Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: V. Srikanth

18 Comparison of Proportional-Integral (P-I) and Integral-Propotional (I-P) Controllers for Speed Control in Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive

Authors: V. Srikanth, K. Balasubramanian, Rajath R. Bhat, A. S. Arjun, Nandhu Venugopal, Ananthu Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

Indirect vector control is known to produce high performance in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives by decoupling flux and torque producing current components of stator current. The most commonly used controller or the vector control of AC motor is Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller. However, the P-I controller has some disadvantages such as high starting overshoot, sensitivity to controller gains and slower response to sudden disturbance. Therefore, the Integral-Proportional controller for PMSM drives to overcome the disadvantages of the P-I controller. Simulations results are presented and analyzed for both controllers and it is observed that Integral-Proportional (I-P) controllers give better responses than the traditional P-I controllers.

Keywords: PI controller, FOC, PMSM, IP controller

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17 Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Line Towers

Authors: L. Srikanth, D. Neelima Satyam

Abstract:

The transmission line towers are one of the important life line structures in the distribution of power from the source to the various places for several purposes. The predominant external loads which act on these towers are wind and earthquake loads. In this present study tower is analyzed using Indian Standards IS: 875:1987 (Wind Load), IS: 802:1995 (Structural Steel), IS:1893:2002 (Earthquake) and dynamic analysis of tower has been performed considering ground motion of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (India). The dynamic analysis was performed considering a tower system consisting two towers spaced 800m apart and 35m height each. This analysis has been performed using numerical time stepping finite difference method which is central difference method were employed by a developed MATLAB program to get the normalized ground motion parameters includes acceleration, frequency, velocity which are important in designing the tower. The tower is analyzed using response spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, response spectra, central difference method, transmission tower

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16 A Survey on Traditional Mac Layer Protocols in Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Anusha M., V. Srikanth

Abstract:

Maximizing spectrum usage and numerous applications of the wireless communication networks have forced to a high interest of available spectrum. Cognitive Radio control its receiver and transmitter features exactly so that they can utilize the vacant approved spectrum without impacting the functionality of the principal licensed users. The Use of various channels assists to address interferences thereby improves the whole network efficiency. The MAC protocol in cognitive radio network explains the spectrum usage by interacting with multiple channels among the users. In this paper we studied about the architecture of cognitive wireless mesh network and traditional TDMA dependent MAC method to allocate channels dynamically. The majority of the MAC protocols suggested in the research are operated on Common-Control-Channel (CCC) to handle the services between Cognitive Radio secondary users. In this paper, an extensive study of Multi-Channel Multi-Radios or frequency range channel allotment and continually synchronized TDMA scheduling are shown in summarized way.

Keywords: MAC, cognitive radios, TDMA, multi-channel, multi-radio, WMN’S

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15 Clustering Based Level Set Evaluation for Low Contrast Images

Authors: Bikshalu Kalagadda, Srikanth Rangu

Abstract:

The important object of images segmentation is to extract objects with respect to some input features. One of the important methods for image segmentation is Level set method. Generally medical images and synthetic images with low contrast of pixel profile, for such images difficult to locate interested features in images. In conventional level set function, develops irregularity during its process of evaluation of contour of objects, this destroy the stability of evolution process. For this problem a remedy is proposed, a new hybrid algorithm is Clustering Level Set Evolution. Kernel fuzzy particles swarm optimization clustering with the Distance Regularized Level Set (DRLS) and Selective Binary, and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (SBGFRLS) methods are used. The ability of identifying different regions becomes easy with improved speed. Efficiency of the modified method can be evaluated by comparing with the previous method for similar specifications. Comparison can be carried out by considering medical and synthetic images.

Keywords: Clustering, Segmentation, Swarm Optimization, level set function, re-initialization, Kernel fuzzy

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14 Constructability Driven Engineering in Oil and Gas Projects

Authors: Srikanth Nagarajan, P. Parthasarathy, Frits Lagers

Abstract:

Lower crude oil prices increased the pressure on oil and gas projects. Being competitive becomes very important and critical for the success in any industry. Increase in size of the project multiplies the magnitude of the issue. Timely completion of projects within the budget and schedule is very important for any project to succeed. A simple idea makes a larger impact on the total cost of the plant. In this robust world, the phases of engineering right from licensing technology, feed, different phases of detail engineering, procurement and construction has been so much compressed that they overlap with each other. Hence constructability techniques have become very important. Here in this paper, the focus will be on how these techniques can be implemented and reduce cost with the help of a case study. Constructability is a process driven by the need to impact project’s construction phase resulting in improved project delivery, costs and schedule. In construction phase of one of our fast-track mega project, it was noticed that there was an opportunity to reduce significant amount of cost and schedule by implementing Constructability study processes. In this case study, the actual methodology adopted during engineering and construction and the way for doing it better by implementing Constructability techniques with collaborative engineering efforts will be explained.

