Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: disordered metamaterial

84 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

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83 Design and Analysis of Metamaterial Based Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

Authors: Ishraq M. Anjum

Abstract:

Distributed Bragg reflectors are used in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in order to achieve very high reflectivity. Use of metamaterial in place of distributed Bragg reflector can reduce the device size significantly. A silicon-based metamaterial near perfect reflector is designed to be used in place of distributed Bragg reflectors in VCSELs. Mie resonance in dielectric microparticles is exploited in order to design the metamaterial. A reflectivity of 98.31% is achieved using finite-difference time-domain method. An 808nm double intra-cavity contacted VCSEL structure with 1.5 λ cavity is proposed using this metamaterial near perfect reflector. The active region is designed to be composed of seven GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Upon numerical investigation of the designed VCSEL structure, the threshold current is found to be 2.96 mA at an aperture of 40 square micrometers and the maximum output power is found to be 71 mW at a current of 141 mA. Miniaturization of conventional VCSELs is possible using this design.

Keywords: GaAs, LASER, metamaterial, VCSEL, vertical cavity surface emitting laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
82 Shear Elastic Waves in Disordered Anisotropic Multi-Layered Periodic Structure

Authors: K. B. Ghazaryan, R. A. Ghazaryan

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Based on the constitutive model and anti-plane equations of anisotropic elastic body of monoclinic symmetry we consider the problem of shear wave propagation in multi-layered disordered composite structure with point defect. Using transfer matrix method the analytic expression is obtained providing solutions of shear Floquet wave propagation in periodic disordered anisotropic structure. The usefulness of the obtained analytical expression was discussed also in reflection and refraction problems from multi-layered reflector as well as in vibration problem of multi-layered waveguides. Numerical results are presented highlighting the effects arising in disordered periodic structure due to defects of multi-layered structure.

Keywords: shear elastic waves, monoclinic anisotropic media, periodic structure, disordered multilayer laminae, multi-layered waveguide

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81 Microwave Transmission through Metamaterial Based on Permalloy Flakes under Magnetic Resonance and Antiresonance Conditions

Authors: Anatoly B. Rinkevich, Eugeny A. Kuznetsov, Yuri I. Ryabkov

Abstract:

Transmission of electromagnetic waves through a plate of metamaterial based on permalloy flakes and reflection from the plate is investigated. The metamaterial is prepared of permalloy flakes sized from few to 50μ placed into epoxy-amine matrix. Two series of metamaterial samples are under study with the volume portion of permalloy particles 15% and 30%. There is no direct electrical contact between permalloy particles. Microwave measurements have been carried out at frequencies of 12 to 30 GHz in magnetic fields up to 12 kOe. Sharp decrease of transmitted wave is observed under ferromagnetic resonance condition caused by absorption. Under magnetic antiresonance condition, in opposite, maximum of reflection coefficient is observed at frequencies exceeding 30 GHz. For example, for metamaterial sample with the volume portion of permalloy of 30%, the variation of reflection coefficient in magnetic field reaches 300%. These high variations are of interest to develop magnetic field driven microwave devices. Magnetic field variations of refractive index are also estimated.

Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic antiresonance, microwave metamaterials, permalloy flakes, transmission and reflection coefficients

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80 Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Sorority Women

Authors: Andrea J. Kirk-Jenkins

Abstract:

Women in late adolescence and young adulthood are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating, and prior research indicates that those within the college and sorority communities may be especially susceptible. Research has primarily involved comparing eating disorder symptoms between sorority women and non-sorority members using formal eating disorder assessments. This phenomenological study examined sorority members’ (N = 10) perceptions of and lived experiences with various disordered eating behaviors within the sorority culture. Data from individual interviews and photographs indicated two structural themes and 11 textural themes related to factors associated with disordered eating behaviors. These findings point to the existence of both positive and negative aspects of sorority culture, normalization of disordered eating behaviors, and pressure to attain or maintain an ideal body image. Implications for university stakeholders, including college counselors, health center staff, and extracurricular program leaders, are discussed. Further research on the identified textural themes as well as a longitudinal study exploring how perceptions change from rush to alumnae status is suggested.

