Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1519

Search results for: passive daytime radiative cooling

1519 TiO2/PDMS Coating With Minimum Solar Absorption Loss for Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling

Authors: Bhrigu Rishi Mishra, Sreerag Sundaram, Nithin Jo Varghese, Karthik Sasihithlu

Abstract:

We have designed a TiO2/PDMS coating with 94% solar reflection, 96% IR emission, and 81.8 W/m2 cooling power for passive daytime radiative cooling using Kubelka Munk theory and CST microwave studio. To reduce solar absorption loss in 0.3-0.39 m wavelength region, a TiO2 thin film on top of the coating is used. Simulation using Ansys Lumerical shows that for a 20 m thick TiO2/PDMS coating, a TiO2 thin film of 84 nm increases the coating's reflectivity by 11% in the solar region.

Keywords: passive daytime radiative cooling, disordered metamaterial, Kudelka Munk theory, solar reflectivity

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1518 Integrated Passive Cooling Systems for Tropical Residential Buildings: A Review through the Lens of Latent Heat Assessment

Authors: O. Eso, M. Mohammadi, J. Darkwa, J. Calautit

Abstract:

Residential buildings are responsible for 22% of the global end-use energy demand and 17% of global CO₂ emissions. Tropical climates particularly present higher latent heat gains, leading to more cooling loads. However, the cooling processes are all based on conventional mechanical air conditioning systems which are energy and carbon intensive technologies. Passive cooling systems have in the past been considered as alternative technologies for minimizing energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, replacing mechanical cooling systems with passive ones will require a careful assessment of the passive cooling system heat transfer to determine if suitable to outperform their conventional counterparts. This is because internal heat gains, indoor-outdoor heat transfer, and heat transfer through envelope affects the performance of passive cooling systems. While many studies have investigated sensible heat transfer in passive cooling systems, not many studies have focused on their latent heat transfer capabilities. Furthermore, combining heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation to passively cool indoor spaces in the tropical climates is critical to achieve thermal comfort. Since passive cooling systems use only one of these three approaches at a time, integrating more than one passive cooling system for effective indoor latent heat removal while still saving energy is studied. This study is a systematic review of recently published peer review journals on integrated passive cooling systems for tropical residential buildings. The missing links in the experimental and numerical studies with regards to latent heat reduction interventions are presented. Energy simulation studies of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings are also discussed. The review has shown that comfortable indoor environment is attainable when two or more passive cooling systems are integrated in tropical residential buildings. Improvement occurs in the heat transfer rate and cooling performance of the passive cooling systems when thermal energy storage systems like phase change materials are included. Integrating passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings can reduce energy consumption by 6-87% while achieving up to 17.55% reduction in indoor heat flux. The review has highlighted a lack of numerical studies regarding passive cooling system performance in tropical savannah climates. In addition, detailed studies are required to establish suitable latent heat transfer rate in passive cooling ventilation devices under this climate category. This should be considered in subsequent studies. The conclusions and outcomes of this study will help researchers understand the overall energy performance of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical climates and help them identify and design suitable climate specific options for residential buildings.

Keywords: energy savings, latent heat, passive cooling systems, residential buildings, tropical residential buildings

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1517 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: passive solar systems, heating, cooling, thermal comfort, ventilation systems

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1516 Evaluation of Heating/Cooling Potential of a Passive Building

Authors: M. Jamil Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, the heating/cooling potential of a passive building (mosque) of Prof. K. A. Nizami center for Quranic studies at AMU Aligarh, has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation. The study has been carried out for composite climate of Aligarh. The performance of the above mentioned building has been presented in this study. It is observed that the premises of the mosque are cooler than the outside ambient temperature by an average of 2°C and 4°C during the month of March and April respectively. Provision of excellent ventilation, high amount of thermal mass, high ceilings and circulation of cool natural air helps in maintaining an optimal thermal comfort temperature in the passive building.

