Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 183

Search results for: coronary stent

183 Finite Element Analysis and Design Optimization of Stent and Balloon System

Authors: V. Hashim, P. N. Dileep


Stent implantation is being seen as the most successful method to treat coronary artery diseases. Different types of stents are available in the market these days and the success of a stent implantation greatly depends on the proper selection of a suitable stent for a patient. Computer numerical simulation is the cost effective way to choose the compatible stent. Studies confirm that the design characteristics of stent do have great importance with regards to the pressure it can sustain, the maximum displacement it can produce, the developed stress concentration and so on. In this paper different designs of stent were analyzed together with balloon to optimize the stent and balloon system. Commercially available stent Palmaz-Schatz has been selected for analysis. Abaqus software is used to simulate the system. This work is the finite element analysis of the artery stent implant to find out the design factors affecting the stress and strain. The work consists of two phases. In the first phase, stress distribution of three models were compared - stent without balloon, stent with balloon of equal length and stent with balloon of extra length than stent. In second phase, three different design models of Palmaz-Schatz stent were compared by keeping the balloon length constant. The results obtained from analysis shows that, the design of the strut have strong effect on the stress distribution. A design with chamfered slots found better results. The length of the balloon also has influence on stress concentration of the stent. Increase in length of the balloon will reduce stress, but will increase dog boning effect.

Keywords: coronary stent, finite element analysis, restenosis, stress concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
182 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab


The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
181 Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 on Clinical In-Stent Restenosis in First Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients

Authors: Leonard Simoni, Ilir Alimehmeti, Ervina Shirka, Endri Hasimi, Ndricim Kallashi, Verona Beka, Suerta Kabili, Artan Goda


Background: Diabetes Mellitus type 2, small vessel calibre, stented length of vessel, complex lesion morphology, and prior bypass surgery have resulted risk factors for In-Stent Restenosis (ISR). However, there are some contradictory results about body mass index (BMI) as a risk factor for ISR. Purpose: We want to identify clinical, lesional and procedural factors that can predict clinical ISR in our patients. Methods: Were enrolled 759 patients who underwent first-time elective PCI with Bare Metal Stents (BMS) from September 2011 to December 2013 in our Department of Cardiology and followed them for at least 1.5 years with a median of 862 days (2 years and 4 months). Only the patients re-admitted with ischemic heart disease underwent control coronary angiography but no routine angiographic control was performed. Patients were categorized in ISR and non-ISR groups and compared between them. Multivariate analysis - Binary Logistic Regression: Forward Conditional Method was used to identify independent predictive risk factors. P was considered statistically significant when <0.05. Results: ISR compared to non-ISR individuals had a significantly lower BMI (25.7±3.3 vs. 26.9±3.7, p=0.004), higher risk anatomy (LM + 3-vessel CAD) (23% vs. 14%, p=0.03), higher number of stents/person used (2.1±1.1 vs. 1.75±0.96, p=0.004), greater length of stents/person used (39.3±21.6 vs. 33.3±18.5, p=0.01), and a lower use of clopidogrel and ASA (together) (95% vs. 99%, p=0.012). They also had a higher, although not statistically significant, prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (42% vs. 32%, p=0.072) and a greater number of treated vessels (1.36±0.5 vs. 1.26±0.5, p=0.08). In the multivariate analysis, Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and multiple stents used were independent predictors risk factors for In-Stent Restenosis, OR 1.66 [1.03-2.68], p=0.039, and OR 1.44 [1.16-1.78,] p=0.001, respectively. On the other side higher BMI and use of clopidogrel and ASA together resulted protective factors OR 0.88 [0.81-0.95], p=0.001 and OR 0.2 [0.06-0.72] p=0.013, respectively. Conclusion: Diabetes Mellitus and multiple stents are strong predictive risk factors, whereas the use of clopidogrel and ASA together are protective factors for clinical In-Stent Restenosis. Paradoxically High BMI is a protective factor for In-stent Restenosis, probably related to a larger diameter of vessels and consequently a larger diameter of stents implanted in these patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this finding.