Keywords: eating disorders, disorder eating behaviors, sorority women, sorority culture, college women

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79 Performance Improvement of UWB Corrugated Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Using Spiral Shape Negative Index Metamaterial

Authors: Rahul Singha, D. Vakula

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This paper presents a corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna with improved performance by using negative index metamaterial (NIM) of the Archimedean spiral design. A single layer NIM piece is placed perpendicular middle of the two arm of the proposed antenna. The antenna size is 30×60×0.787 mm3 operating at 8GHz. The simulated results of NIM corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna show that the gain and directivity has increased up to 1.2dB and 1dB respectively. The HPBW is increased by 90 with the reflection coefficient less than ‒10 dB from 4.7 GHz to 11 GHz for UWB application.

Keywords: Negative Index Metamaterial (NIM), Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Half Power Beam Width (HPBW), vivaldi antenna

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78 Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Authors: Amit Kumar Baghel, Sisir Kumar Nayak

Abstract:

The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.

Keywords: metamaterial, side lobe level, front to back ratio, beam forming

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77 Effect on Bandwidth of Using Double Substrates Based Metamaterial Planar Antenna

Authors: Smrity Dwivedi

Abstract:

The present paper has revealed the effect of double substrates over a bandwidth performance for planar antennas. The used material has its own importance to get minimum return loss and improved directivity. The author has taken double substrates to enhance the efficiency in terms of gain of antenna. Metamaterial based antenna has its own specific structure which increased the performance of antenna. Improved return loss is -20 dB, and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is 1.2, which is better than single substrate having return loss of -15 dB and VSWR of 1.4. Complete results are obtained using commercial software CST microwave studio.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, metamaterial, return loss, VSWR

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76 Full-Wave Analysis of Magnetic Meta-Surfaces for Microwave Component Applications

Authors: Christopher Hardly Joseph, Nicola Pelagalli, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni

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In this contribution, we report the electromagnetic response of a split ring resonator (SRR) based magnetic metamaterial unit cell in free space nature by means of a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The effective parameters of these designed structures have been analyzed. The structures have been specifically designed to work at high frequency considering the development of many microwave and lower mm-wave devices. In addition to that, the application of the designed metamaterial structures is also proposed, namely metamaterial loaded planar transmission lines, potentially useful to optimize size and quality factor of circuit components and radiating elements.

Keywords: CPW, Microwave Components, Negative Permeability, Split Ring Resonator (SRR)

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75 Analytical Description of Disordered Structures in Continuum Models of Pattern Formation

Authors: Gyula I. Tóth, Shaho Abdalla

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Even though numerical simulations indeed have a significant precursory/supportive role in exploring the disordered phase displaying no long-range order in pattern formation models, studying the stability properties of this phase and determining the order of the ordered-disordered phase transition in these models necessitate an analytical description of the disordered phase. First, we will present the results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of a large number (1,000-10,000) of numerical simulations in the Swift-Hohenberg model, where the bulk disordered (or amorphous) phase is stable. We will show that the average free energy density (over configurations) converges, while the variance of the energy density vanishes with increasing system size in numerical simulations, which suggest that the disordered phase is a thermodynamic phase (i.e., its properties are independent of the configuration in the macroscopic limit). Furthermore, the structural analysis of this phase in the Fourier space suggests that the phase can be modeled by a colored isotropic Gaussian noise, where any instant of the noise describes a possible configuration. Based on these results, we developed the general mathematical framework of finding a pool of solutions to partial differential equations in the sense of continuous probability measure, which we will present briefly. Applying the general idea to the Swift-Hohenberg model we show, that the amorphous phase can be found, and its properties can be determined analytically. As the general mathematical framework is not restricted to continuum theories, we hope that the proposed methodology will open a new chapter in studying disordered phases.

Keywords: fundamental theory, mathematical physics, continuum models, analytical description

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74 Design and Performance Comparison of Metamaterial Based Antenna for 4G/5G Mobile Devices