Keywords: heating/cooling potential, passive building, ambient temperatures

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1515 Design Practices, Policies and Guidelines towards Implementing Architectural Passive Cooling Strategies in Public Library Buildings in Temperate Climates

Authors: Lesley Metibogun, Regan Potangaroa

Abstract:

Some existing sustainable public libraries in New Zealand now depend on air conditioning system for cooling. This seems completely contradictory to sustainable building initiatives. A sustainable building should be ‘self- sufficient’ and must aim at optimising the use of natural ventilation, wind and daylight and avoiding too much summer heat penetration into the building, to save energy consumption and enhance occupants’ comfort. This paper demonstrates that with appropriate architectural passive design input public libraries do not require air conditioning. Following a brief outline of how our dependence on air conditioning has spread over the full range of building types and climatic zones, this paper focuses on public libraries in temperate climates where passive cooling should be feasible for long periods of mild outside temperature. It was found that current design policies, regulations and guidelines and current building design practices militate passive cooling strategies. Perceived association with prestige, inflexibility of design process, rigid planning regulations and sustainability rating systems were identified as key factors forcing the need for air conditioning. Recommendations are made on how to further encourage development in this direction from the perspective of architectural design. This paper highlights how architectural passive cooling design strategies should be implemented in government initiated policies and regulations to develop a more sustainable public libraries.

Keywords: public library, sustainable design, temperate climate, passive cooling, air conditioning

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1514 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney for Mild or Warm Climates

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: active and passive solar technologies, solar cooling system, solar chimney, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney

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1513 Development of Typical Meteorological Year for Passive Cooling Applications Using World Weather Data

Authors: Nasser A. Al-Azri

Abstract:

The effectiveness of passive cooling techniques is assessed based on bioclimatic charts that require the typical meteorological year (TMY) for a specified location for their development. However, TMYs are not always available; mainly due to the scarcity of records of solar radiation which is an essential component used in developing common TMYs intended for general uses. Since solar radiation is not required in the development of the bioclimatic chart, this work suggests developing TMYs based solely on the relevant parameters. This approach improves the accuracy of the developed TMY since only the relevant parameters are considered and it also makes the development of the TMY more accessible since solar radiation data are not used. The presented paper will also discuss the development of the TMY from the raw data available at the NOAA-NCDC archive of world weather data and the construction of the bioclimatic charts for some randomly selected locations around the world.

Keywords: bioclimatic charts, passive cooling, TMY, weather data

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1512 Passive Solar Water Concepts for Human Comfort

Authors: Eyibo Ebengeobong Eddie

Abstract:

Taking advantage of the sun's position to design buildings to ensure human comfort has always been an important aspect in an architectural design. Using cheap and less expensive methods and systems for gaining solar energy, heating and cooling has always been a great advantage to users and occupants of a building. As the years run by, daily techniques and methods have been created and more are being discovered to help reduce the energy demands of any building. Architects have made effective use of a buildings orientation, building materials and elements to achieve less energy demand. This paper talks about the various techniques used in solar heating and passive cooling of buildings and through water techniques and concepts to achieve thermal comfort.

Keywords: comfort, passive, solar, water

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1511 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer on Vertical Two-Phased Closed Thermosyphon

Authors: M. Hadi Kusuma, Nandy Putra, Anhar Riza Antariksawan, Ficky Augusta Imawan

Abstract:

Heat pipe is considered to be applied as a passive system to remove residual heat that generated from reactor core when incident occur or from spent fuel storage pool. The objectives are to characterized the heat transfer phenomena, performance of heat pipe, and as a model for large heat pipe will be applied as passive cooling system on nuclear spent fuel pool storage. In this experimental wickless heat pipe or two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used. Variation of heat flux are 611.24 Watt/m2 - 3291.29 Watt/m2. Variation of filling ratio are 45 - 70%. Variation of initial pressure are -62 to -74 cm Hg. Demineralized water is used as working fluid in the TPCT. The results showed that increasing of heat load leads to an increase of evaporation of the working fluid. The optimum filling ratio obtained for 60% of TPCT evaporator volume, and initial pressure variation gave different TPCT wall temperature characteristic. TPCT showed best performance with 60% filling ratio and can be consider to be applied as passive residual heat removal system or passive cooling system on spent fuel storage pool.