Keywords: body mass index, diabetes mellitus, in-stent restenosis, percutaneous coronary intervention

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
180 Efficacy and Safety of Uventa Metallic Stent for Malignant and Benign Ureteral Obstruction

Authors: Deok Hyun Han


Objective: To explore outcomes of UventaTM metallic ureteral stent between malignant and benign ureteral obstruction. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 90 consecutive patients who underwent Uventa stent placement for benign or malignant ureteral obstruction from December 2009 to June 2013. We evaluated the clinical outcomes, complications, and reasons and results for unexpected stent removals. Results: The median follow-up was 10.7 (0.9 – 41) months. From a total of 125 ureter units, there were 24 units with benign obstructions and 101 units with malignant obstructions. Initial technical successes were achieved in all patients. The overall success rate was 70.8% with benign obstructions and 84.2% with malignant obstructions. The major reasons for treatment failure were stent migration (12.5%) in benign and tumor progression (11.9%) in malignant obstructions. The overall complication rate was similar between benign and malignant obstructions (58.3% and 42.6%), but severe complications, which are Clavien grade 3 or more, occurred in 41.7% of benign and 6.9% of malignant obstructions. The most common complications were stent migration (25.0%) in benign obstructions and persistent pain (14.9%) in malignant obstructions. The stent removal was done in 16 units; nine units that were removed by endoscopy and seven units were by open surgery. Conclusions: In malignant ureteral obstructions, the Uventa stent showed favorable outcomes with high success rate and acceptable complication rate. However, in benign ureteral obstructions, overall success rate and complication rate were less favorable. Malignant ureteral obstruction seems to be appropriate indication of Uventa stent placement. However, in chronic diffuse benign ureteral obstructions the decision of placement of Uventa stent has to be careful.

Keywords: cause, complication, ureteral obstruction, metal stent

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
179 The Optimization Process of Aortic Heart Valve Stent Geometry

Authors: Arkadiusz Mezyk, Wojciech Klein, Mariusz Pawlak, Jacek Gnilka


The aortic heart valve stents should fulfill many criterions. These criteria have a strong impact on the geometrical shape of the stent. Usually, the final construction of stent is a result of many year experience and knowledge. Depending on patents claims, different stent shapes are produced by different companies. This causes difficulties for biomechanics engineers narrowing the domain of feasible solutions. The paper present optimization method for stent geometry defining by a specific analytical equation based on various mathematical functions. This formula was implemented as APDL script language in ANSYS finite element environment. For the purpose of simulation tests, a few parameters were separated from developed equation. The application of the genetic algorithms allows finding the best solution due to selected objective function. Obtained solution takes into account parameters such as radial force, compression ratio and coefficient of expansion on the transverse axial.

Keywords: aortic stent, optimization process, geometry, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
178 Post Coronary Artery Stenting Reflighting: Need for Change in Policy with Changing Antiplatelet Therapy

Authors: Keshavamurthy Ganapathy Bhat, Manvinderpal Singh Marwaha


Background: Coronary artery Disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity, mortality and reason for unfitness amongst aircrew. Coronary angioplasty and stenting are the standard of care for CAD. Antiplatelet drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel(Dual Antiplatelet therapy) are routinely prescribed post-stenting which are permitted for flying. However, in the recent past, Ticagrelor is being used in place of Clopidogrel as per ACC AHA and ESC guidelines. However Ticagrelor is not permitted for flying. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old pilot suffered Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction. Angiography showed blockages in Left Anterior Descending Artery(LAD) and Right coronary artery (RCA). He underwent primary angioplasty and stenting LAD and subsequent stenting to RCA. Recovery was uneventful. One year later he was asymptomatic with normal Left ventricular function and no reversible perfusion defect on stress MPI. He had patent stents and coronaries on check angiogram. However, he was not allowed to fly since he was on Ticagrelor. He had to be switched over to Clopidogrel from Ticagrelor one year after stenting to permit him for flying. Similarly, switching had to be done in a 45-year-old pilot. Ticagrelor has been proven to be more effective than clopidogrel and as safe as Clopidogrel in preventing stent thrombosis. If Clopidogrel is being permitted, there is no need to restrict Ticagrelor. Hence "Policy" needs to be changed. Conclusions: Dual Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care post coronary stenting which has been proved safe and effective. Policy needs to be changed to permit flying with Ticagrelor which is more effective than Clopidogrel and equally safe.