Keywords: Collaborative Engineering, Cost Reduction, Constructability, being competitive

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13 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Ramji, K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, fiber volume fraction, delamination, e-glass-epoxy composite laminates, e-glass fiber

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12 Indigo Production in a Fed Batch Bioreactor Using Aqueous-Solvent Two Phase System

Authors: Vaishnavi Unde, Srikanth Mutnuri

Abstract:

Today dye stuff sector is one of the major chemical industries in India. Indigo is a blue coloured dye used all over the world in large quantity. The indigo dye produced and used in textile industries is synthetic having toxic effect, thus there is an increase in interest for natural dyes owing to the environmental concerns. The present study focuses on the use of a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from garage soil, for the production of indigo in fed batch bioreactor. A comparative study between single phase and two phase production was carried out in this work. The blue colour produced during the experiments was analyzed using, TLC, UV-visible spectrophotometer and FTIR technique. The blue pigment was found to be indigo. The production of bio-indigo was done in a single phase fermentor carrying medium and substrate indole in dissolved form and was found to produce maximum of 0.041 g/L of indigo. Whereas there was an increase in production of indigo to 0.068 g/L in a two phase, water-silicone oil system. In this study the advantage of using second phase as silicone oil has enhanced the indigo production, as the second phase made the substrate available to the bacteria by increasing the surface area as well as it helped to prevent the inhibition effect of the high concentration of substrate, indole. The effect of single and two phases on the growth of bacteria was also studied.

Keywords: Dyes, indigo, indole, fed batch reactor

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11 Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Anticancer Drug, Docetaxel Using a Novel Polymer, Soluplus via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Sanjay Garg, Adinarayana Gorajana, Lim Sue May

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate and enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug, docetaxel through solid dispersion (SD) technique prepared using freeze drying method. Docetaxel solid dispersions were formulated with Soluplus in different weight ratios. Freeze drying method was used to prepare the solid dispersions. Solubility of the solid dispersions were evaluated respectively and the optimized of drug-solubilizers ratio systems were characterized with different analytical methods like Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of complexes between drug and solubilizers. The solubility data revealed an overall improvement in solubility for all SD formulations. The ternary combination 1:5:2 gave the highest increase in solubility that is approximately 3 folds from the pure drug, suggesting the optimum drug-solubilizers ratio system. This data corresponds with the DSC and SEM analyses, which demonstrates presence of drug in amorphous state and the dispersion in the solubilizers in molecular level. The solubility of the poorly soluble drug, docetaxel was enhanced through preparation of solid dispersion formulations employing freeze drying method. Solid dispersion with multiple carrier system shows better solubility compared to single carrier system.

Keywords: docetaxel, freeze drying, soluplus, solid dispersion technique

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10 Ground Motion Modelling in Bangladesh Using Stochastic Method

Authors: Mizan Ahmed, Srikanth Venkatesan

Abstract:

Geological and tectonic framework indicates that Bangladesh is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. The Bengal Basin is at the junction of three major interacting plates: the Indian, Eurasian, and Burma Plates. Besides there are many active faults within the region, e.g. the large Dauki fault in the north. The country has experienced a number of destructive earthquakes due to the movement of these active faults. Current seismic provisions of Bangladesh are mostly based on earthquake data prior to the 1990. Given the record of earthquakes post 1990, there is a need to revisit the design provisions of the code. This paper compares the base shear demand of three major cities in Bangladesh: Dhaka (the capital city), Sylhet, and Chittagong for earthquake scenarios of magnitudes 7.0MW, 7.5MW, 8.0MW and 8.5MW using a stochastic model. In particular, the stochastic model allows the flexibility to input region specific parameters such as shear wave velocity profile (that were developed from Global Crustal Model CRUST2.0) and include the effects of attenuation as individual components. Effects of soil amplification were analysed using the Extended Component Attenuation Model (ECAM). Results show that the estimated base shear demand is higher in comparison with code provisions leading to the suggestion of additional seismic design consideration in the study regions.