Keywords: two-phase closed term syphon, heat pipe, passive cooling, spent fuel storage pool

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1510 Experimental Study of Reflective Roof as a Passive Cooling Method in Homes Under the Paradigm of Appropriate Technology

Authors: Javier Ascanio Villabona, Brayan Eduardo Tarazona Romero, Camilo Leonardo Sandoval Rodriguez, Arly Dario Rincon, Omar Lengerke Perez

Abstract:

Efficient energy consumption in the housing sector in relation to refrigeration is a concern in the construction and rehabilitation of houses in tropical areas. Thermal comfort is aggravated by heat gain on the roof surface by heat gains. Thus, in the group of passive cooling techniques, one of the practices and technologies in solar control that provide improvements in comfortable conditions are thermal insulation or geometric changes of the roofs. On the other hand, methods with reflection and radiation are the methods used to decrease heat gain by facilitating the removal of excess heat inside a building to maintain a comfortable environment. Since the potential of these techniques varies in different climatic zones, their application in different zones should be examined. This research is based on the experimental study of a prototype of a roof radiator as a method of passive cooling in homes, which was developed through an experimental research methodology making measurements in a prototype built by means of the paradigm of appropriate technology, with the aim of establishing an initial behavior of the internal temperature resulting from the climate of the external environment. As a starting point, a selection matrix was made to identify the typologies of passive cooling systems to model the system and its subsequent implementation, establishing its constructive characteristics. Step followed by the measurement of the climatic variables (outside the prototype) and microclimatic variables (inside the prototype) to obtain a database to be analyzed. As a final result, the decrease in temperature that occurs inside the chamber with respect to the outside temperature was evidenced. likewise, a linearity in its behavior in relation to the variations of the climatic variables.

Keywords: appropriate technology, enveloping, energy efficiency, passive cooling

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1509 Review of Modern Gas turbine Blade Cooling Technologies used in Aircraft

Authors: Arun Prasath Subramanian

Abstract:

The turbine Inlet Temperature is an important parameter which determines the efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The increase in this parameter is limited by material constraints of the turbine blade.The modern Gas turbine blade has undergone a drastic change from a simple solid blade to a modern multi-pass blade with internal and external cooling techniques. This paper aims to introduce the reader the concept of turbine blade cooling, the classification of techniques and further explain some of the important internal cooling technologies used in a modern gas turbine blade along with the various factors that affect the cooling effectiveness.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, cooling technologies, internal cooling, pin-fin cooling, jet impingement cooling, rib turbulated cooling, metallic foam cooling

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1508 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi

Abstract:

Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

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1507 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

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1506 Dynamic Study of a Two Phase Thermosyphon Loop

Authors: Selva Georgena D., Videcoq Etienne, Caner Julien, Benselama Adel, Girault Manu

Abstract:

A Two-Phase Thermosyphon Loop (TPTL) is a passive cooling system which does not require a pump to function. Therefore, TPTL is a simple and robust device and its physics is complex to describe because of the coupled phenomena: heat flux, nucleation, fluid dynamics and gravitational effects. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of TPTL shows some physical instabilities and the actual occurrence of such a behavior remains unknown. The aim of this study is to propose a thermal balance of the TPTL to better identify the fundamental reasons for the appearance of the instabilities.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, passive cooling system, thermal reliability, thermal experimental study, liquid-vapor phase change

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1505 The Influence of Meteorological Properties on the Power of Night Radiation Cooling

Authors: Othmane Fahim, Naoual Belouaggadia. Charifa David, Mohamed Ezzine

Abstract:

To make better use of cooling resources, systems have been derived on the basis of the use of night radiator systems for heat pumping. Using the TRNSYS tool we determined the influence of the climatic characteristics of the two zones in Morocco on the temperature of the outer surface of a Photovoltaic Thermal Panel “PVT” made of aluminum. The proposal to improve the performance of the panel allowed us to have little heat absorption during the day and give the same performance of a panel made of aluminum at night. The variation in the granite-based panel temperature recorded a deviation from the other materials of 0.5 °C, 2.5 °C on the first day respectively in Marrakech and Casablanca, and 0.2 °C and 3.2 °C on the second night. Power varied between 110.16 and 32.01 W/m² marked in Marrakech, to be the most suitable area to practice night cooling by night radiation.