Keywords: antiplatelet drugs, coronary artery disease, stenting, ticagrelor

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
177 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: M. Wisnu Pamungkas, Patrianef Darwis


Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: critical limb ischemia, endovascular intervention, wound healing, angioplasty

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
176 Design and Development of Motorized Placer for Balloon Uterine Stents in Gynecology

Authors: Metehan Mutlu, Meltem Elitas


This study aims to provide an automated method for placing the balloon uterine stents after hysteroscopy adhesiolysis. Currently, there are no automatized tools to place the balloon uterine stent; therefore, surgeons into the endometrial cavity manually fit it. However, it is very hard to pass the balloon stent through the cervical canal, which is roughly 10mm after the surgery. Our method aims to provide an effective and practical way of placing the stent, by automating the procedure through our designed device. Furthermore, our device does the required tasks fast compared to traditional methods, reduces the narcosis time, and decreases the bacterial contamination risks.

Keywords: balloon uterine stent, endometrial cavity, hysteroscopy, motorized-tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
175 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama


Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
174 Temporary Ureteric Catheterization after Ureteropyeloscopy: Experience from Regional Australia

Authors: Jake Tempo, Jack Crozier, Huay Ann Chia, Philip Tan


Purpose: A prospective study was performed to determine whether temporary ureteric catheterization should be eliminated as a prophylactic method for preventing ureteric obstruction after uncomplicated ureteropyeloscopic lithotripsy. Material and Methods: From 2010 to 2014, 227 patients underwent uncomplicated ureteroscopic and/or pyeloscopic lithotripsy. Three patient-groups based on postoperative drainage method were analysed: temporary uretericcatheter (TUC), -ureteric JJ stent, and no-stent groups. Exclusion criteria included urosepsis, ureteric injury, and non-surgical complications delaying hospital-discharge. Outcome measures included parenteral analgesic requirements, prolonged hospitalization ≥2 days due to postoperative-pain, and readmissions rate. Results: Delayed discharge was reported in 14.5%(9 of 62) patients in the TUC group compared to 3.4%(4 of 119) in theureteric JJ stent group and 8.7%(4 of 46) in the no-drainage-group (p=0.02). Odds ratio for delayed-discharge between catheter- versus-ureteric JJ stent is 4.9 (95% CI = 1.6-15.0; p < 0.01). Parenteral analgesic requirements in the TUC group (12.9%) was also significantly higher than theureteric JJ stent group (1.7%; p=0.003). Readmissions were negligible between groups. Conclusions: Patients with ureteric catheters after uncomplicated ureteroscopy have a prolonged hospital stay with increased pain and parenteral analgesic requirements. There is a 7.6-fold increased requirement for parenteral analgesia and a 4.2-fold increased risk of delayed-discharge compared to a patient with a ureteric JJ stent.

Keywords: ureteric catheter, ureteric stent, ureteroscopy, pyeloscopy

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173 Long-Term Results of Coronary Bifurcation Stenting with Drug Eluting Stents

Authors: Piotr Muzyk, Beata Morawiec, Mariusz Opara, Andrzej Tomasik, Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec, Wojciech Jachec, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Damian Kawecki


Background: Coronary bifurcation is one of the most complex lesion in patients with coronary ar-tery disease. Provisional T-stenting is currently one of the recommended techniques. The aim was to assess optimal methods of treatment in the era of drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods: The regis-try consisted of data from 1916 patients treated with coronary percutaneous interventions (PCI) using either first- or second-generation DES. Patients with bifurcation lesion entered the analysis. Major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (MACCE) were assessed at one year of follow-up and comprised of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), repeated PCI (re-PCI) of target ves-sel and stroke. Results: Of 1916 registry patients, 204 patients (11%) were diagnosed with bifurcation lesion >50% and entered the analysis. The most commonly used technique was provi-sional T-stenting (141 patients, 69%). Optimization with kissing-balloons technique was performed in 45 patients (22%). In 59 patients (29%) second-generation DES was implanted, while in 112 pa-tients (55%), first-generation DES was used. In 33 patients (16%) both types of DES were used. The procedure success rate (TIMI 3 flow) was achieved in 98% of patients. In one-year follow-up, there were 39 MACCE (19%) (9 deaths, 17 AMI, 16 re-PCI and 5 strokes). Provisional T-stenting resulted in similar rate of MACCE to other techniques (16% vs. 5%, p=0.27) and similar occurrence of re-PCI (6% vs. 2%, p=0.78). The results of post-PCI kissing-balloon technique gave equal out-comes with 3% vs. 16% of MACCE in patients in whom no optimization technique was used (p=0.39). The type of implanted DES (second- vs. first-generation) had no influence on MACCE (4% vs 14%, respectively, p=0.12) and re-PCI (1.7% vs. 51% patients, respectively, p=0.28). Con-clusions: The treatment of bifurcation lesions with PCI represent high-risk procedures with high rate of MACCE. Stenting technique, optimization of PCI and the generation of implanted stent should be personalized for each case to balance risk of the procedure. In this setting, the operator experience might be the factor of better outcome, which should be further investigated.