Authors: Jalal Khan, Daniyal Ali Sehrai, Shakeel Ahmad

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This paper presents the design and performance evaluation of multiband metamaterial based antenna operating in the 3.6 GHz (4G), 14.33 GHz, and 28.86 GHz (5G) frequency bands, for future mobile and handheld devices. The radiating element of the proposed design is made up of a conductive material supported by a 1.524 mm thicker Rogers-4003 substrate, having a relative dielectric constant and loss tangent of 3.55 and 0.0027, respectively. The substrate is backed by truncated ground plane. The future mobile communication system is based on higher frequencies, which are highly affected by the atmospheric conditions. Therefore, to overcome the path loss problem, essential enhancements and improvements must be made in the overall performance of the antenna. The traditional ground plane does not provide the in-phase reflection and surface wave suppression due to which side and back lobes are produced. This will affect the antenna performance in terms of gain and efficiency. To enhance the overall performance of the antenna, a metamaterial acting as a high impedance surface (HIS) is used as a reflector in the proposed design. The simulated gain of the metamaterial based antenna is enhanced from {2.76-6.47, 4.83-6.71 and 7.52-7.73} dB at 3.6, 14.33 and 28.89 GHz, respectively relative to the gain of the antenna backed by a traditional ground plane. The proposed antenna radiated efficiently with a radiated efficiency (>85 %) in all the three frequency bands with and without metamaterial surface. The total volume of the antenna is (L x W x h=45 x 40 x 1.524) mm3. The antenna can be potentially used for wireless handheld devices and mobile terminal. All the simulations have been performed using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software.

Keywords: CST MWS, fourth generation/fifth generation, 4G/5G, high gain, multiband, metamaterial

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73 Conformational Switch of hRAGE upon Self-Association

Authors: Ikhlas Ahmed, Jamillah Zamoon

Abstract:

The human receptor for advanced glycation end product is a plasma membrane receptor with an intrinsically disordered region. The protein consists of three extracellular domains, a single membrane spanning transmembrane domain, and a cytosolic domain which is intrinsically disordered and responsible for signaling. The disordered nature of the cytosolic domain allows it to be dynamic in solution. This receptor self-associates to higher forms. The association is triggered by ligand, metal or by the extracellular domain. Fluorescence spectroscopy technique is used to test the self-association of the different concentrations of the cytosolic domain. This work has concluded that the cytosolic domain of this receptor also self-associates. Moreover, the self-association does not require ligand or metal.

Keywords: fluorescence spectroscopy, hRAGE, IDP, Self-association

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72 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David

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Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

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71 A Terahertz Sensor and Dynamic Switch Based on a Bilayer Toroidal Metamaterial

Authors: Angana Bhattacharya, Rakesh Sarkar, Gagan Kumar

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Toroidal resonances, a new class of electromagnetic excitations, demonstrate exceptional properties as compared to electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. The advantage of narrow linewidth in toroidal resonance is utilized in this proposed work, where a bilayer metamaterial (MM) sensor has been designed in the terahertz frequency regime (THz). A toroidal MM geometry in a single layer is first studied. A second identical MM geometry placed on top of the first layer results in the coupling of toroidal excitations, leading to an increase in the quality factor (Q) of the resonance. The sensing capability of the resonance is studied. Further, the dynamic switching from an 'off' stage to an 'on' stage in the bilayer configuration is explored. The ardent study of such toroidal bilayer MMs could provide significant potential in the development of bio-molecular and chemical sensors, switches, and modulators.

Keywords: toroidal resonance, bilayer, metamaterial, terahertz, sensing, switching

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70 Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

Authors: Lincy Stephen, N. Yogesh, G. Vasantharajan, V. Subramanian

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This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.

Keywords: electromagnetic absorber, metamaterial, multi- band, polarization insensitive, wide angle receptive

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69 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC

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68 TiO2/PDMS Coating With Minimum Solar Absorption Loss for Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling

Authors: Bhrigu Rishi Mishra, Sreerag Sundaram, Nithin Jo Varghese, Karthik Sasihithlu

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We have designed a TiO2/PDMS coating with 94% solar reflection, 96% IR emission, and 81.8 W/m2 cooling power for passive daytime radiative cooling using Kubelka Munk theory and CST microwave studio. To reduce solar absorption loss in 0.3-0.39 m wavelength region, a TiO2 thin film on top of the coating is used. Simulation using Ansys Lumerical shows that for a 20 m thick TiO2/PDMS coating, a TiO2 thin film of 84 nm increases the coating's reflectivity by 11% in the solar region.