Keywords: smart buildings, energy efficiency, Morocco, radiative cooling

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1504 Impact of Unusual Dust Event on Regional Climate in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad

Abstract:

A severe dust storm generated from a western disturbance over north Pakistan and adjoining Afghanistan affected the north-west region of India between May 28 and 31, 2014, resulting in significant reductions in air quality and visibility. The air quality of the affected region degraded drastically. PM10 concentration peaked at a very high value of around 1018 μgm-3 during dust storm hours of May 30, 2014 at New Delhi. The present study depicts aerosol optical properties monitored during the dust days using ground based multi-wavelength Sky radiometer over the National Capital Region of India. High Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 500 nm was observed as 1.356 ± 0.19 at New Delhi while Angstrom exponent (Alpha) dropped to 0.287 on May 30, 2014. The variation in the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and real n(λ) and imaginary k(λ) parts of the refractive index indicated that the dust event influences the optical state to be more absorbing. The single scattering albedo, refractive index, volume size distribution and asymmetry parameter (ASY) values suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over the anthropogenic aerosols in the urban environment of New Delhi. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level caused significant cooling at the surface. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) was calculated using a radiative transfer model during the dust period. A consistent increase in surface cooling was evident, ranging from -31 Wm-2 to -82 Wm-2 and an increase in heating of the atmosphere from 15 Wm-2 to 92 Wm-2 and -2 Wm-2 to 10 Wm-2 at top of the atmosphere.

Keywords: aerosol optical properties, dust storm, radiative transfer model, sky radiometer

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1503 Reduction of Cooling Demands in a Subtropical Humid Climate Zone: A Study on Roofs of Existing Residential Building Using Passive

Authors: Megha Jain, K. K. Pathak

Abstract:

In sub-tropical humid climates, it is estimated most of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning or air-coolers cooling demand in summer time. As the urbanization rate in developing nation – like the case in India is rising rapidly, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy inhabitants’ indoor comfort requirements is consequently increasing too. This paper introduces passive cooling through roof as a means of reducing energy cooling loads for satisfying human comfort requirements in a sub-tropical climate. Experiments were performed by applying different insulators which are locally available solar reflective materials to insulate the roofs of five rooms of 4 case buildings; three rooms having RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) roof and two having Asbestos sheet roof of existing buildings. The results are verified by computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics tools with FLUENT software. The result of using solar reflective paint with high albedo coating shows a fall of 4.8⁰C in peak hours and saves 303 kWh considering energy load with air conditioner during the summer season in comparison to non insulated flat roof energy load of residential buildings in Bhopal. An optimum solution of insulator for both types of roofs is presented. It is recommended that the selected cool roof solution be combined with insulation on other elements of envelope, to increase the indoor thermal comfort. The application is intended for low cost residential buildings in composite and warm climate like Bhopal.

Keywords: cool roof, computational fluid dynamics, energy loads, insulators, passive cooling, subtropical climate, thermal performance

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1502 Photovoltaic-Driven Thermochemical Storage for Cooling Applications to Be Integrated in Polynesian Microgrids: Concept and Efficiency Study

Authors: Franco Ferrucci, Driss Stitou, Pascal Ortega, Franck Lucas

Abstract:

The energy situation in tropical insular regions, as found in the French Polynesian islands, presents a number of challenges, such as high dependence on imported fuel, high transport costs from the mainland and weak electricity grids. Alternatively, these regions have a variety of renewable energy resources, which favor the exploitation of smart microgrids and energy storage technologies. With regards to the electrical energy demand, the high temperatures in these regions during the entire year implies that a large proportion of consumption is used for cooling buildings, even during the evening hours. In this context, this paper presents an air conditioning system driven by photovoltaic (PV) electricity that combines a refrigeration system and a thermochemical storage process. Thermochemical processes are able to store energy in the form of chemical potential with virtually no losses, and this energy can be used to produce cooling during the evening hours without the need to run a compressor (thus no electricity is required). Such storage processes implement thermochemical reactors in which a reversible chemical reaction between a solid compound and a gas takes place. The solid/gas pair used in this study is BaCl2 reacting with ammonia (NH3), which is also the coolant fluid in the refrigeration circuit. In the proposed system, the PV-driven electric compressor is used during the daytime either to run the refrigeration circuit when a cooling demand occurs or to decompose the ammonia-charged salt and remove the gas from thermochemical reactor when no cooling is needed. During the evening, when there is no electricity from solar source, the system changes its configuration and the reactor reabsorbs the ammonia gas from the evaporator and produces the cooling effect. In comparison to classical PV-driven air conditioning units equipped with electrochemical batteries (e.g. Pb, Li-ion), the proposed system has the advantage of having a novel storage technology with a much longer charge/discharge life cycle, and no self-discharge. It also allows a continuous operation of the electric compressor during the daytime, thus avoiding the problems associated with the on-off cycling. This work focuses on the system concept and on the efficiency study of its main components. It also compares the thermochemical with electrochemical storage as well as with other forms of thermal storage, such as latent (ice) and sensible heat (chilled water). The preliminary results show that the system seems to be a promising alternative to simultaneously fulfill cooling and energy storage needs in tropical insular regions.

Keywords: microgrid, solar air-conditioning, solid/gas sorption, thermochemical storage, tropical and insular regions

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1501 A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure

Authors: Mohamed Ouzzane, Mahmoud Bady

Abstract:

Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

Keywords: air cooling system, refrigeration, thermal ejector, thermal compression

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1500 Heritage Buildings an Inspiration for Energy Conservation under Solar Control – a Case Study of Hadoti Region of India.

Authors: Abhinav Chaturvedi, Joohi Chaturvedi, Renu Chaturvedi

Abstract:

With rapid urbanization and growth of population, more buildings are require to be constructed to meet the increasing demand of the shelter. 80 % of the world population is living in developing countries, but the adequate energy supplied to only 30% of it. In India situation get little more difficult as majority of the villages of India are still deprived of energy. 1/3 of the Indian household does not have energy supply. So there is big gap between energy demand and supply. Moreover India is producing around 65 % of the energy from Non – Renewable sources and 25 % of the Energy is imported in the form of oil and gas and only 10% of the total, is generated from other sources like solar power, wind power etc. Present modern structures are big energy consumers as they are consuming 40 % of the total energy in providing comfort conditions to the users, in from of heating and cooling,5 % in Building Construction, 20 % in transportation and 20 % in industrial process and 10 % in other processes. If we minimize this Heating and Cooling and lighting load of the building we can conserve huge amount of energy for the future. In history, buildings do not have artificial systems of cooling or heating. These buildings, especially in Hadoti Region which have Semi Arid Climatic conditions, are provided with Solar Passive Design Techniques that is the reason of comfort inside the buildings. So if we use some appropriate elements of these heritage structures, in our present age building design we can find some certain solution to energy crises. Present paper describes Various Solar Passive design techniques used in past, and the same could be used in present to reduce the consumption of energy.

Keywords: energy conservation, Hadoti region, solar passive design techniques , semi - arid climatic condition

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1499 Mathematical Modeling of District Cooling Systems

Authors: Dana Alghool, Tarek ElMekkawy, Mohamed Haouari, Adel Elomari

Abstract:

District cooling systems have captured the attentions of many researchers recently due to the enormous benefits offered by such system in comparison with traditional cooling technologies. It is considered a major component of urban cities due to the significant reduction of energy consumption. This paper aims to find the optimal design and operation of district cooling systems by developing a mixed integer linear programming model to minimize the annual total system cost and satisfy the end-user cooling demand. The proposed model is experimented with different cooling demand scenarios. The results of the very high cooling demand scenario are only presented in this paper. A sensitivity analysis on different parameters of the model was performed.