Keywords: coronary bifurcation, drug eluting stents, long-term follow-up, percutaneous coronary interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
172 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall, M. Ferdows


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
171 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
170 Arterial Compliance Measurement Using Split Cylinder Sensor/Actuator

Authors: Swati Swati, Yuhang Chen, Robert Reuben


Coronary stents are devices resembling the shape of a tube which are placed in coronary arteries, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary arterial diseases. Coronary stents are routinely deployed to clear atheromatous plaque. The stent essentially applies an internal pressure to the artery because its structure is cylindrically symmetrical and this may introduce some abnormalities in final arterial shape. The goal of the project is to develop segmented circumferential arterial compliance measuring devices which can be deployed (eventually) in vivo. The segmentation of the device will allow the mechanical asymmetry of any stenosis to be assessed. The purpose will be to assess the quality of arterial tissue for applications in tailored stents and in the assessment of aortic aneurism. Arterial distensibility measurement is of utmost importance to diagnose cardiovascular diseases and for prediction of future cardiac events or coronary artery diseases. In order to arrive at some generic outcomes, a preliminary experimental set-up has been devised to establish the measurement principles for the device at macro-scale. The measurement methodology consists of a strain gauge system monitored by LABVIEW software in a real-time fashion. This virtual instrument employs a balloon within a gelatine model contained in a split cylinder with strain gauges fixed on it. The instrument allows automated measurement of the effect of air-pressure on gelatine and measurement of strain with respect to time and pressure during inflation. Compliance simple creep model has been applied to the results for the purpose of extracting some measures of arterial compliance. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to study the effect of air pressure on strain at varying time intervals. The results clearly demonstrate that with decrease in arterial volume and increase in arterial pressure, arterial strain increases thereby decreasing the arterial compliance. The measurement system could lead to development of portable, inexpensive and small equipment and could prove to be an efficient automated compliance measurement device.

Keywords: arterial compliance, atheromatous plaque, mechanical symmetry, strain measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
169 The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Foad Kabinejadian, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo


Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.

Keywords: carotid artery, covered stent, nonlinear, hyperelastic, stress, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
168 Effect of Coronary Insulators in Increasing the Lifespan of Electrolytic Cells: Short-circuit and Heat Resistance

Authors: Robert P. Dufresne, Hamid Arabzadeh


The current study investigates the effectiveness of a new form of permanent baseboard insulators with an umbrella action, hereinafter referred to as Coronary Insulator, in supporting and protecting the assembly of electrodes immersed in an electrolytic cell and in increasing the lifespan of the lateral sides of the electrolytic cell, in both electro-winning and electro-refinery method. The advantages of using a coronary insulator in addition to the top capping board (equipotential insulator) were studied compared to the conventional assembly of an electrolytic cell. Then, a thermal imaging technique was utilized during high-temperature thermal (heat transfer) tests for sample cell walls with and without coronary insulators in their assembly to show the effectiveness of coronary insulators in protecting the cell wall under extreme conditions. It was shown that, unlike the conventional assembly, which is highly prone to damages to the cell wall under thermal shocks, the presence of coronary insulator can significantly increase the level of protection of the cell due to their ultra-high thermal and chemical resistance, as well as decreasing the replacement frequency of insulators to almost zero. Besides, the results of the study showed that the test assembly with the coronary insulator provides better consistency in positioning and, subsequently, better contact, compared to the conventional method, which reduces the chance of electric short-circuit in the system.