Keywords: Earthquake, stochastic, Ground Motion, Seismic Hazard, Attenuation

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9 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting

Abstract:

The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: Mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, Atenolol, ethyl cellulose

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8 Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Nanosuspension to Improve Antioxidant Potential

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Md. Shadab, Mariyam N. Nashid

Abstract:

Naringenin (NAR), is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory behaviour, cholesterol-lowering and anticarcinogenic activities. However, despite the therapeutic potential of naringenin shown in a number of animal models, its clinical development has been hindered due to its low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability. Naringenin nanosuspension were produced using stabilizers Tween® 80 by high pressure homogenization techniques. The nanosuspensions were characterized with regard to size (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), size distribution, charge (zeta potential measurements), morphology, short term physical stability, dissolution profile and antioxidant potential. A nanocrystal PCS size of about 500 nm was obtained after 20 homogenization cycles at 1500 bar. The short-term stability was assessed by storage of the nanosuspensions at 4 ◦C, room temperature and 40 ◦C. Result showed that naringenin nanosuspension was physically unstable due to large fluctuations in the particle size and zeta potential after 30 days. Naringenin nanosuspension demonstrated higher drug dissolution (97.90%) compared to naringenin powder (62.76%) after 120 minutes of testing. Naringenin nanosuspension showed increased antioxidant activity compared to naringenin powder with a percentage DPPH radical scavenging activity of 49.17% and 31.45% respectively at the lowest DPPH concentration.

Keywords: Bioavailability, nanosuspension, naringenin, oral delivery

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7 Environmental Effects on Coconut Coir Fiber Epoxy Composites Having TiO₂ as Filler

Authors: Srikanth Korla, Mahesh Sharnangat

Abstract:

Composite materials are being widely used in Aerospace, Naval, Defence and other branches of engineering applications. Studies on natural fibers is another emerging research area as they are available in abundance, and also due to their eco-friendly in nature. India being one of the major producer of coir, there is always a scope to study the possibilities of exploring coir as reinforment, and with different combinations of other elements of the composite. In present investigation effort is made to utilize properties possessed by natural fiber and make them enable with polymer/epoxy resin. In natural fiber coconut coir is used as reinforcement fiber in epoxy resin with varying weight percentages of fiber and filler material. Titanium dioxide powder (TiO2) is used as filler material with varying weight percentage including 0%, 2% and 4% are considered for experimentation. Environmental effects on the performance of the composite plate are also studied and presented in this project work; Moisture absorption test for composite specimens is conducted using different solvents including Kerosene, Mineral Water and Saline Water, and its absorption capacity is evaluated. Analysis is carried out in different combinations of Coir as fiber and TiO2 as filler material, and the best suitable composite material considering the strength and environmental effects is identified in this work. Therefore, the significant combination of the composite material is with following composition: 2% TiO2 powder 15% of coir fibre and 83% epoxy, under unique mechanical and environmental conditions considered in the work.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Natural fibre composites, moisture test, filler material

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6 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen

Abstract:

Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Atrial Fibrillation, bleeding events, novel oral anticoagulants

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5 Numerical Simulation of Flexural Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced High Volume Fly Ash Concrete by Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Srikanth Venkatesan, Mahzabin Afroz, Indubhushan Patnaikuni

Abstract:

It is well-known that fly ash can be used in high volume as a partial replacement of cement to get beneficial effects on concrete. High volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is currently emerging as a popular option to strengthen by fiber. Although studies have supported the use of fibers with fly ash, a unified model along with the incorporation into finite element software package to estimate the maximum flexural loads need to be developed. In this study, nonlinear finite element analysis of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete beam under static loadings was conducted to investigate their failure modes in terms of ultimate load. First of all, the experimental investigation of mechanical properties of high strength HVFA concrete was done and validates with developed numerical model with the appropriate modeling of element size and mesh by ANSYS 16.2. To model the fiber within the concrete, three-dimensional random fiber distribution was simulated by spherical coordinate system. Three types of high strength HVFA concrete beams were analyzed reinforced with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% volume fractions of steel fibers with specific mechanical and physical properties. The result reveals that the use of nonlinear finite element analysis technique and three-dimensional random fiber orientation exhibited fairly good agreement with the experimental results of flexural strength, load deflection and crack propagation mechanism. By utilizing this improved model, it is possible to determine the flexural behavior of different types and proportions of steel fiber reinforced HVFA concrete beam under static load. So, this paper has the originality to predict the flexural properties of steel fiber reinforced high strength HVFA concrete by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Spherical Coordinate System, Steel Fibers, high volume fly ash