Keywords: Annual Cooling Demand, Compression Chiller, Mathematical Modeling, District Cooling Systems, Optimization

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1498 [Keynote Speaker]: Enhancing the Performance of a Photovoltaic Module Using Different Cooling Methods

Authors: Ahmed Amine Hachicha

Abstract:

Temperature effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module is one of the main concern that face this renewable energy, especially in the hot arid region, e.g United Arab Emirates. Overheating of the PV modules reduces the open circuit voltage and the efficiency of the modules dramatically. In this work, water cooling is developed to enhance the performance of PV modules. Different scenarios are tested under UAE weather conditions: front, back and double cooling. A spraying system is used for the front cooling whether a direct contact water system is used for the back cooling. The experimental results are compared to a non-cooling module and the performance of the PV module is determined for different situations. A mathematical model is presented to estimate the theoretical performance and validate the experimental results with and without cooling. The experimental results show that the front cooling is more effective than the back cooling and may decrease the temperature of the PV module significantly.

Keywords: PV cooling, solar energy, cooling methods, electrical efficiency, temperature effect

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1497 Passive Heat Exchanger for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cooling

Authors: Ivan Tolj

Abstract:

Water produced during electrochemical reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell can be used for internal humidification of reactant gases; hydrogen and air. On such a way it is possible to eliminate expensive external humidifiers and simplify fuel cell balance-of-plant (BoP). When fuel cell operates at constant temperature (usually between 60 °C and 80 °C) relatively cold and dry ambient air heats up quickly upon entering channels which cause further drop in relative humidity (below 20%). Low relative humidity of reactant gases dries up polymer membrane and decrease its proton conductivity which results in fuel cell performance drop. It is possible to maintain such temperature profile throughout fuel cell cathode channel which will result in close to 100 % RH. In order to achieve this, passive heat exchanger was designed using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). Such passive heat exchanger (with variable surface area) is suitable for small scale PEM fuel cells. In this study, passive heat exchanger for single PEM fuel cell segment (with 20 x 1 cm active area) was developed. Results show close to 100 % RH of air throughout cathode channel with increased fuel cell performance (mainly improved polarization curve) and improved durability.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, passive heat exchange, relative humidity, thermal management

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1496 Using Passive Cooling Strategies to Reduce Thermal Cooling Load for Coastal High-Rise Buildings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmad Zamzam

Abstract:

With the development of the economy in recent years, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining high economic growth. Therefore, its energy consumption has increased dramatically. This economic growth reflected on the expansion of high-rise tower's construction. Jeddah coastal strip (cornice) has many high-rise buildings planned to start next few years. These projects required a massive amount of electricity that was not planned to be supplied by the old infrastructure. This research studies the effect of the building envelope on its thermal performance. It follows a parametric simulation methodology using Ecotect software to analyze the effect of the building envelope design on its cooling energy load for an office high-rise building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which includes building geometrical form, massing treatments, orientation and glazing type effect. The research describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise building through an improved building envelope design. The research used Ecotect to make four simulation studies; the first simulation compares the thermal performance of five high-rise buildings, presenting the basic shape of the plan. All the buildings have the same plan area and same floor height. The goal of this simulation is to find out the best shape for the thermal performance. The second simulation studies the effect of orientation on the thermal performance by rotating the same building model to find out the best and the worst angle for the building thermal performance. The third simulation studies the effect of the massing treatment on the total cooling load. It compared five models with different massing treatment, but with the same total built up area. The last simulation studied the effect of the glazing type by comparing the total cooling load of the same building using five different glass type and also studies the feasibility of using these glass types by studying the glass cost effect. The results indicate that using the circle shape as building plan could reduce the thermal cooling load by 40%. Also, using shading devices could reduce the cooling loads by 5%. The study states that using any of the massing grooving, recess or any treatment that could increase the outer exposed surface is not preferred and will decrease the building thermal performance. Also, the result shows that the best direction for glazing and openings from thermal performance viewpoint in Jeddah is the North direction while the worst direction is the East one. The best direction angle for openings - regarding the thermal performance in Jeddah- is 15 deg West and the worst is 250 deg West (110 deg East). Regarding the glass type effect, comparing to the double glass with air fill type as a reference case, the double glass with Air-Low-E will save 14% from the required amount of the thermal cooling load annually. Argon fill and triple glass will save 16% and 17% from the total thermal cooling load respectively, but for the glass cost purpose, using the Argon fill and triple glass is not feasible.