Keywords: capping board, coronary insulator, electrolytic cell, thermal shock.

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
167 Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Elda Maraj, Shkelqim Kuka


Coronary heart disease causes many deaths in the world. Unfortunately, this problem will continue to increase in the future. In this paper, a fuzzy logic model to predict coronary heart disease is presented. This model has been developed with seven input variables and one output variable that was implemented for 30 patients in Albania. Here fuzzy logic toolbox of MATLAB is used. Fuzzy model inputs are considered as cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, age, BMI, smoking, and diabetes, whereas the output is the disease classification. The fuzzy sets and membership functions are chosen in an appropriate manner. Centroid method is used for defuzzification. The database is taken from University Hospital Center "Mother Teresa" in Tirana, Albania.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, fuzzy logic toolbox, membership function, prediction model

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
166 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
165 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam


The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
164 Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Radhe Tado, Ashish B. Deoghare, K. M. Pandey


The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.

Keywords: angiography, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS)

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163 Investigation the Effect of Velocity Inlet and Carrying Fluid on the Flow inside Coronary Artery

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi


In this study OpenFOAM 4.4.2 was used to investigate flow inside the coronary artery of the heart. This step is the first step of our future project, which is to include conjugate heat transfer of the heart with three main coronary arteries. Three different velocities were used as inlet boundary conditions to see the effect of velocity increase on velocity, pressure, and wall shear of the coronary artery. Also, three different fluids, namely the University of Wisconsin solution, gelatin, and blood was used to investigate the effect of different fluids on flow inside the coronary artery. A code based on Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes (RANS) equations was written and implemented with the real boundary condition that was calculated based on MRI images. In order to improve the accuracy of the current numerical scheme, hex dominant mesh is utilized. When the inlet velocity increases to 0.5 m/s, velocity, wall shear stress, and pressure increase at the narrower parts.

Keywords: CFD, simulation, OpenFOAM, heart

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162 Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion on a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Jitendra Pratap, Daphne Prybyszcuk, Luke Elliott, Arnold Ng


Introduction: Coronary CT angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of coronary artery disease and has high sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, the correlation between the degree of CT coronary stenosis and the significance of hemodynamic obstruction is poor. The assessment of myocardial perfusion has mostly been undertaken by Nuclear Medicine (SPECT), but it is now possible to perform stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) scans quickly and effectively using CT scanners with high temporal resolution. Myocardial CTP is in many ways similar to neuro perfusion imaging technique, where radiopaque iodinated contrast is injected intravenously, transits the pulmonary and cardiac structures, and then perfuses through the coronary arteries into the myocardium. On the Siemens Force CT scanner, a myocardial perfusion scan is performed using a dynamic axial acquisition, where the scanner shuffles in and out every 1-3 seconds (heart rate dependent) to be able to cover the heart in the z plane. This is usually performed over 38 seconds. Report: A CT myocardial perfusion scan can be utilised to complement the findings of a CT Coronary Angiogram. Implementing a CT Myocardial Perfusion study as part of a routine CT Coronary Angiogram procedure provides a ‘One Stop Shop’ for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. This case study demonstrates that although the CT Coronary Angiogram was within normal limits, the perfusion scan provided additional, clinically significant information in regards to the haemodynamics within the myocardium of a patient with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardio Myopathy (HOCM). This negated the need for further diagnostics studies such as cardiac ECHO or Nuclear Medicine Stress tests. Conclusion: CT coronary angiography with adenosine stress myocardial CTP was utilised in this case to specifically exclude coronary artery disease in conjunction with accessing perfusion within the hypertrophic myocardium. Adenosine stress myocardial CTP demonstrated the reduced myocardial blood flow within the hypertrophic myocardium, but the coronary arteries did not show any obstructive disease. A CT coronary angiogram scan protocol that incorporates myocardial perfusion can provide diagnostic information on the haemodynamic significance of any coronary artery stenosis and has the potential to be a “One Stop Shop” for cardiac imaging.

