtained by a weighted sum of the options pay-offs in each path. We compare our proposal with some traditional parametric pricing methods in four experiments with artificial and real data.

Keywords: esscher transform, generalized autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH), nonparametric option pricing

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
3277 Evaluation of the Efficiency of Intelligent Systems in Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing as one of the demand management strategies constrains expenditure to network users so that it helps reduction in traffic congestion and environment pollution like air pollution. Despite the development of congestion pricing schemes for traffic in our country, the matters of traditional toll collection, drivers’ waste of time and delay in traffic are still widespread. Electronic toll collection as a part of the intelligent transportation system provides the possibility of collecting tolls without car-stop and traffic disruption. Unlike the satisfying outcomes of using intelligent systems in congestion pricing schemes, implementation costs and technological problems are the barriers in these schemes. In this research first, a variety of electronic pay toll systems and their components are introduced then their functional usage is discussed. In the following, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of intelligent systems are described and the results show that the choice of the best technology depends on the various parameters which, by examining them, it is concluded that in a long-term run and by providing the necessary conditions, DSRC technology as the main system in the schemes and ANPR as a major backup system of the main one can be employed.

Keywords: congestion pricing, electronic toll collection, intelligent systems, technology, traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3276 Co-Integrated Commodity Forward Pricing Model

Authors: F. Boudet, V. Galano, D. Gmira, L. Munoz, A. Reina

Abstract:

Commodities pricing needs a specific approach as they are often linked to each other and so are expectedly doing their prices. They are called co-integrated when at least one stationary linear combination exists between them. Though widespread in economic literature, and even if many equilibrium relations and co-movements exist in the economy, this principle of co-movement is not developed in derivatives field. The present study focuses on the following problem: How can the price of a forward agreement on a commodity be simulated, when it is co-integrated with other ones? Theoretical analysis is developed from Gibson-Schwartz model and an analytical solution is given for short maturities contracts and under risk-neutral conditions. The application has been made to crude oil and heating oil energy commodities and result confirms the applicability of proposed method.

Keywords: co-integration, commodities, forward pricing, Gibson-Schwartz

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
3275 Pricing European Options under Jump Diffusion Models with Fast L-stable Padé Scheme

Authors: Salah Alrabeei, Mohammad Yousuf

Abstract:

The goal of option pricing theory is to help the investors to manage their money, enhance returns and control their financial future by theoretically valuing their options. Modeling option pricing by Black-School models with jumps guarantees to consider the market movement. However, only numerical methods can solve this model. Furthermore, not all the numerical methods are efficient to solve these models because they have nonsmoothing payoffs or discontinuous derivatives at the exercise price. In this paper, the exponential time differencing (ETD) method is applied for solving partial integrodifferential equations arising in pricing European options under Merton’s and Kou’s jump-diffusion models. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used as a matrix-vector multiplication solver, which reduces the complexity from O(M2) into O(M logM). A partial fraction form of Pad`e schemes is used to overcome the complexity of inverting polynomial of matrices. These two tools guarantee to get efficient and accurate numerical solutions. We construct a parallel and easy to implement a version of the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments are given to show how fast and accurate is our scheme.

Keywords: Integral differential equations, , L-stable methods, pricing European options, Jump–diffusion model

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3274 Fama French Four Factor Model: A Study of Nifty Fifty Companies

Authors: Deeksha Arora

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the applicability of the widely used asset pricing models, namely, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama-French Four Factor Model in the Indian equity market. The study will be based on the companies that form part of the Nifty Fifty Index for a period of five years: 2011 to 2016. The asset pricing model is examined by forming portfolios on the basis of three variables – market capitalization (size effect), book-to-market equity ratio (value effect) and profitability. The study provides a basis to test the presence of the Fama-French Four factor model in Indian stock market. This study may provide a basis for future research in the generalized asset pricing model comprising of multiple risk factors.

Keywords: book to market equity, Fama French four factor model, market capitalization, profitability, size effect, value effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
3273 EU Regulation 868/04: Report of a Unilateral Approach on Unfair Subsidisation and Unfair Pricing Practices and Its Failure

Authors: Andrea Trimarchi

Abstract:

This paper is designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the EU Regulation No. 868/2004 concerning protection against subsidisation and unfair pricing practices regarding non-EU carriers and causing injury to Community air carriers. The analysis will focus, at first, on the exegetical scrutiny of the legal categories encompassed by the Regulation. In addition to that, while considering the peculiarities of such legal instrument, the attention will be addressed on the assessment on its effectiveness. The Regulation, indeed, having received lots of criticism, is in need of a profound revision. In this context, the present work will try to take into account the policy alternatives. In light of the failure of Regulation 868, which is to be seen as the expression of a unilateral and regional approach, there would seem to be the necessity for the aviation sector to reconsider the topic of subsidisation and unfair pricing practices in a more international oriented manner.

Keywords: non-EU airlines, aviation, subisidisation, unfair

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3272 Asset Pricing Model: A Quality Paradigm

Authors: Urmi Khatri

Abstract:

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) draws a direct relationship between the risk and the expected rate of return. There was a criticism on the beta and the assumptions of CAPM, as they are not applicable in the real world. Fama French Three Factor Model and Fama French Five Factor Model have given different factors, which have an impact on the return of any asset like size, value, investment and profitability. This study proposes to see Capital Asset pricing Model through the lenses of the quality aspect. In the study, the six factors are studied. The Fama French Five Factor Model and addition of the quality dimension are studied. Here, Graham’s seven quality and quantity criteria are measured to determine the score of the sample firms. Thus, this study tries to check the model fit. The beta coefficient of the quality dimension and the R square value is seen to determine validity of the proposed model. The sample is drawn from the firms listed on Indian Stock Exchange (BSE). For the study, only nonfinancial firms are been selected. The time period of the study is from January 1999 to December 2019. Hence, the primary objective of the study is to check how robust the model becomes after giving the quality dimension to the capital asset pricing model in addition to the size, value, profitability and investment.