Keywords: passive cooling, reduce thermal load, Jeddah, building shape, energy

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1495 Efficiency Validation of Hybrid Cooling Application in Hot and Humid Climate Houses of KSA

Authors: Jamil Hijazi, Stirling Howieson

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions are probably the greatest challenge now facing mankind. From considerations surrounding global warming and CO2 production, it has to be recognized that oil is a finite resource and the KSA like many other oil-rich countries will have to start to consider a horizon where hydro-carbons are not the dominant energy resource. The employment of hybrid ground-cooling pipes in combination with the black body solar collection and radiant night cooling systems may have the potential to displace a significant proportion of oil currently used to run conventional air conditioning plant. This paper presents an investigation into the viability of such hybrid systems with the specific aim of reducing cooling load and carbon emissions while providing all year-round thermal comfort in a typical Saudi Arabian urban housing block. Soil temperatures were measured in the city of Jeddah. A parametric study then was carried out by computational simulation software (DesignBuilder) that utilized the field measurements and predicted the cooling energy consumption of both a base case and an ideal scenario (typical block retro-fitted with insulation, solar shading, ground pipes integrated with hypocaust floor slabs/stack ventilation and radiant cooling pipes embed in floor). Initial simulation results suggest that careful ‘ecological design’ combined with hybrid radiant and ground pipe cooling techniques can displace air conditioning systems, producing significant cost and carbon savings (both capital and running) without appreciable deprivation of amenity.

Keywords: cooling load, energy efficiency, ground pipe cooling, hybrid cooling strategy, hydronic radiant systems, low carbon emission, passive designs, thermal comfort

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1494 The Prospective Assessment of Zero-Energy Dwellings

Authors: Jovana Dj. Jovanovic, Svetlana M. Stevovic

Abstract:

The highest priority of so called, projected passive houses is to meet the appropriate energy demand. Every single material and layer which is injected into a dwelling has a certain energy quantity stored. The passive houses include optimized insulation levels with minimal thermal bridges, minimum of air leakage through the building, utilization of passive solar and internal gains, and good circulation of air which leans on mechanical ventilation system. The focus of this paper is on passive house features, benefits and targets, their feasibility and energy demands which are set up during each project. Numerous passive house-standards outline the very significant role of zero-energy dwellings towards the modern label of sustainable development. It is clear that the performance of both built and existing housing stock must be addressed if the population across the world sets out the energy objectives. This scientific article examines passive house features since the many passive house cases are launched.

Keywords: benefits, energy demands, passive houses, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
1493 Optimization Analysis of Controlled Cooling Process for H-Shape Steam Beams

Authors: Jiin-Yuh Jang, Yu-Feng Gan

Abstract:

In order to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the steel, the cooling rate, and the temperature distribution must be controlled in the cooling process. A three-dimensional numerical model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient distribution of H-beam in the controlled cooling process was performed in order to obtain the uniform temperature distribution and minimize the maximum stress and the maximum deformation after the controlled cooling. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method was used as an optimizer to optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution. The numerical results showed that, for the case of air cooling 5 seconds followed by water cooling 6 seconds with uniform the heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate is 15.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is 85℃, the maximum the stress is 125 MPa, and the maximum deformation is 1.280 mm. After optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution in control cooling process with the same cooling time, the cooling rate is increased to 20.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is decreased to 52℃, the maximum stress is decreased to 82MPa and the maximum deformation is decreased to 1.167mm.

Keywords: controlled cooling, H-Beam, optimization, thermal stress

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1492 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

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1491 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah, H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: evaporative cooling, vapor compression, electricity consumption, CO2 emission

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1490 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser

Abstract:

Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: antiprotons, anions, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 293