Keywords: CT, cardiac, myocardium, perfusion

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161 Management of Coronary Heart Disease through Yoga

Authors: Subramaniam Iyer


The most common disease that is pertaining to all human beings is heart-related. The reasons for coronary artery disease are due to lifestyle and eating habits. Due to this, many people mentally become sick, feeling that soon they will die due to their heart problems. This results in stress and anxiety, which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are the commonest curative remedy in India, but it is proposed through this article some remedies through yoga. This article does not guarantee a 100% result, but it is a preventive remedy for coronary artery disease. Yoga is giving a new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases, it provides remedies that will be lifelong. It is brought to many people by Patanjali. Yoga will provide support to patients having coronary artery disease through its various relevant postures (asanas), which can be done very easily. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly, you will be relieved from a particular disease. If it is performed every day, it will add vital energy for a smooth life, even if you are suffering from any chronic disease. In this article, we will be providing 6 postures (asanas), which can be performed at any time in the day, but the early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get a good result. Secondly, these postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves, don’t do these postures as it will be harmful to your body.

Keywords: coronary artery, yoga, disease, remedy, medicine

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160 The Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Local and Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Kamil Ganaev, Elina Vlasova, Andrei Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin


De novo atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication. To date, there are no data on the possible effect of diffuse lesions of coronary arteries on the incidence of postoperative AF complications. Methods. Patients operated on-pump under hypothermic conditions during the calendar year (2020) were studied. Inclusion criteria - isolated CABG and achievement of complete myocardial revascularization. Patients with a history of AF moderate and severe valve dysfunction, hormonal thyroid pathology, initial CHF(Congestive heart failure), as well as patients with developed perioperative complications (IM, acute heart failure, massive blood loss) and deceased were excluded. Thus 227 patients were included; mean age 65±9 years; 69% were men. 89% of patients had a 3-vessel lesion of the coronary artery; the remainder had a 2-vessel lesion. Mean LV size: 3.9±0.3 cm, indexed LV volume: 29.4±5.3 mL/m2. Two groups were considered: D (n=98), patients with diffuse coronary heart disease, and L (n=129), patients with local coronary heart disease. Clinical and demographic characteristics in the groups were comparable. Rhythm assessment: continuous bedside ECG monitoring up to 5 days; ECG CT at 5-7 days after CABG; daily routine ECG registration. Follow-up period - postoperative hospital period. Results. The Median follow-up period was 9 (7;11) days. POFP (Postoperative atrial fibrillation) was detected in 61/227 (27%) patients: 34/98 (35%) in group D versus 27/129 (21%) in group L; p<0.05. Moreover, the values of revascularization index in groups D and L (3.9±0.7 and 3.8±0.5, respectively) were equal, and the mean time Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (107±27 and 80±13min), as well as the mean ischemic time (67±17 and 55±11min) were significantly longer in group D (p<0.05). However, a separate analysis of these parameters in patients with and without developed AF did not reveal any significant differences in group D (CPB time 99±21.2 min, ischemic time 63±12.2 min), or in group L (CPB time 88±13.1 min, ischemic time 58.7±13.2 min). Conclusion. With the diffuse nature of coronary lesions, the incidence of AF in the hospital period after isolated CABG definitely increases. To better understand the role of severe coronary atherosclerosis in the development of POAF, it is necessary to distinguish the influence of organic features of atrial and ventricular myocardium (as a consequence of chronic coronary disease) from the features of surgical correction in diffuse coronary lesions.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, diffuse coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, local coronary artery disease

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159 Optimization of Perfusion Distribution in Custom Vascular Stent-Grafts Through Patient-Specific CFD Models

Authors: Scott M. Black, Craig Maclean, Pauline Hall Barrientos, Konstantinos Ritos, Asimina Kazakidi