Keywords: passive daytime radiative cooling, disordered metamaterial, Kudelka Munk theory, solar reflectivity

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67 Metamaterial Lenses for Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubani, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David

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Nowadays, microwave hyperthermia is considered as an effective treatment for the malignant tumors. This microwave treatment which comes to substitute the chemotherapy and the surgical intervention enables an in-depth tumor heating without causing any diseases to the sane tissue. This technique requires a high precision system, in order to effectively concentrate the heating just in the tumor, without heating any surrounding healthy tissue. In the hyperthermia treatment, the temperature in cancerous area is typically raised up to over 42◦C and maintained for one hour in order to destroy the tumor sufficiently, whilst in the surrounding healthy tissues, the temperature is maintained below 42◦C to avoid any damage. Metamaterial lenses are widely used in medical applications like microwave hyperthermia treatment. They enabled a subdiffraction resolution thanks to the amplification of the evanescent waves and they can focus electromagnetic waves from a point source to a point image. Metasurfaces have been used to built metamaterial lenses. The main mechanical advantages of those structures over three dimensional material structures are ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Here in this work, we proposed a metasurface based lens operating at the frequency of 6 GHz and designed for microwave hyperthermia. This lens was applied and showed good results in focusing and heating the tumor inside a breast tissue with an increased and maintained temperature above 42°C. The tumor was placed in the focal distance of the lens so that only the tumor tissue will be heated. Finally, in this work, it has been shown that the hyperthermia area within the tissue can be carefully adjusted by moving the antennas or by changing the thickness of the metamaterial lenses based on the tumor position. Even though the simulations performed in this work have taken into account an ideal case, some real characteristics can be considered to improve the obtained results in a realistic model.

Keywords: focusing, hyperthermia, metamaterial lenses, metasurface, microwave treatment

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66 Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting by Using a Rectenna with a Metamaterial Lens

Authors: Ursula D. C. Resende, Fabiano S. Bicalho, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves

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The growing demand for cheap and clean energy sources have been motivated by the study and development of distinct technologies and devices able to provide different amounts of energy. In order to supply energy for small loads, the energy from the electromagnetic spectrum can be harvested. This possibility is particularly interesting because this kind of energy is constantly available in the environment and the number of radiofrequency sources is permanently increasing, due to advances in telecommunications services. A rectenna, which is a combination of an antenna and a rectifier circuit, is an equipment that can efficiently perform the electromagnetic energy harvesting. However, since the amount of electromagnetic energy available in the environment is very small, limited values of power can be harvested by the rectenna. Therefore, several technical strategies have been investigated in order to increase this amount of power. In this work, a metamaterial electromagnetic lens is used to improve the electromagnetic energy harvesting. The rectenna investigated was designed and optimized to charge a Li-Ion battery using the electromagnetic energy from an internet Wi-Fi commercial router model TL-WR841HP operating in 2.45 GHz with maximal output power equal to 18 dBm. The rectenna consists of a high directive antenna, a double voltage rectifier circuit and a metamaterial lens. The printed antenna, constituted of two rectangular radiator elements, was projected and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Software (CST) in order to obtain high directivities and values of S11 parameter below -10 dB in 2.45 GHz. The antenna was printed over a double-sided copper fiberglass substrate, FR4, with characterized relative electric permittivity εr = 4.3 and tangent of losses δ = 0.01. The rectifier circuit, which incorporates a circuit for impedance matching and uses the Schottky diode HSMS-2852, was projected and optimized by using Advanced Design Software (ADS) and built over the same FR4 substrate. The metamaterial cell is composed of two Square Split Ring Resonator (S-SRR) and a thin wire in order to operate with negative values of εr and relative magnetic permeability in 2.45 GHz. In order to evaluate the performance of the purposed rectenna two experimental charging tests were performed, one without and other with the metamaterial lens. The result obtained demonstrate that the electromagnetic lens was able to significantly increase the levels of electric current delivered to the battery, approximately 44%.

Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvesting, electromagnetic lens, metamaterial, rectenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
65 Analysis of Metamaterial Permeability on the Performance of Loosely Coupled Coils

Authors: Icaro V. Soares, Guilherme L. F. Brandao, Ursula D. C. Resende, Glaucio L. Siqueira

Abstract:

Electrical energy can be wirelessly transmitted through resonant coupled coils that operate in the near-field region. Once in this region, the field has evanescent character, the efficiency of Resonant Wireless Power Transfer (RWPT) systems decreases proportionally with the inverse cube of distance between the transmitter and receiver coils. The commercially available RWPT systems are restricted to short and mid-range applications in which the distance between coils is lesser or equal to the coil size. An alternative to overcome this limitation is applying metamaterial structures to enhance the coupling between coils, thus reducing the field decay along the distance between them. Metamaterials can be conceived as composite materials with periodic or non-periodic structure whose unconventional electromagnetic behaviour is due to its unit cell disposition and chemical composition. This new kind of material has been used in frequency selective surfaces, invisibility cloaks, leaky-wave antennas, among other applications. However, for RWPT it is mainly applied as superlenses which are lenses that can overcome the optical limitation and are made of left-handed media, that is, a medium with negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. As RWPT systems usually operate at wavelengths of hundreds of meters, the metamaterial unit cell size is much smaller than the wavelength. In this case, electric and magnetic field are decoupled, therefore the double negative condition for superlenses are not required and the negative magnetic permeability is enough to produce an artificial magnetic medium. In this work, the influence of the magnetic permeability of a metamaterial slab inserted between two loosely coupled coils is studied in order to find the condition that leads to the maximum transmission efficiency. The metamaterial used is formed by a subwavelength unit cell that consist of a capacitor-loaded split ring with an inner spiral that is designed and optimized using the software Computer Simulation Technology. The unit cell permeability is experimentally characterized by the ratio of the transmission parameters between coils measured with and without the presence of the metamaterial slab. Early measurements results show that the transmission coefficient at the resonant frequency after the inclusion of the metamaterial is about three times higher than with just the two coils, which confirms the enhancement that this structure brings to RWPT systems.

Keywords: electromagnetic lens, loosely coupled coils, magnetic permeability, metamaterials, resonant wireless power transfer, subwavelength unit cells

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64 Relationships of Driver Drowsiness and Sleep-Disordered Breathing Syndrome

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo

Abstract:

Background: Driving drowsiness related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) syndrome is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of SDB syndrome on driving fatigue remain unclear. Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between SDB pattern and driving drowsiness. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. SDB syndrome was quantified as the polysomnography, and the air flow pattern was collected by the thermistor and nasal pressure cannula. To evaluate the desaturation, the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation was sentenced by reregistered technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlations between sleep disorders related index and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. Significantly higher values of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) were observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). The value of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (31.82 ± 19.34 /hours) in fatigue group were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable association between SDB syndrome and driving drowsiness. To promote traffic safety, SDB syndrome should be controlled and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep-disordered breathing syndrome, snoring index, respiratory disturbance index.

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63 Dancing with Perfectionism and Emotional Inhibition on the Ground of Disordered Eating Behaviors: Investigating Emotion Regulation Difficulties as Mediating Factor

Authors: Merve Denizci Nazligul

Abstract:

Dancers seem to have much higher risk levels for the development of eating disorders, compared to non-dancing counterparts. In a remarkably competitive nature of dance environment, perfectionism and emotion regulation difficulties become inevitable risk factors. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas are associated with various eating disorders. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the mediating role of difficulties with emotion regulation on the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eating behaviors, as well as on the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disordered eating behaviors. A total of 70 volunteer dancers (n = 47 women, n = 23 men) were recruited in the study (M age = 25.91, SD = 8.9, range 19–63) from the university teams or private clubs in Turkey. The sample included various types of dancers (n = 26 ballets or ballerinas, n =32 Latin, n = 10 tango, n = 2 hiphop). The mean dancing hour per week was 11.09 (SD = 7.09) within a range of 1-30 hours. The participants filled a questionnaire set including demographic information form, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, three subscales (Emotional Inhibition, Unrelenting Standards-Hypercriticalness, Approval Seeking-Recognition Seeking) from Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The mediation hypotheses were tested using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. The findings revealed that emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between three distinct subtypes of perfectionism and emotional eating. The results of the Sobel test suggested that there were significant indirect effects of self-oriented perfectionism (b = .06, 95% CI = .0084, .1739), other-oriented perfectionism (b = .15, 95% CI = .0136, .4185), and socially prescribed perfectionism (b = .09, 95% CI = .0104, .2344) on emotional eating through difficulties with emotion regulation. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between emotional inhibition and emotional eating (F(1,68) = 4.67, R2 = .06, p < .05). These results seem to provide some evidence that perfectionism might become a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors when dancers are not able to regulate their emotions. Further, gaining an understanding of how inhibition of emotions leads to inverse effects on eating behavior may be important to develop intervention strategies to manage their disordered eating patterns in risk groups. The present study may also support the importance of using unified protocols for transdiagnostic approaches which focus on identifying, accepting, prompting to express maladaptive emotions and appraisals.