Keywords: asset pricing model, CAPM, Graham’s score, G-score, multifactor model, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3271 Comparative Study and Parallel Implementation of Stochastic Models for Pricing of European Options Portfolios using Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Vinayak Bassi, Rajpreet Singh

Abstract:

Over the years, with the emergence of sophisticated computers and algorithms, finance has been quantified using computational prowess. Asset valuation has been one of the key components of quantitative finance. In fact, it has become one of the embryonic steps in determining risk related to a portfolio, the main goal of quantitative finance. This study comprises a drawing comparison between valuation output generated by two stochastic dynamic models, namely Black-Scholes and Dupire’s bi-dimensionality model. Both of these models are formulated for computing the valuation function for a portfolio of European options using Monte Carlo simulation methods. Although Monte Carlo algorithms have a slower convergence rate than calculus-based simulation techniques (like FDM), they work quite effectively over high-dimensional dynamic models. A fidelity gap is analyzed between the static (historical) and stochastic inputs for a sample portfolio of underlying assets. In order to enhance the performance efficiency of the model, the study emphasized the use of variable reduction methods and customizing random number generators to implement parallelization. An attempt has been made to further implement the Dupire’s model on a GPU to achieve higher computational performance. Furthermore, ideas have been discussed around the performance enhancement and bottleneck identification related to the implementation of options-pricing models on GPUs.

Keywords: monte carlo, stochastic models, computational finance, parallel programming, scientific computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3270 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

Abstract:

In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
3269 Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models

Authors: Ali Safdari-Vaighani

Abstract:

Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives. The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs), which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

Keywords: basket option, jump diffusion, ‎radial basis function, RBF-PUM

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3268 Levy Model for Commodity Pricing

Authors: V. Benedico, C. Anacleto, A. Bearzi, L. Brice, V. Delahaye

Abstract:

The aim in present paper is to construct an affordable and reliable commodity prices based on a recalculation of its cost through time which allows visualize the potential risks and thus, take more appropriate decisions regarding forecasts. Here attention has been focused on Levy model, more reliable and realistic than classical random Gaussian one as it takes into consideration observed abrupt jumps in case of sudden price variation. In application to Energy Trading sector where it has never been used before, equations corresponding to Levy model have been written for electricity pricing in European market. Parameters have been set in order to predict and simulate the price and its evolution through time to remarkable accuracy. As predicted by Levy model, the results show significant spikes which reach unconventional levels contrary to currently used Brownian model.

Keywords: commodity pricing, Lévy Model, price spikes, electricity market

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3267 Joint Optimal Pricing and Lot-Sizing Decisions for an Advance Sales System under Stochastic Conditions

Authors: Maryam Ghoreishi, Christian Larsen

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of stochastic inputs on problem of joint optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions where the inventory cycle is divided into advance and spot sales periods. During the advance sales period, customer can make reservations while customer with reservations can cancel their order. However, during the spot sales period customers receive the order as soon as the order is placed, but they cannot make any reservation or cancellation during that period. We assume that the inter arrival times during the advance sales and spot sales period are exponentially distributed where the arrival rate is decreasing function of price. Moreover, we assume that the number of cancelled reservations is binomially distributed. In addition, we assume that deterioration process follows an exponential distribution. We investigate two cases. First, we consider two-state case where we find the optimal price during the spot sales period and the optimal price during the advance sales period. Next, we develop a generalized case where we extend two-state case also to allow dynamic prices during the spot sales period. We apply the Markov decision theory in order to find the optimal solutions. In addition, for the generalized case, we apply the policy iteration algorithm in order to find the optimal prices, the optimal lot-size and maximum advance sales amount.

Keywords: inventory control, pricing, Markov decision theory, advance sales system

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3266 Low Pricing Strategy of Forest Products in Community Forestry Program: Subsidy to the Forest Users or Loss of Economy?

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri

Abstract:

Community-based forest management is often glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries like Nepal. It is also believed that the transfer of forest management authorities to local communities is decisive to take efficient decisions, maximize the forest benefits and improve the people’s livelihood. The community forestry of Nepal also aims to maximize the forest benefits; share them among the user households and improve their livelihood. However, how the local communities fix the price of forest products and local pricing made by the forest user groups affects to equitable forest benefits-sharing among the user households and their livelihood improvement objectives, the answer is largely silent among the researchers and policy-makers alike. This study examines local pricing system of forest products in the lowland community forestry and its effects on equitable benefit-sharing and livelihood improvement objectives. The study discovered that forest user groups fixed the price of forest products based on three criteria: i) costs incur in harvesting, ii) office operation costs, and iii) livelihood improvement costs through community development and income generating activities. Since user households have heterogeneous socio-economic conditions, the forest user groups have been applied low pricing strategy even for high-value forest products that the access of socio-economically worse-off households can be increased. However, the results of forest products distribution showed that as a result of low pricing strategy the access of socio-economically better-off households has been increasing at higher rate than worse-off and an inequality situation has been created. Similarly, the low pricing strategy is also found defective to livelihood improvement objectives. The study suggests for revising the forest products pricing system in community forest management and reforming the community forestry policy as well.

Keywords: community forestry, forest products pricing, equitable benefit-sharing, livelihood improvement, Nepal

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