Aortic aneurysms and dissections are leading causes of death in cardiovascular disease. Both inevitably lead to hemodynamic instability without surgical intervention in the form of vascular stent-graft deployment. An accurate description of the aortic geometry and blood flow in patient-specific cases is vital for treatment planning and long-term success of such grafts, as they must generate physiological branch perfusion and in-stent hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to create patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models through a multi-modality, multi-dimensional approach with boundary condition optimization to predict branch flow rates and in-stent hemodynamics in custom stent-graft configurations. Three-dimensional (3D) thoracoabdominal aortae were reconstructed from four-dimensional flow-magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) and computed tomography (CT) medical images. The former employed a novel approach to generate and enhance vessel lumen contrast via through-plane velocity at discrete, user defined cardiac time steps post-hoc. To produce patient-specific boundary conditions (BCs), the aortic geometry was reduced to a one-dimensional (1D) model. Thereafter, a zero-dimensional (0D) 3-Element Windkessel model (3EWM) was coupled to each terminal branch to represent the distal vasculature. In this coupled 0D-1D model, the 3EWM parameters were optimized to yield branch flow waveforms which are representative of the 4D Flow-MRI-derived in-vivo data. Thereafter, a 0D-3D CFD model was created, utilizing the optimized 3EWM BCs and a 4D Flow-MRI-obtained inlet velocity profile. A sensitivity analysis on the effects of stent-graft configuration and BC parameters was then undertaken using multiple stent-graft configurations and a range of distal vasculature conditions. 4D Flow-MRI granted unparalleled visualization of blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle in both the pre- and postsurgical states. Segmentation and reconstruction of healthy and stented regions from retrospective 4D Flow-MRI images also generated 3D models with geometries which were successfully validated against their CT-derived counterparts. 0D-1D coupling efficiently captured branch flow and pressure waveforms, while 0D-3D models also enabled 3D flow visualization and quantification of clinically relevant hemodynamic parameters for in-stent thrombosis and graft limb occlusion. It was apparent that changes in 3EWM BC parameters had a pronounced effect on perfusion distribution and near-wall hemodynamics. Results show that the 3EWM parameters could be iteratively changed to simulate a range of graft limb diameters and distal vasculature conditions for a given stent-graft to determine the optimal configuration prior to surgery. To conclude, this study outlined a methodology to aid in the prediction post-surgical branch perfusion and in-stent hemodynamics in patient specific cases for the implementation of custom stent-grafts.

Keywords: 4D flow-MRI, computational fluid dynamics, vascular stent-grafts, windkessel

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158 Predicting Intentions of Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control

Authors: Shadi Kanan, Ghada Shahrour, Barbara Broome, Donna Bernert, Muntaha Alibrahim, Dana Hansen


Coronary artery disease is responsible for over 7 million deaths a year worldwide. In developing countries, such as Jordan, the incidence of coronary artery disease exceeds that of developed countries. One contributing factor to this disparity is decreased physical activity among the population, for reasons related to specific cultural and religious values. Using the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this study was to investigate the intentions of Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease regarding physical activity. A total of 109 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited for this cross-sectional study from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. A 15-item questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was used to assess participants’ attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards engagement in physical activity. Perceived behavioural control was found to have the strongest significant relationship with participants’ intentions to engage in physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, lack of support from family or friends, and feelings of exhaustion. Lifestyle interventions for patients with coronary artery disease should focus on fostering a sense of control over the environment to encourage patients to engage in physical activity.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, theory of planned behaviour

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157 Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patient with Triple-Vessel Disease in Limited Resources Hospital: A Case Report

Authors: Fanniyah Anis, Bram Kilapong


Myocardial reperfusion injury is defined as the cellular damage that results from a period of ischemia, followed by the reestablishment of the blood supply to the infarcted tissue. Ventricular tachycardia is one of the most commonly encountered reperfusion arrhythmia as one of the types of myocardial perfusion injury. Prompt and early treatment can reduce mortality, despite limited resources of the hospital in high risk patients with history of triple vessel disease. Case report, Male 53 years old has been diagnosed with NSTEMI with 3VD and comorbid disease of Hypertension and has undergone revascularization management with Percutaneous coronary intervention. Ventricular tachycardia leading to cardiac arrest occurred right after the stent was inserted. Resuscitation was performed for almost 2 hours until spontaneous circulation returned. Patient admitted in ICU with refractory cardiac shock despite using combination of ionotropic and vasopressor agents under standard non-invasive monitoring due to the limitation of the hospital. Angiography was performed again 5 hours later to exclude other possibilities of blockage of coronary arteries and conclude diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Patient continually managed with combination of antiplatelet agents and maintenance dose of anti-arrhythmia agents. The handling of the patient was to focus more on supportive and preventive from further deteriorating of the condition. Patient showed clinically improvement and regained consciousness within 24 hours. Patient was successfully discharged from ICU within 3 days without any neurological sequela and was discharge from hospital after 3 days observation in general ward. Limited Resource of hospital did not refrain the physician from attaining a good outcome for this myocardial reperfusion injury case and angiography alone can be used to confirm the diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury.