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4 A Dissipative Particle Dynamics Study of a Capsule in Microfluidic Intracellular Delivery System

Authors: Nishanthi N. S., Srikanth Vedantam

Abstract:

Intracellular delivery of materials has always proved to be a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Usually, vector-based methods, such as liposomes and polymeric materials, and physical methods, such as electroporation and sonoporation have been used for introducing nucleic acids or proteins. Reliance on exogenous materials, toxicity, off-target effects was the short-comings of these methods. Microinjection was an alternative process which addressed the above drawbacks. However, its low throughput had hindered its adoption widely. Mechanical deformation of cells by squeezing them through constriction channel can cause the temporary development of pores that would facilitate non-targeted diffusion of materials. Advantages of this method include high efficiency in intracellular delivery, a wide choice of materials, improved viability and high throughput. This cell squeezing process can be studied deeper by employing simple models and efficient computational procedures. In our current work, we present a finite sized dissipative particle dynamics (FDPD) model to simulate the dynamics of the cell flowing through a constricted channel. The cell is modeled as a capsule with FDPD particles connected through a spring network to represent the membrane. The total energy of the capsule is associated with linear and radial springs in addition to constraint of the fixed area. By performing detailed simulations, we studied the strain on the membrane of the capsule for channels with varying constriction heights. The strain on the capsule membrane was found to be similar though the constriction heights vary. When strain on the membrane was correlated to the development of pores, we found higher porosity in capsule flowing in wider channel. This is due to localization of strain to a smaller region in the narrow constriction channel. But the residence time of the capsule increased as the channel constriction narrowed indicating that strain for an increased time will cause less cell viability.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Dissipative particle dynamics, Numerical Simulations, intracellular delivery, capsule, cell squeezing

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3 Application of Transportation Models for Analysing Future Intercity and Intracity Travel Patterns in Kuwait

Authors: Srikanth Pandurangi, Basheer Mohammed, Nezar Al Sayegh

Abstract:

In order to meet the increasing demand for housing care for Kuwaiti citizens, the government authorities in Kuwait are undertaking a series of projects in the form of new large cities, outside the current urban area. Al Mutlaa City located to the north-west of the Kuwait Metropolitan Area is one such project out of the 15 planned new cities. The city accommodates a wide variety of residential developments, employment opportunities, commercial, recreational, health care and institutional uses. This paper examines the application of comprehensive transportation demand modeling works undertaken in VISUM platform to understand the future intracity and intercity travel distribution patterns in Kuwait. The scope of models developed varied in levels of detail: strategic model update, sub-area models representing future demand of Al Mutlaa City, sub-area models built to estimate the demand in the residential neighborhoods of the city. This paper aims at offering model update framework that facilitates easy integration between sub-area models and strategic national models for unified traffic forecasts. This paper presents the transportation demand modeling results utilized in informing the planning of multi-modal transportation system for Al Mutlaa City. This paper also presents the household survey data collection efforts undertaken using GPS devices (first time in Kuwait) and notebook computer based digital survey forms for interviewing representative sample of citizens and residents. The survey results formed the basis of estimating trip generation rates and trip distribution coefficients used in the strategic base year model calibration and validation process.

Keywords: Travel Behavior, Transportation Modeling, innovative methods in transportation data collection, integrated public transportation system, traffic forecasts

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2 Development of Oral Biphasic Drug Delivery System Using a Natural Resourced Polymer, Terminalia catappa

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Venkata Srikanth Meka, Adinarayana Gorajana, Nur Arthirah Binti Ahmad Tarmizi Tan, Muhammad Syahmi Bin Md Nazir

Abstract:

Biphasic drug delivery systems are designed to release drug at two different rates, either fast/prolonged or prolonged/fast. A fast/prolonged release system provides a burst drug release at initial stage followed by a slow release over a prolonged period of time and in case of prolonged/fast release system, the release pattern is vice versa. Terminalia catappa gum (TCG) is a natural polymer and was successfully proven as a novel pharmaceutical excipient. The main objective of the present research is to investigate the applicability of natural polymer, Terminalia catappa gum in the design of oral biphasic drug delivery system in the form of mini tablets by using a model drug, buspirone HCl. This investigation aims to produce a biphasic release drug delivery system of buspirone by combining immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets into a capsule. For immediate release mini tablets, a dose of 4.5 mg buspirone was prepared by varying the concentration of superdisintegrant; crospovidone. On the other hand, prolonged release mini tablets were produced by using different concentrations of the natural polymer; TCG with a buspirone dose of 3mg. All mini tablets were characterized for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration, content uniformity and dissolution studies. The optimized formulations of immediate and prolonged release mini tablets were finally combined in a capsule and was evaluated for release studies. FTIR and DSC studies were conducted to study the drug-polymer interaction. All formulations of immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets were passed all the in-process quality control tests according to US Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time of immediate release mini tablets of different formulations was varied from 2-6 min, and maximum drug release was achieved in lesser than 60 min. Whereas prolonged release mini tablets made with TCG have shown good drug retarding properties. Formulations were controlled for about 4-10 hrs with varying concentration of TCG. As the concentration of TCG increased, the drug release retarding property also increased. The optimised mini tablets were packed in capsules and were evaluated for the release mechanism. The capsule dosage form has clearly exhibited the biphasic release of buspirone, indicating that TCG is a suitable natural polymer for this study. FTIR and DSC studies proved that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer. Based on the above positive results, it can be concluded that TCG is a suitable polymer for the biphasic drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Natural polymers, Terminalia catappa gum, biphasic release, mini tablets, tablet in capsule

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1 Need and Willingness to Use ‘Meditation on Twin Hearts’ for Management of Anxiety and Depression for the Transgender Community: A Pilot Study

Authors: Neha Joshi, Srikanth Jois, Hector J. Peughero, Poornima Jayakrishna, Moulya R., Purnima Madivanan, Kiran Kumar K. Salagame

Abstract:

Transgenders are a marginalized section of the community, who are at high risk of mental health problems due to their stigmatization, abandonment by family, prejudice, discrimination by society at large, and the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse from both within and outside their community. Their mental healthcare needs remain largely unaddressed due to lack of access, discrimination by healthcare professions, and lack of resources, including time and money, to seek conventional medical and psychotherapeutic treatments. Meditation is increasingly receiving acceptance as a tool for managing stress and anxiety by the patients as well as mental healthcare professionals. “Meditation on Twin Hearts” is a no cost, self-administered intervention that a person can practice anywhere and at any time of the day. This pilot study evaluates the need for alternate traditional and ingenious interventions like “Meditation of Twin Hearts” to address the mental healthcare needs of the transgender community and acceptance of such an intervention by the community. Thirteen individuals identifying themselves as transgender were invited to participate in one (Hunsur Taluk) of the five scheduled free meditation camps in Mysore. After obtaining informed consent for participation in the study, their mental health status is captured using an anonymous survey using standard, validated, self-reported questionnaires Generalised Anxiety Disorders (GAD)-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for suicidality. Then, they were requested to attend a session on “Meditation on Twin Hearts.” After the session, their feedback on willingness to further explore the meditation technique for managing their mental healthcare need was assessed through another survey form. Out of the 13 participants, 92% scored for anxiety (4 mild, and 8 moderate anxiety). In the depression scale, 5 scored for mild and 5 for moderate depression, with a total of 77% (10/13) scoring positively on depression scale. Nearly 70% of participants (9/13), scored greater than the clinical cutoff for the need for clinical intervention. The proportion of individuals at risk for suicide was particularly high in this group, with 8/ 13 (61.5%) participants scoring the clinical cutoff score of ≥ 7. Surprisingly, none of the participants had ever consulted a mental healthcare professional. All the participants (13/13; 100%) responded in affirmative to the question, “Will you be willing to continue meditation for management of your anxiety?” Six out of 13 participants described their experience of meditation as “happy” and 3 described it as “peaceful”. None of the participants reported any negative beliefs or experience regarding the meditation. The study provides evidence for the urgent yet unmet mental healthcare need of the transgender community. The findings of the study also supports the rationale of conducting future systematic research to evaluate and explore ingenious and traditional practices, such as meditation, to meet the healthcare needs, especially in marginalized populations in a low income setting such as Lower and Middle Income countries. Based on these preliminary findings, the Principal Investigator (PI) is planning to cover 4 more areas of Mysore district.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Transgender, meditation on twin heart, suicidality

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