Keywords: dancers, disordered eating, emotion regulation difficulties, perfectionism

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62 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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61 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang

Abstract:

This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
60 Design of a Dual Polarized Resonator Antenna for Mobile Communication System

Authors: N. Fhafhiem, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

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This paper proposes the development and design of double layer metamaterials based on electromagnetic band gap (EBG) rods as a superstrate of a resonator antenna to enhance required antenna characteristics for the mobile base station. The metallic rod type metamaterial can partially reflect wave of a primary radiator. The antenna was designed and analyzed by a simulation result from CST Microwave Studio and designed technique could be confirmed by a measurement results from prototype antenna that agree with simulation results. The results indicate that the antenna can also generate a dual polarization by using a 45˚ oriented curved strip dipole located at the center of the reflector plane with double layer superstrate. It can be used to simplify the feed system of an antenna. The proposed antenna has a bandwidth covering the frequency range of 1920 – 2200 MHz, the gain of the antenna increases up to 14.06 dBi. In addition, an interesting sectoral 60˚ pattern is presented in horizontal plane.

Keywords: metamaterial, electromagnetic band gap, dual polarization, resonator antenna

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59 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs

Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer

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In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.

Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failure

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58 Superconductor-Insulator Transition in Disordered Spin-1/2 Systems

Authors: E. Cuevas, M. Feigel'man, L. Ioffe, M. Mezard

Abstract:

The origin of continuous energy spectrum in large disordered interacting quantum systems is one of the key unsolved problems in quantum physics. While small quantum systems with discrete energy levels are noiseless and stay coherent forever in the absence of any coupling to external world, most large-scale quantum systems are able to produce thermal bath, thermal transport and excitation decay. This intrinsic decoherence is manifested by a broadening of energy levels which acquire a finite width. The important question is: What is the driving force and mechanism of transition(s) between two different types of many-body systems - with and without decoherence and thermal transport? Here, we address this question via two complementary approaches applied to the same model of quantum spin-1/2 system with XY-type exchange interaction and random transverse field. Namely, we develop analytical theory for this spin model on a Bethe lattice and implement numerical study of exact level statistics for the same spin model on random graph. This spin model is relevant to the study of pseudogaped superconductivity and S-I transition in some amorphous materials.

Keywords: strongly correlated electrons, quantum phase transitions, superconductor, insulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
57 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha

Abstract:

CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

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56 Fano-Resonance-Based Wideband Acoustic Metamaterials with Highly Efficient Ventilation

Authors: Xi-Wen Xiao, Tzy-Rong Lin, Chien-Hao Liu

Abstract:

Ventilated acoustic metamaterials have attracted considerable research attention due to their low-frequency absorptions and efficient fluid ventilations. In this research, a wideband acoustic metamaterial with auditory filtering ability and efficient ventilation capacity were proposed. In contrast to a conventional Fano-like resonator, a Fano-like resonator composed of a resonant unit and two nonresonant units with a large opening area of 68% for fluid passages was developed. In addition, the coupling mechanism to improve the narrow bandwidths of conventional Fano-resonance-based meta-materials was included. With a suitable design, the output sound waves of the resonant and nonresonant states were out of phase to achieve sound absorptions in the far fields. Therefore, three-element and five-element coupled Fano-like metamaterials were designed and simulated with the help of the finite element software to obtain the filtering fractional bandwidths of 42.5% and 61.8%, respectively. The proposed approach can be extended to multiple coupled resonators for obtaining ultra-wide bandwidths and can be implemented with 3D printing for practical applications. The research results are expected to be beneficial for sound filtering or noise reductions in duct applications and limited-volume spaces.

Keywords: fano resonance, noise reduction, resonant coupling, sound filtering, ventilated acoustic metamaterial

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55 Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

Authors: Rohit Shrivastava, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.

Keywords: discrete elements, energy attenuation, mass disorder, granular chain, spectral energy, wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219