Keywords: limited resources hospital, myocardial reperfusion injury, prolonged resuscitation, refractory cardiogenic shock, reperfusion arrhythmia, revascularization, triple-vessel disease

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156 Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Index as Predictors of the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yaser Kamal, Mohamed Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Hussen


Introduction: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Recently, there is an increasing interest in Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) as non-invasive tools for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis. We aim to examine the role of CIMT and ABI as predictors of the severity of angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 60 patients who were investigated by coronary angiography at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. CIMT: After the carotid arteries were located by transverse scans, the probe was rotated 90 ° to obtain and record longitudinal images of bilateral carotid arteries ABI: Each patient was evaluated in the supine position after resting for 5 min. ABI was measured in each leg using a Doppler Ultrasound while the patient remained in the same position. The lowest ABI obtained for either leg was taken as the ABI measurement for the patient. Results: Patients with carotid mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients without thickening (mean IMT > 0.9 mm). Similarly, patients with low ABI (< 0.9) had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients with ABI ≥ 0.9. When the patients were divided into 4 groups (group A, n = 15, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group B, n = 25, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, low ABI; group C, n = 5, mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group D, n = 19, mean IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, low ABI), the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50%) of the groups were significantly different (group A, n = 5: (33.3%); group B, n = 11: (52.4%); group C, n = 4: (60%); group D, n=15, (78.9%), P = 0.001). Conclusion: CIMT and ABI provide useful information on the severity of CAD. Early and aggressive intervention should be considered in patients with CAD and abnormalities in one or both of these non-invasive modalities.

Keywords: ankle brachial index, carotid intima media thickness, coronary artery disease, predictors of severity

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155 Tracheal Stenting to Relieve Respiratory Distress in Patient with Advanced Esophageal Malignancy and Its Anaesthetic Management

Authors: Aarti Agarwal, Ajmal Khan


Background and Objective: Breathing difficulty is most distressing symptom for the patient and their caregivers providing palliative care to individuals with advanced malignancy. It needs to be tackled effectively and sometimes preemptively to provide relief from respiratory obstruction. Interventional procedures like tracheal stenting are becoming increasingly popular as a part of palliation for respiratory symptoms. We present a case of esophageal tumor earlier stented by Gastroenterologist to maintain esophageal patency, but the tumor outgrew to produce tracheal infiltration and thereby causing airway obstruction. Method and Result: 62-year-old man presented with unresectable Carcinoma oesophagus with inability to swallow. A metallic stent was placed by the gastroenterologist, to maintain esophageal patency and enable patient to swallow. Two months later, the patient returned to hospital in emergency with respiratory distress. CT neck and thorax revealed tumor infiltration through posterior tracheal wall. Lower extent of the tumor was till 1 cm above the carina. Airway stenting with Tracheo bronchial stent with Y configuration was planned under general anaesthesia with airway blocks. Superior Laryngeal Nerve Block, Glossopharyngeal block and Trans tracheal infiltration of local anaesthetics were performed. The patient was sedated with Fentanyl, Midazolam and propofol infusion but was breathing spontaneously. Once the rigid bronchoscope was placed inside trachea, breathing was supported with oxygen and sevoflurane. Initially, the trachea was cleared of tumor by coring. After creating space, tracheal stent was positioned and deployed. After stent placement patient was awakened, suctioned and nebulized. His respiratory stridor relieved instantaneously and was shifted to recovery. Conclusion: Airway blocks help in decreasing the incidence and severity of coughing during airway instrumentation thereby help in proper stent placement. They also reduce the requirement of general anaesthetics and hasten the post stenting recovery. Airway stent provided immediate relief to patient from symptoms of respiratory difficulty. Decision for early tracheal stenting may be taken for a select group of patients with high propensity for local spread, thereby avoiding respiratory complications and providing better quality of life in patients with inoperable malignancy.

Keywords: tracheal stent, respiratory difficulty, esophageal tumor, anaesthetic management

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154 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser


Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, knowledge discovery, extract

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